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Ampliando o debate sobre a participação política e a construção democrática : o movimento de moradia e as ocupações de imóveis ociosos no centro da cidade de São Paulo; Broadening the debate on political participation and democratic construction : the housing movement and the occupations of idle properties in the center

Thiago Aparecido Trindade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
Esta tese tem como objetivo principal problematizar o debate sobre a participação política e a construção da democracia no Brasil. Tendo como referência empírica as ocupações de imóveis ociosos no centro da cidade de São Paulo, ações realizadas pelo movimento de moradia da capital paulista, nossa proposta consiste em ampliar o escopo de análise referente ao tema da participação na literatura nacional. Em linhas gerais, este debate ficou restrito à dimensão institucional desta, desconsiderando outras formas de atuação política que, a despeito de se caracterizarem por sua extra institucionalidade, também podem ser entendidas como formas de participação política. O argumento central da tese é que o deslocamento analítico aqui proposto (dos espaços institucionais em direção ao espaço "das ruas") oferece vantagens analíticas importantes no debate teórico sobre a democracia, uma vez que nos possibilita lançar luz sobre temas e conflitos cruciais para o entendimento da disputa pela construção democrática e identificar com mais clareza os diferentes projetos políticos em disputa. A sociedade brasileira, no período pós-autoritário, foi capaz de avançar significativamente na construção de espaços participativos institucionais dedicados ao processo de formulação...

Quando a imagem é profissão : profissões da imagiologia em contexto; When image is an occupation: imaging occupations in a hospital context; Quand l’image est une profession: métiers de l’imagerie médicale en contexte hospitalier; Cuando la imagen es una profesión: profesiones de imaginería a nivel hospitalario

Areosa, João
Fonte: ISCTE -IUL Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: ISCTE -IUL Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
As actividades e relações profissionais num serviço de imagiologia de um hospital público, não universitário, são o tema central do trabalho de investigação aqui apresentado. Tendo como pano de fundo a sociologia das profissões, são transpostas para esta pesquisa questões como a autonomia e autoridade profissionais, as relações, tensões e conflitos intra e interprofissionais, as configurações assumidas pela tecnologia no campo da imagiologia, o poder da profissão médica e os seus efeitos sobre a emergência e afirmação de novas profissões da saúde; The occupational activities and relationships in an imaging department at a public, not university, hospital are the central topic of the research work presented here. With the sociology of occupations as the background, this research covers issues such as occupational independence and authority, the relationships, tensions and conflicts within and between occupations, the configurations taken on by technology in the imaging field, and the power of the medical profession and its effects on the appearance and establishment of new health occupations.; Les activités et les relations professionnelles dans un service d’imagerie d’un hôpital public, non universitaire...

Different Occupations Associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Is Diesel Exhaust the Link?

Pamphlett, Roger; Rikard-Bell, Anna
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.22%
The cause of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) remains unknown. We attempted to find out if occupational exposure to toxicants plays a part in the pathogenesis of this disease. In an Australia-wide case-control study we compared the lifetime occupations of 611 SALS and 775 control individuals. Occupations were coded using country-specific as well as international classifications. The risk of SALS for each occupation was calculated with odds ratios using logistic regression. In addition, the literature was searched for possible toxicant links between our findings and previously-reported occupational associations with SALS. Male occupations in our study that required lower skills and tasks tended to have increased risks of SALS, and conversely, those occupations that required higher skills and tasks had decreased risks of SALS. Of all the occupations, only truck drivers, where exposure to diesel exhaust is common, maintained an increased risk of SALS throughout all occupational groups. Another large case-control study has also found truck drivers to be at risk of SALS, and almost two-thirds of occupations, as well as military duties, that have previously been associated with SALS have potential exposure to diesel exhaust. In conclusion...

Higher-Status Occupations and Breast Cancer: A Life-Course Stress Approach

Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; McFarland, Michael; Collins, Caitlyn
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
Using the 1957-2011 data from 3,682 White non-Hispanic women (297 incident breast cancer cases) in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, United States, we explore the effect of occupation in 1975 (at age 36) on breast cancer incidence up to age 72. Our study is motivated by the paradoxical association between higher-status occupations and elevated breast cancer risk, which presents a challenge to the consistent health advantage of higher social class. We found that women in professional occupations had 72%-122% and women in managerial occupations had 57%-89% higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis than housewives and women in lower-status occupations. We explored an estrogen-related pathway (reproductive history, health behaviors, and life-course estrogen cycle) as well as a social stress pathway (occupational experiences) as potential explanations for the effect of higher-status occupations. The elevated risk of breast cancer among professional women was partly explained by estrogen-related variables but remained large and statistically significant. The association between managerial occupations and breast cancer incidence was fully explained by job authority defined as control over others’ work. Exercising job authority was related to higher breast cancer risk (HR = 1.57...

Occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma in Indian adults

Agrawal, Sutapa; Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher; Subramanian, S.V.; Ebrahim, Shah
Fonte: Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Publicador: Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.09%
Objectives: Occupational asthma remains relatively under-recognized in India with little or no information regarding preventable causes. We studied occupations with an increased prevalence of self-reported asthma among adult men and women in India. Methods: Analysis is based on 64 725 men aged 15–54 years and 52 994 women aged 15–49 years who participated in India’s third National Family Health Survey, 2005–2006, and reported their current occupation. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) for specific occupations and asthma were estimated using multivariate logistic regression, separately for men and women, adjusting for age, education, household wealth index, current tobacco smoking, cooking fuel use, rural/urban residence and access to healthcare. Results: The prevalence of asthma among the working population was 1.9%. The highest odds ratios for asthma were found among men in the plant and machine operators and assemblers major occupation category (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.14–2.45; p = 0.009). Men working in occupation subcategories of machine operators and assemblers (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.24–2.76; p = 0.002) and mining, construction, manufacturing and transport (OR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.00–1.77; p = 0.051) were at the highest risk of asthma. Reduced odds of asthma prevalence in men was observed among extraction and building trades workers (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.97; p = 0.029). Among women none of the occupation categories or subcategories was found significant for asthma risk. Men and women employed in high-risk occupations were not at a higher risk of asthma when compared with those in low-risk occupations. Conclusions: This large population-based...

Mercado de trabalho, ocupações e rendimentos: a Região Metropolitana de Natal na década de 1990

Silva, Marconi Gomes da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; Desenvolvimento Regional; Cultura e Representações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Sociais; Desenvolvimento Regional; Cultura e Representações
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.09%
The aim of this study is the labour market at Natal Metropolitan Region with emphasis in occupations and incomes that took place at the nineties. The definition of its chronological boundaries passed by verification of existence of evident socio-spatial impacts for output, occupation and income in national economy, with rebounds in all national territory, conditioned by institutional and socio-economical transformations which marked Brazilian insertion to capital flows and commodities globalization movement that took place at the cited decade. It has been shown that such impacts did not distributed themselves equally between diverse spatial levels (great regions, federate unities, municipalities) because of historical specificities in each place in terms of output structures and organization of distinct social agents. Having as its basis the Marxist perspective, it tackled theoretically occupations and incomes, transformations in labour universe occurred at world level, mainly in most urbanized areas, and following that to focus changes occurred in Brazilian society related to the search for competitive insertion in global economy during the period regarded. Special attention was gave to Natal Metropolitan Region, because it was historically a concentration area for investments...

Professions réglementées et détresse psychologique : regards croisés avec la population en emploi au Canada.

Cadieux, Nathalie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.24%
Cette thèse doctorale poursuit l’objectif de mieux comprendre le rôle joué par la profession réglementée en tant que déterminant de la détresse psychologique de la population en emploi au Québec et au Canada. Ceci, dans un contexte où plusieurs ordres professionnels représentant des professions réglementées, s’inquiètent de la santé mentale de leurs membres et de la pression considérable exercée sur eux dans une économie caractérisée par des pénuries de main-d’oeuvre importantes. Cette thèse fut également inspirée par les nombreuses limites constatées à la suite d’une revue de la littérature sur la santé mentale au travail, alors que les risques différenciés auxquels seraient soumis ces professionnels, comparativement à l’ensemble de la population en emploi, demeurent largement à documenter. La profession réglementée s’associe-t-elle directement à l’expérience de détresse psychologique? Quelles sont les conditions de travail susceptibles de conduire au développement ou à l’aggravation de la détresse psychologique pour ces professions? Dans le but de mieux comprendre le rôle joué par la profession réglementée en matière de détresse psychologique, nous avons eu recours à un modèle théorique multidimensionnel qui postule que les contraintes et les ressources découlent d’un ensemble de structures sociales incluant la profession...

The impact of the decline in moral treatment on leisure occupations in the Criminal Lunatic Asylum from 1890-1910.

Prendiville, Caren
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis; all_ul_research; ul_theses_dissertations
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.19%
non-peer-reviewed; Background: The views of Moral therapy were introduced into lunatic asylums in the 19th century. In 1850, The Central Criminal Lunatic Asylum (CCLA) opened in Dublin as the first forensic psychiatric hospital in Europe (Now called ‘The Central Mental Hospital’).The foundations of the profession of occupational therapy and moral treatment have been well established (Peloquin 1989). Towards the last quarter of the 19h century, the concept of moral treatment declined and this impacted on the availability of leisure occupations in asylums. Objectives: To explore the Inspectors in Lunacy Reports on the CCLA from 1890-1910. To identify how the decline in moral treatment during this period affected the opportunity for patients to engage in leisure occupations. To identify what leisure occupations patients continued to participate in. Methods: Historical documentary research methods were used to gather data from the Inspectorate in Lunacy Reports from 1890-1910. The documents were analysed thematically (Braun and Clarke 2006) and explored how the decline in moral treatment impacted on patients’ leisure occupations. Results: The decline in moral treatment in the latter part of the 19th Century resulted in diminished opportunity for patients to engage in leisure occupations. Despite this...

An analysis of the propensity for nontraditonal occupations among civilian and Navy women

Brown, Marshall B.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.; This thesis explores women's propensity to select nontraditional occupations. Specifically, it analyzes the desired occupations of a sample of civilians of enlistment age and a sample of Navy enlistees. Data taken from the Navy's 1991 New Recruit Survey and the 1979/1982 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth are analyzed to determine differences in propensity between young civilian women and female enlistees. Differences in occupational preferences between male and female civilians and male and female enlisted personnel are analyzed. Multivariate regression models are developed indicating factors that affect women's occupational choices for both the Navy and civilian samples. The study reveals that Navy women are more likely than young civilian women to choose nontraditional occupations. Young civilian men and male Navy enlistees are more likely than either civilian women and female Navy enlistees to choose nontraditional occupations. Three determinants of nontraditional occupational choice are consistent across female models using both civilian and military samples. Women of high ability, who desire high-tech training, and who expect uninterrupted labor force participation have higher propensity for nontraditional jobs than other women. Recommendations are for focused advertising to attract those women into the Navy who desire nontraditional occupations. Outreach in high schools and during the recruiting and enlistment process also can identify those women with greater propensity for nontraditional ratings.; Lieutenant...

An alternative approach for measuring black representation in Navy enlisted occupations

Dye, Gary B.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
This thesis examines the possible outcomes of U.S. Navy policies to achieve proportionru representation of blacks in enlisted occupations. This thesis employs two models to anruyze the distribution of black enlisted men in the Navy's occupational speciruties. The fIfst model uses FY 1979, FY 1982. FY 1985, and FY 1988 cohort data to examine black male occupational representation during the fifth year of service. This study introduces a new approach to control for the influence of aptitude test scores on the occupational placement process. Black male representation in 14 occupational categories comprising J09 Navy ratings is graphically summarized using difference indicators. The study analyzes the trend in black ma1e representation by comparing difference indicators for four enlisted cohorts spanning a 14-year period. The second model uses data on the 1991 Navy enlisted population and the 1992 census to compare the distribution of black men in Navy ratings with the distribution of black men in civilian occupations. The results of the study reveal that disproportionate representation persists in certain Navy ratings. However, when the influence of aptitude is controlled. results indicate that the Navy has made progress toward minority placement goals. The study suggests that U.S. Navy policies have been effective in achieving a more representative distribution of black men in Navy occupations.; Commander...

La perception du prestige des occupations illicites par des délinquants : une perspective sur les capitaux criminels

Charette, Yanick
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.22%
Le prestige occupationnel est une mesure utilisée en sociologie des professions pour déterminer le statut social d’un emploi sous la forme d’un continuum hiérarchisé. Cette mesure peut être définie selon : le revenu, l’autorité, l’autonomie et les compétences. En ce basant sur des entrevues auprès de délinquants incarcérés (n=138), cette étude évalue si la notion de prestige s’applique aux occupations illicites. Les résultats suggèrent que les domaines d’activité des occupations illicites ne présentent pas d’homogénéité en termes de prestige. Certaines caractéristiques définissant le prestige des occupations licites, comme le revenu et la compétence, contribuent à définir le prestige des occupations illicites, par contre, l’autonomie et l’autorité n’y contribuent pas. Le milieu criminel présente des caractéristiques particulières comme la difficulté d’atteindre une continuité dans son occupation. Cette continuité explique le prestige des occupations illicites, mais non celui des occupations licites. D’autres indicateurs, comme le réseau criminel et la présence d’un mentor, influençant pourtant les revenus, n’ont pas d’impact sur le prestige des occupations illicite. Des modèles d’équations structurelles ont été utilisés pour vérifier les relations indirectes et les conversions entre les types de capitaux selon la théorie de l’espace social de Pierre Bourdieu. Ces analyses suggèrent l’essentialité de la notion de compétence et de continuité. La discussion et la conclusion élabore sur les notions de continuité...

Les occupations de fermes commerciales au Zimbabwe : récits, expériences et devenirs des fermiers blancs

Kalaora, Léa
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.22%
Cette thèse propose une ethnographie des devenirs des fermiers blancs saisis sur le long terme de leur présence au Zimbabwe. L’analyse est centrée autour d’un moment de crise, les occupations de fermes en cours, qualifié dans ce travail d’éthique et de critique. Ces occupations s’attaquent symboliquement et réellement aux restes de la colonisation au Zimbabwe. Leur étude nous a conduits à nous interroger sur les manières suivant lesquelles la décolonisation est mise en oeuvre dans le Zimbabwe du Président Mugabe et sur les enjeux qui concernent la forme, notamment sur le plan légale, de la postcolonie. Ces occupations ont provoqué l’expulsion de plus de 90 % des fermiers blancs hors de leur lieu utopique, à savoir la ferme, et les ont poussés dans des espaces d’ambiguïté à l’intérieur desquels les occupants cherchent la confrontation. La question de la corruption (économique et morale) est au coeur de l’expérience des fermiers blancs qui ont été forcés de renoncer à leur intégrité. Certains d’entre eux ont tenté par divers moyens de la maintenir en se préservant de la corruption et en réclamant le respect de leurs « droits »; d’autres ont accepté de vivre dans la zone grise que constitue l’occupation de leur ferme. Cette thèse qui s’ancre dans l’anthropologie postcoloniale est organisée en trois parties. La question centrale de la première partie qui est d’orientation historique interroge la forme que les settlers ont donnée à ce pays et la manière mise de l’avant par les fermiers blancs pour faire de ces terres africaines « leur » lieu. Dans la deuxième partie...

Encampment time : an anthropological analysis of the land occupations in Brazil

Loera, Nashieli Cecília Rangel
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 285-318
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
In this article the social trajectory of a land occupation participant, an encamped woman (Edesmaria) who is a member of an extended landless family, is closely examined in order to demonstrate the inner workings of what is called 'the world of land occupations' in Brazil. Through a native expression (encampment time), it is demonstrated that nowadays, for some individuals, involvement in land occupations and landless workers' movements represents not just an opportunity to claim a parcel of land, but, even more importantly, a chance for social mobility and recognition. In this sense, encampment time is a social code and, as such, it not only quantifies the amount of time spent in a given encampment, but it is also a marker of prestige and status as well as a principle that organises and orders social relations in the land occupation world.

Women's Representation in 60 Occupations from 1972 to 2010: More Women in High-Status Jobs, Few Women in Things-Oriented Jobs

Lippa, Richard A.; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades) remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

As condições de possibilidade das ocupações de terra; The conditions of possibility of land occupations

Sigaud, Lygia
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Ocupar terras e nelas montar acampamentos é, em nossos dias, a forma apropriada para reivindicar a reforma agrária no Brasil e dela se valem as organizações do mundo rural, como o MST e o movimento sindical. O Estado tem conferido legitimidade à pretensão dos movimentos ao desapropriar as terras ocupadas e redistribuí-las. Esse fato recente na história nacional é examinado a partir de pesquisa realizada em Pernambuco, estado com o maior número de ocupações. O foco é a zona das plantações canavieiras, onde há grande concentração de acampamentos. O artigo inscreve as ocupações na história recente da região, mostra o que contribuiu para que se multiplicassem e analisa suas implicações. Ao final é feita uma digressão sobre a África do Sul, onde as ocupações, tidas pelos movimentos sociais como o procedimento adequado para obter do governo a distribuição de terras, não possuem a mesma magnitude. A comparação permite identificar as condições sociais que no caso brasileiro têm favorecido a institucionalização das ocupações e no caso sul-africano as têm obstaculizado.; Invading private lands and setting up encampments has now become the favoured means of pushing for agrarian reform in Brazil, a strategy used by rural organizations such as MST (the Landless Movement) and workers unions. The State has also legitimized these movements' aims to take over occupied lands and re-distribute them. Research conducted in Pernambuco...

The independent librarians and professionals in information to the light of the new brazilian classification of occupations (CBO 2002); Os bibliotecários e os profissionais independentes em informação à luz da nova classificação brasileira de ocupações (CBO 2002) 10.5007/1518-2924.2004v9n18p107

Pereira, Edmeire Cristina; UFPR - Cutitiba - PR; Oliveira, Ângela Maria; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa
Fonte: Departamento de Ciência da Informação – UFSC Publicador: Departamento de Ciência da Informação – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
It presents the questions related to the librarians and the independent professionals in information in the context of the Brazilian Classification of Occupations (CBO 2002). It presents a description of the CBO and demonstrates that contemplated the independent professionals not form in this new CBO, and if of a side the universities try to form professionals with characteristics that the market demands, the legislation were not modified.; Apresenta as questões relacionadas aos bibliotecários e aos profissionais independentes em informação no contexto da Classificação Brasileira de Ocupações (CBO 2002). Apresenta um histórico da CBO e demonstra que os profissionais independentes não foram contemplados nesta nova CBO, e se, de um lado, as universidades tentam formar profissionais com características que o mercado exige, a legislação não foi modificada.

Breaking the ‘class’ ceiling?: social mobility into Britain's elite occupations

Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel; Miles, Andrew
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2015 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
In this paper we use the unusually large sample size of the Great British Class Survey to compare rates of social mobility into different elite occupations. We find a distinction between ‘traditional’ professions, such as law, medicine and finance, which are dominated by the children of higher managers and professionals, and technical or emerging high-status occupations, particularly those related to IT, that appear to recruit more widely. Second, we find that even when the upwardly mobile are successful in entering elite occupations they invariably fail to accumulate the same economic, cultural and social capital as those from privileged backgrounds. While many such differences may be explained by inheritance, we also find that the mobile tend to have considerably lower incomes. Investigating this further we demonstrate that even when controlling for important variables such as schooling, education, location, age, and cultural and social capital, the upwardly mobile in eight occupations – located largely in the business sector – have considerably lower incomes than their higher-origin colleagues. These findings underline the value of analyses of mobility into specific high-status occupations as well as illustrating how, beyond entry...

Occupations and British wage inequality, 1970s-2000s

Williams, Mark
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Article; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/07/2012 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
Occupations provide a central unit of analysis for economic inequality in stratification research for two main reasons. First, occupations are supposed to structure inequality. Second, occupations are supposed to proxy as a source of inequality. Although there was a ‘massive rise’ in British wage inequality, relatively little is known about the relationship between the occupations and growing British wage inequality, and the sparse empirical research is inconclusive. Since sociologists traditionally have tended to place a great deal of emphasis on occupations, we might expect the changing structure of occupations and changing occupational wages to play a key role in accounting for trends in overall British wage inequality. More recent strands of stratification theory, however, have challenged the idea that occupations structure economic inequalities, and argue that the link between occupations and wages might have been weakening over time, instead predicting that growing wage inequality mostly occurs within occupations. We decompose trends in British wage inequality into between-occupation and within-occupation components and show that, although most wage inequality is within occupations, it is inequality between occupations that accounts for the lion’s share of changes in wage inequality trends. Furthermore...

The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry

Martin,Phiona; Barnard,Antoni
Fonte: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology Publicador: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.15%
ORIENTATION: Women in male-dominated occupations face unique challenges and use distinct coping strategies affecting their motivation and retention in these occupations. RESEARCH PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore the experiences of women working in male-dominated occupations to clarify the challenges they face and identify coping strategies that enable them to continue on their career paths. MOTIVATION FOR THE STUDY: Many women who choose male-dominated careers soon change in favour of more female-dominated or gender-balanced career paths. An understanding of women's experiences may facilitate strategies geared towards their motivation and retention in male-dominated occupations. RESEARCH DESIGN, APPROACH AND METHOD: The authors conducted this exploratory qualitative study from a constructivist grounded theory perspective. They used a purposive sample of five women and conducted in-depth unstructured interviews. They analysed data using a constructivist grounded theory methodology. MAIN FINDINGS: The authors found that formal and covert organisational practices, which upheld gender discrimination and bias, were the main challenges that women face. These practices included the inadequate accommodation of women's unique physical, identity and work-life balance needs. Elements of women's resilience included the use of femininity...

The conditions of possibility of land occupations

Sigaud,Lygia
Fonte: Tempo Social Publicador: Tempo Social
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Invading private lands and setting up encampments has now become the favoured means of pushing for agrarian reform in Brazil, a strategy used by rural organizations such as MST (the Landless Movement) and workers unions. The State has also legitimized these movements' aims to take over occupied lands and re-distribute them. Research conducted in Pernambuco, the state with the highest number of occupations, provides the basis for examining this recent aspect of Brazilian history. The article focuses on the rural zone formed by large-scale sugarcane plantations where many encampments are concentrated and situates the occupations in the context of the region's recent history, revealing the causes behind their multiplication and analyzing their implications. It concludes by turning to South Africa where land invasions - conceived by social movements as the best procedure for obtaining land distribution from the Government - have failed to attain the same scale of results. This comparison allows us to identify the social conditions that have favoured the institutionalization of land occupations in Brazil while hindering them in South Africa.