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Normas de produção de animais submetidos a sistema intensivo : cenario da legislação nacional sobre bem-estar animal; Norms of animal production in intensive rearing : scenario for national legislation on animal welfare

Raquel Baracat Tosi Rodrigues da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/01/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.97%
O Brasil é o maior produtor de carne do mundo e tem um importante papel no mercado exterior. Face às novas demandas internacionais de bem-estar animal, há necessidade de atualização da legislação brasileira, que data dos anos 30 e não reflete a atual produção animal no Brasil. Tendo em vista as condições de o agronegócio brasileiro ter crescido precisa-se atender a exigências de normas internacionais, entre outras coisas, aos assuntos relacionados ao bem-estar animal. Este tema tem hoje importância maior e, como o alojamento intensivo de animais domésticos está diretamente vinculado às questões de eficiência das construções rurais e da ambiência, tanto no sentido das condições de temperaturas, umidade relativa do ar e ventos, além da incidência de radiação solar, presença de gases agressivos e excesso de ruído, entre outros. Portanto, pesquisarem tais efeitos é necessário para melhor entendimento das reais necessidades do animal estar em boas condições. Na década de 30 surgiu o Decreto Lei no. 24.645, que expunha que todos os animais existentes no país são tutelados pelo Estado. A Lei 9.605/98 materializou a exigência legal prevista na Constituição Federal, sendo geral para outros temas ligados inclusive ao meio ambiente. Da mesma forma...

Brazilian standardised norms for a set of pictures are comparable with those obtained internationally

Pompéia,Sabine; Miranda,Mônica Carolina; Bueno,Orlando Francisco Amodeo
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Snodgrass & Vanderwart (1980) standardized a set of 260 pictures in the USA for use in studies of cognitive processes that employ pictured objects as laboratory analogues of object themselves. Since then similar norms for this set were obtained in Britain, Spain, Japan and Iceland and a larger set of 400 pictures (including the original 260: Cycowicz et al., 1997) was studied in France and Brazil. The present article provides a comparison of the norms obtained in Brazil and internationally. The pattern of correlations among the Brazilian and other standardizations were equivalent to that previously observed: despite pictures being judged to be of similar familiarity and visual complexity (high positive correlations), name agreement was less correlated, possibly due to differences in the languages spoken in each country and/or in the sample size used in each study. Results confirm the adequacy of the Brazilian norms.

Norms for the diagnosis and recommendation integrated system for Signal grass

Silveira,Cristiane Prezotto; Nachtigall,Gilmar Ribeiro; Monteiro,Francisco Antonio
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) has been proved efficient as a method for nutritional diagnosis in several crops. However there is a lack of information on the use of DRIS for tropical forage grass. The aim of this paper was to establish norms for interpretation of results of analysis from recently expanded leaf laminae of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. (Signal grass), through the DRIS method. To establish DRIS norms, concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn and the relative production obtained in six experiments conducted in greenhouse using nutrient solution and silica as substrate were considered. DRIS indices were calculated using two criteria in order to choose the ratio order of nutrients: F value - ratio of variance for the relationships among nutrients between the reference group and the low productivity group; and R value - correlation coefficients between the productivity values and the relationship among the pairs of nutrients, and three forms of calculation for the functions of nutrients (methods of Beaufils, of Jones, and of Elwali & Gascho). The two criteria to choose the ratio order of nutrients selected different ratios between pairs of nutrients; the nutrient concentrations were positively and significantly correlated with the respective DRIS indices...

An assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

Scott, Jennifer Ann; Averbach, Sarah Helene; Modest, Anna; Hacker, Michele Renee; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Background: Following decades of conflict, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Prolonged conflict, which included gender-based violence (GBV), exacerbated gender disparities. This study aimed to assess attitudes towards gender inequitable norms related to GBV and to estimate the frequency of GBV in sampled communities of South Sudan. Methods: Applying a community-based participatory research approach, 680 adult male and female household respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009–2011. Sites were selected based on program catchment area for a non-governmental organization and respondents were selected by quota sampling. The verbally-administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Results were stratified by gender, age, and education. Results: Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not provide gender data. Among respondents, 82% of females and 81% of males agreed that ‘a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together’. The majority, 68% of females and 63% of males, also agreed that ‘there are times when a woman deserves to be beaten’. Women (47%) were more likely than men (37%) to agree that ‘it is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won’t have sex with him’ (p=0.005). Agreement with gender inequitable norms decreased with education. Across sites...

Social Norms, Cultural Competition, and Welfare Reform: Scant Hope for the Collapsing Family

Bird, Edward J.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
Taking the case of lone parenthood, the paper examines an argument that has exerted extraordinary influence on recent policymaking, and finds that it is probably correct. The argument holds that limiting cash benefits for lone parents, and strengthening their communities, will discourage lone parenthood in two ways: directly, by raising the proce of lone parenthood, and indirectly, by making norms against lone parenthood more harsh. The norm effect is often held to be more important than the proce effect. Using a simple model of policy and endogenous social norms, however, this paper shows that cutting welfare and empowering communities makes norms more tolerant, not less. The reason is simple: both policies lower the net benefit of having a harsh norm against lone parenthood. Cutting welfare lowers the anti-tax benefit of such a norm, while stregthening communities increases its enforcement cost. Everyone desires softer norms; competition among cultural leaders forces them to call for tolerance. The tolerance effect can be strong enough to overwhelm the price effects, so that lone parenthood can increase rather than decrease. In its methods, the paper contributes a new approach to predicting short-run cultural change. Culture is a coordination problem...

Motivation or rationalisation? Causal relations between ethics, norms and tax compliance

Wenzel, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 305824 bytes; 347 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
This study investigated whether tax ethics and social norms constitute yes motivations for tax compliance, or whether they are mere rationalisations of self-interested behaviour. Cross-lagged panel analyses were applied to data from a two-wave survey with 1161 Australian citizens. First, results showed that tax ethics causally affected tax compliance and were affected by levels of compliance. Second, perceived social norms causally affected personally held tax ethics, but only for respondents who identified strongly with the respective group. At the same time, personal ethics were also projected onto the perceived normative beliefs of the social group. Third, perceived norms causally affected tax compliance, partly mediated by their effect on personal ethics. Conversely, tax compliance also affected the perception of norms. Overall, the study provides evidence for a complex role of individual ethics and social norms in taxpaying behaviour.; no

Misperceptions of social norms about tax compliance (2): A field experiment

Wenzel, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 81698 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Based on insights from an earlier study with a student sample (Wenzel, 2001), the present research evaluated an intervention to increase tax compliance that involved two steps. In step 1, taxpayers were sent a survey about their own personal norms and behaviour as well as others’ norms and behaviour concerning taxpaying. In step 2, they were informed about a systematic self-other discrepancy in their perceptions, suggesting that taxpayers wrongly think that most taxpayers hold norms of honesty to a lesser degree (injunctive norm) and act less honestly (descriptive norm) than they themselves do. Feedback about the survey results should encourage taxpayers to correct their perceptions of social norms and thus increase compliance. Deduction claims of four groups of taxpayers (injunctive norm feedback, descriptive norm feedback, survey only, control) were analysed and revealed no treatment effects for claims for work-related expenses, but a significant reduction of claims for other deductions in the injunctive norm feedback condition compared to the control conditions.; no

The social side of sanctions: personal and social norms as moderators of deterrence

Wenzel, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 563021 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
This study investigated how personal ethics and social norms interact with deterrence in their effects on tax compliance. In line with earlier research, it is argued and shown that strong personal tax ethics reduce effects of deterrence. Strong tax ethics basically exclude tax evasion from one’s behavioural options and no deterrence is required to maintain tax honesty. Such personal ethics are partly based on social norms that are internalised in one’s own ethical make-up. In contrast, social norms that are not internalised (for example, because one does not identify with the group holding these norms) can enhance effects of deterrence, because they add social costs to the material costs of sanctions, such as reputation threat and stigma. The study was based on data from The Community Hopes, Fears, and Actions Survey (Braithwaite, 2001) involving 2040 Australian participants. It investigated three different self-reported acts of tax evasion, namely pay income underreporting, non-pay income underreporting and exaggerations of deductions; and three aspects of deterrence incorporating legal sanctions, namely the perceived probability of detection, the perceived probability of legal consequences and the perceived severity of the consequences. Although the importance of the three deterrence aspects varied somewhat between the three forms of evasion...

Discipline social identification, study norms and learning approach in university students

Smyth, Lillian F.; Mavor, Kenneth I.; Platow, Michael J.; Grace, Diana M.; Reynolds, Katherine J.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis (Routledge) Publicador: Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 20 pages
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Adopting a deep approach to learning is associated with positive academic outcomes. In the current paper, we extend this analysis in a university context by recognising that learners are not isolated individuals, but share important social identifications with others. Using online surveys at an Australian university, we examine the effects of discipline social identification and educational norms on the adoption of learning approaches. Students from a range of academic disciplines indicated their social identification with their discipline, their perceptions of peer norms within their discipline of study, and what their own learning approaches were. Results demonstrate a significant role of discipline-related social identification in predicting learning approaches, even after controlling for personal factors and quality of teaching. Moreover, perceived norms moderated this effect. Students’ approaches to learning are affected not simply by their salient self-concepts, but by their salient discipline-related self-concepts and the norms embodied in the learning environment.

Acceptance and expectance : cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark

Gronkjaer, M.; Curtis, T.; de Crespigny, C.; Delmar, C.
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
Alcohol consumption levels in Denmark are high with the risk of increased morbidity and mortality in the population. It is suggested that people’s views of ‘‘normal’’ use of alcohol must be the platform for formulating effective alcohol education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about the cultural norms for alcohol use. The aim of this article is to examine the perceptions of cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark among different age groups and the similarities and differences between the groups, including examining how people construct and negotiate the cultural norms for drinking. Five focus group interviews were conducted with one group per the following age groups: 16-20; 21-34; 35-44; 45-64; and 65-82. These groups consisted of both men and women with five to six participants in each group (a total of 27). Thematic analysis was performed with the aim of developing themes that reflected the cultural norms for alcohol use. The unifying theme of this research was Danish people’s acceptance and expectance of social drinking. Alcohol is widely accepted and associated with mutual expectations to drink, leading to identification of cultural influences and facilitation to drink. The social drinking context plays an important role in people’s perceptions of the normality of drinking. This includes the selection of particular beverages...

Social Norms Theory and Development Economics

Eriksson, Lina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.92%
Social norms affect almost every aspect of people’s lives, and can be an obstacle to or support economic development. This paper outlines what social norms are and how they work, providing examples from everyday life and from development case studies. Sometimes not much can be done about changing undesirable social norms. In those cases, development economists need to be aware of how the existence of those norms can impact the effects of the policies they advocate. But of particular importance to development economists is the ways in which social norms can be changed, at least under some circumstances. Understanding of social norm change is still patchy at best, but the paper outlines the theoretical underpinnings of change, with empirical evidence from various policies aimed at changing social norms. However, some of those policies raise ethical concerns that would require attention.

Muslim Legal Norms and the Integration of European Muslims

MALIK, Maleiha
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
MUSMINE - Muslim Minorities in Europe; This paper examines the potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within European liberal democracies. It focuses on areas of personal life such as family norms and ethics. The main argument of the paper is that in some areas - such as divorce or contract law - there is potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within mainstream political and legal institutions. The advantage of this strategy is that it can encourage Muslims to identify with national political and legal institutions. This strategy can, in turn, encourage the integration of Muslims into mainstream European institutions and promote the goals of social cohesion. However, the accommodation of some religious and cultural norms in this way can create a risk of harm to women. Therefore, there need to be special processes to ensure that Muslim women's autonomy is safeguarded. The paper includes a case study and discussion of Muslim family law arbitration, and the use of 'sharia tribunals', in Great Britain.

Laws and Norms

BENABOU, Roland; TIROLE, Jean
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Outros Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
The lecture was delivered on 16 February 2011. First draft: October 2010. This version: February 2011.; This paper analyzes how private decisions and public policies are shaped by personal and societal preferences ("values"), material or other explicit incentives ("laws") and social sanctions or rewards ("norms"). It first examines how honor, stigma and social norms arise from individuals' behaviors and inferences, and how they interact with material incentives. It then characterizes optimal incentivesetting in the presence of norms, deriving in particular appropriately modified versions of Pigou and Ramsey taxation. Incorporating agents' imperfect knowledge of the distribution of preferences opens up to analysis several new questions. The first is social psychologists' practice of "norms-based interventions", namely campaigns and messages that seek to alter people's perceptions of what constitutes "normal" behavior or values among their peers. The model makes clear how such interventions operate, but also how their effectiveness is limited by a credibility problem, particularly when the descriptive and prescriptive norms conflict. The next main question is the expressive role of law. The choices of legislators and other principals naturally reflect their knowledge of societal preferences...

Children's food consumer socialisation: the impact of food advertising, parents, peers, and social norms on children's food preferences, food consumption, and obesity.

Tarabashkina, Liudmila
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
This study addresses an ongoing debate about the influence of food advertising on children through the development of a comprehensive, yet parsimonious conceptual framework which pulled together extant gaps from the public health and marketing literatures and integrated the influence of external agents and child-related factors on children’s dietary behaviour and weight. The framework has undergone an extensive validation process, including qualitative refinement and quantitative assessment, relying on a randomised controlled experiment with children, a survey of children, and a survey of their parents. The analysis of variance shows that when children were exposed to a food advertisement, their preference for an advertised snack was influenced by their brand evaluation and friends’ preferences for a similar snack. Understanding of the advertisement’s selling and persuasive intents and nutritional knowledge did not reduce preference for, and evaluation of, the advertised product. This most likely occurred because most respondents grasped advertisement intent, resulting in insufficient variance for empirical analysis. In contrast, preference for a healthier snack (apple) amongst children exposed to the experimental advertisement was influenced by an evaluation of healthier snack’s taste...

Translating International Norms: Filters to Women's Rights in Lebanon

Sabat, Rita A
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
In 1979 the United Nations passed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), an international bill of rights for women. Much scholarship has focused on the degree to which states have adopted these new international gender norms, but have paid little attention to the fact that norms change in the processes of implementation. This dissertation focuses on that process assessing the translation of international gender equality norm in Lebanon. The study traces global gender equality norms as they are translated into a complex context characterized by a political structure that divides powers according to confessional groups, a social structure that empowers men as heads of families, and a geopolitical structure that opposes a secular West to the Muslim East. Through a comparison of three campaigns – the campaign to combat violence against women, the campaign to change personal status codes, and the campaign to give women equal rights to pass on their nationality – the study traces different ways in which norms are translated as activists negotiate the structures that make up the Lebanese context. Through ethnographic research, the process of norm translation was found to produce various filters...

International Migration, Transfers of Norms and Home Country Fertility

Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.76%
This paper examines the relationship between international migration and source country fertility. The impact of international migration on source country fertility may have a number of causes, including a transfer of destination countries' fertility norms and an incentive to acquire more education. It provides provide a rigorous test of the diffusion on of fertility norms using original and detailed data on migration. The results provide evidence of a significant transfer of fertility norms from migrants to their country of origin: a one percent decrease in the fertility norm to which migrants are exposed reduces home country fertility by about 0.3 percent for origin countries.

On Norms and Agency : Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries

Muñoz Boudet, Ana María; Petesch, Patti; Turk, Carolyn; Thumala, Angélica
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.86%
This report provides tremendous insight on gender norms an area that has been resistant to change, and that constrains achievement of gender equality across many diverse cultures. The report synthesizes data collected from more than 4,000 women and men in 97 communities across 20 countries. It is the largest dataset ever collected on the topic of gender and development, providing an unprecedented opportunity to examine potential patterns across communities on social norms and gender roles, pathways of empowerment, and factors that drive acute inequalities. The analysis raises the profile of persistent social norms and their impact on agency, and catalyzes discourse on the many pathways that create opportunities for women and men to negotiate transformative change. The report is underpinned by the fact that arguably the single most important contribution to development is to unleash the full power of half the people on the planet women. It underscores how crucial making investments in learning, supporting innovations that reduce the time costs of women s mobility...

Changing Norms about Gender Inequality in Education : Evidence from Bangladesh

Blunch, Niels-Hugo; Das, Maitreyi Bordia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.93%
Using a recent household survey for two cohorts of married women, this paper examines norms about gender equality in education for children and adults. Among the main findings are that gender education gap norms have changed: younger generations of women are more positive about female vs. male education, both as pertaining to child and adult education outcomes. Perhaps the strongest result is that Bangladeshi women are more likely to espouse attitudes of gender equality in education for their children and less so about gender equality among spouses. It is also easier to explain norms regarding children's education and more difficult to explain norms about equality in marriages. The authors believe that question on relative education of boys and girls captures the value of education per se, while the question on educational equality in marriage captures the norms regarding marriage and the relative worth of husbands and wives. The effect of education in determining norms is significant though complex...

Investigating the Relationships Between Teacher Identity Norms and Collaboration

Weston, Deborah PA
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.83%
The purpose of this study was to investigate how teacher identity norms relate to teacher collaboration among the practices of elementary teachers in Ontario. Using quantitative research methods, the data indicated two clusters of teacher identity norms. The norm cluster of innovation, interdependence, and cooperation showed positive correlations with collaboration and the norm cluster of conservatism, individualism, and competition showed negative correlations with collaboration. The two clusters of norms also correlated with each other. The data showed that teachers highly valued collaboration as part of their teaching practice but did not always experience it in their school setting. The analysis suggested that if schools reinforce norms of innovation, interdependence, and cooperation, collaboration will be nurtured. Further, the data showed that if norms of conservatism, individualism, and competition are continued in school cultures, then collaboration will not be sustained. As a broad educational reform agenda, teacher collaboration is used (a) to support school cultures, (b) to change teaching practices, and (c) to implement policy-based initiatives. This research is expected to benefit teachers in its capacity to inform policy makers concerning the highly complex nature of teacher collaboration and some of the factors that impact it. With an understanding of the relationships between teacher identity norms and collaboration...

Relationship of social norms and self-efficacy with physical activity in Korean Adolescents

Kang, Soojin; Kim, Youngho
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
The study identified the physical activity distribution among a random sample of Korean adolescents and investigated relationship of selfefficacy and social norms with physical activity. Participants included 488 students enrolled in 7th to 12th grade (Male: 255, Female: 233, Mage = 15.13, SD = ± 1.56). Three Korean-version questionnaires were used to explore a possible association of self-efficacy and social norms with physical activity among adolescents. Crosstab analysis, correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were performed to analyze data. Results indicated that the physical activity pattern of Korean adolescents was different by each stage of physical activity: precontemplation (15.3%), contemplation (17.7%), preparation (28.8%), action (18.4%), and maintenance (19.8%). Significant distribution emerged as a function of gender. In addition, the findings revealed that self-efficacy and peer norms were significantly correlated with physical activity and that peer norms and self-efficacy had significant effect in predicting physical activity. The findings suggested that the health promotion strategy aimed at increasing adolescents’ physical activity should be designed to foster self-efficacy and peer norms relating to physical activity.; El objetivo del presente estudio fue examinar la influencia de los dos elementos principales del perfeccionismo (CM...