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Adesão a tratados de controle de armamentos: um estudo econométrico e uma modelagem formal; Accession to treaties of arms control: an econometric study and a formal modeling

Bernabel, Rodolpho Talaisys
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
16%
Este trabalho investiga quantitativamente as causas da adesão de países a tratados internacionais de segurança. Mais precisamente, tratados de controle de armamentos. O principal tratado a ser estudado aqui é o Tratado de Não-Proliferação de Armas Nucleares. Primeiramente fiz uma reconstrução racional dos programas realista e liberal das relações internacionais, com enfoque em regimes internacionais. Trata-se de uma abordagem qualitativa, feita com o intuito de subsidiar a pesquisa quantitativa. O cerne do trabalho é a análise econométrica do problema da adesão. Utilizo dados em painel na forma país/ano. Utilizo o universo dos países entre os anos 1968 e 2004. A técnica utilizada é a regressão logística com erro padrão robusto agrupado por país. O principal achado é que democracias aderem mais que autocracias na razão de dois para um. Por fim, temos uma modelagem formal, ainda bastante tentativa, do problema da adesão a tratados de segurança, feita com o intuito de prover uma ferramenta de policy implementation, com base num estudo de caso, qual seja, o da adesão de Índia e Paquistão ao Tratado de Não-Proliferação de Armas Nucleares. A metodologia usada nesta parte é a de desenho de mecanismo.; This study investigates the causes of adhesion to security treaties. The main case of study is the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The rational reconstructions of the liberal and realist research programs inform the quantitative work that follows them. The kernel of this piece is the econometric analysis. I use panel data and cluster robust logits to infer the causes of adhesion of countries to arms control treaties. The main finding is that democracies adhere more than authoritarian domestic regimes with a two to one odds ratio. Finally...

O parto na maternidade vinculada : um direito ainda não alcançado na região Nordeste

Barreto, Marta Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, 2013.; Um dos eixos das políticas de atenção à saúde da mulher é a garantia de acesso das gestantes à maternidade na hora do parto. Essas políticas resultaram no compromisso de gestores da esfera federal, estadual e municipal relativo à sua implantação, incluindo as estratégias de superação de barreiras que dificultam o acesso da gestante à maternidade. A Lei n° 11.634/2007 delega ao SUS a responsabilidade da vinculação da gestante à maternidade na qual será feito o parto, desde o início do pré-natal. Assim, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a realização do parto na maternidade vinculada e a peregrinação das gestantes na hora do parto, nos municípios signatários do Pacto pela Redução da Mortalidade Infantil no Nordeste, bem como verificar as diferenças entre os nove Estados em relação aos desfechos do estudo. O método utilizado foi o estudo descritivo, transversal, junto às mães de criança menores de um ano de idade que compareceram à primeira etapa da campanha da vacinação em 12 de junho de 2010, em 186 dos 189 municípios signatários do Pacto de Redução da Mortalidade Infantil na Região Nordeste. Os dados indicam que...

Hydrobia ulvae - 15 years of imposex monitoring in Ria de Aveiro; Hydrobia ulvae - 15 anos de monitorização do imposex na Ria de Aveiro

Domingues, Filipa Marisa Orêncio
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Compostos de Tributilestanho (TBT) são biocidas com um largo espectro de ação, utilizados em inúmeras aplicações industriais. Nos anos 60, estes compostos foram utilizados como agente ativo em tintas anti-vegetativas de barcos, bóias, plataformas e outras estruturas submersas, para prevenção de bioincustração. Quando libertados nos ecossistemas aquáticos a sua toxicidade provoca diversos efeitos biológicos em espécies não-alvo. Um desses efeitos é o desenvolvimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos sobre o trato reprodutivo de fêmeas de gastrópodes prosobrânquios, um fenómeno apelidado por imposex. A expressão do imposex é um efeito direto da exposição in situ ao TBT e é utilizado como biomarcador da sua poluição. As várias e generalizadas descrições de elevados níveis de poluição por TBT levaram à implementação de legislações extremamente restritivas da utilização destes compostos. Atualmente, e desde 2008, estão interditas a aplicação e circulação de compostos de TBT em embarcações e portos de estados membros da União Europeia, bem como em embarcações de países que assinaram a Convenção Internacional para a Convenção de Sistemas Antivegetativos Prejudiciais em Navios (Convençao AFS). Contudo...

The right or obligation to arbitrate of non-signatories in groups of companies: the limits of consent

Yussef, Karim
Fonte: Revista dos Tribunais Publicador: Revista dos Tribunais
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Trade Issues in East Asia : Preferential Rules of Origin

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Rules of origin are a necessary feature of any regional trade agreement. They ensure that preferences are available only to the signatories of the agreement and that imports from non-members do not avoid customs duties by entering through the member with the lowest tariff. The rules of origin define the amount of local processing, or the extent of the transformation of the product, that must be undertaken in the country from which the product claiming preferences is exported. The definition of these requirements to prevent trade deflection is not straightforward. If the rules are too onerous and complex and are costly to comply with, they will limit the impact of tariff reductions on trade. Indeed, import competing industries have often been successful in obtaining restrictive rules of origin that dilute the impact of the loss of tariff protection. This is most apparent in agreements between developed countries and lower wage countries. As FTAs multiply in the region, putting in place rules of origin (ROO) that are simple...

Supranational Regulation and Contested Accountability: The Case of GMO Risk Regulation in the European Union

SKOGSTAD, Grace
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
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The regulation of genetically modified organisms in the EU has become embroiled in a tension between agency and fiduciary principles of delegated authority and the alternate understandings of political accountability they imply. Fiduciary principles have gained the upper hand in a regulatory process expected to legitimize GMO risk regulation by respecting agency principles of delegated authority. Amidst continuing scientific debate and uncertainty about the environmental safety of GM crops, the EU’s precautionary political culture of risk regulation adds to the controversy of relying on non-majoritarian bodies to regulate GMO risks. Albeit contentious, the fiduciary model of regulation is compatible with the external accountability commitments of EU member states not only to EU law but also to fellow WTO signatories. The incentives, and indeed imperatives, to embrace fiduciary principles of authoritative decision-making explain why the European Commission is exercising its legal authority to authorize some GMOs on the advice of its scientific advisors but without the support of a qualified majority of member states.

Proliferation Resistance and Safeguards

HEDBERG Magnus; LUETZENKIRCHEN Klaus; MAYER Klaus
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Printed
ENG
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The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NNPT or NPT) is the primary cornerstone of international efforts to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Currently, 189 countries are party to the treaty, with only four sovereign states abstaining: India, Israel, Pakistan, and North Korea. The treaty is broadly interpreted as having three pillars: (1) nonproliferation, (2) disarmament, and (3) the right to the peaceful use of nuclear technology. Five countries are recognized by the NPT as nuclear weapon states (NWSs): the United States (US), the Soviet Union (obligations and rights now assumed by Russia), France, the United Kingdom, and the People¿s Republic of China. These five nations are also the five permanent members of the United Nations (UN) Security Council. In accordance with the NPT, the NWSs agree to not transfer nuclear weapons to a nonnuclear weapons state (NNWS) or assist NNWSs in acquiring nuclear weapons. Additionally, the NNWSs party to the NPT agree not to receive or manufacture nuclear weapons. NNWSs also agree to accept safeguards monitoring by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify that they are not diverting material derived from the peaceful use of nuclear technology to weapons. The NPT¿s preamble also contains language affirming the desire of all signatories to halt the production of nuclear weapons worldwide and to develop an additional treaty related to complete nuclear disarmament and liquidation...

Essays on the economics of trade agreements

MKRTCHYAN, Arevik
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
EN
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16.07%
Defence date: 6 October 2014; Examining Board: Professor Piero Gottardi, European University Institute (Supervisor); Professor Bernard Hoekman, European University Institute; Professor Marcelo Olarreaga, University of Geneva; Professor Natalya Volchkova, New Economic School, Moscow.; The world trading system is governed through an ever expanding web of trade agreements, which subtly but powerfully determine the terms of market competition and how rents are distributed between countries, firms and consumers. This thesis studies two such agreements: firstly, Customs Unions regional agreements with a wide coverage of goods and a common external tariff and secondly the Information Technology Agreement, a plurilateral agreement to eliminate import tariffs on a narrow range of goods. The Silent Success of Customs Unions, the first chapter, joint work with Hinnerk Gnutzmann, studies theoretically the incentives of governments which may be subject to lobbying to form bilateral trade agreements, considering both exceptions to the MFN principle permitted under GATT/WTO rules: namely, the Free Trade Area, where partner countries liberalise internal tariffs to zero but retain independent in their external policy, and a Customs Union, which goes beyond FTA by requiring the countries to adopt a harmonised common external tariff. We show that it is always a political equilibrium to implement CU. Crucially...

Industry self-regulation and TV advertising of foods to Australian children

Smithers, L.G.; Lynch, J.W.; Merlin, T.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.62%
Aim: The aim of this study is to examine the amount of non-core (unhealthy) food advertising currently on Australian television (i) during children's programmes and viewing times; (ii) since the introduction of food industry self-regulatory initiatives in 2009; and (iii) whether advertising differs according to signatory status to industry initiatives. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase.com and JSTOR (media/marketing) databases; grey literature; and reference lists of relevant articles for studies published since 2009 that reported on food advertising on Australian television. Results: The title and abstract of 316 articles were screened, yielding 25 articles considered potentially eligible, of which eight met the pre-defined selection criteria. Meta-analysis was not possible because of temporal and methodological differences across studies. The advertising of non-core foods was found to be negligible during programmes with a C-(children's) classification but ranged from 1.5 to 6.5/h during children's peak viewing times. From 2006 to 2011, non-core food advertising decreased by 0.18 advertisements per hour every year, whereas fast food advertising increased by 0.09/h; however, these analyses are based on one study with only five time points. During children's viewing times...

The safeguard system of the International Atomic Energy Agency - a study of the international politics of atomic control

Butler, Richard William
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis is a study in international politics. Its subject is the system for the control of atomic energy - the safeguards system - established and administered by the Intenational Atomic Engergy Agency (IAEA). I have undertaken a political study of this technical system because the main purpose for which the system was established is a political purpose. The system can be described in many ways. A functional description shows it to be a set of technical and administrative arrangements designed to ensure that the atomic activities to which these arrangements apply are carried out within definite technical limits. A description in terms of its technical objective shows it to be a set of regulations designed to ensure that these same atomic activities do not "further any military purpose". Such descriptions are useful and have been considered wherever appropriate. However, the main concern of this thesis is with the negotiations on the development of this system for the international control of atomic energy. These negotiations reflect both the policy attitudes and diplomatic performance of the powers involved in them and the role it has been agreed the sytem should play in the wider field of nuclear arms control. My study of these negotiations and their origins indicates that the source of the proposal to create an international system for the control of atomic energy was the United States. In terms of the will to promote these arrangements and considering their specific structure...

Les tiers dans le contentieux arbitral des investissements internationaux : de l'intervention au recours direct

Fortier, Carole
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.14%
L’arbitrage public international est demeuré un domaine exclusif aux États souverains jusqu’à la fin des années 50, alors que sont apparus les traités bilatéraux relatifs aux investissements (TBI). La principale caractéristique de ces TBI est sans conteste le recours direct de l’investisseur étranger en arbitrage international contre des États récalcitrants, une alternative aux tribunaux locaux souvent inefficaces. Plus récemment, en 1998, l’organe d’appel de l’OMC est allé jusqu’à accepter l’opinion d’amicus curiae dans un différend opposant des États et aujourd’hui, l’admission de ce type d’opinion est expressément prévue dans plusieurs TBI de nouvelle génération. Mais si l’investisseur bénéficie d’un recours devant une instance arbitrale neutre, il en va tout autrement pour la population locale qui se trouve souvent lésée par la présence, sur son territoire, d’investisseurs étrangers. Le droit de présenter une opinion ne peut remplacer le droit de faire valoir une réclamation. Se pose donc la question : est-ce que, dans le contexte actuel du droit de l’investissement international, des tiers (par rapport aux parties signataires de TBI et par rapport aux parties au différend) peuvent prétendre à une voie de recours direct en arbitrage international? Nous sommes d’avis qu’une telle voie de recours est actuellement possible et que le contexte de l’arbitrage relatif à l’investissement constitue un terrain fertile pour la mise en place de ce droit...

Prospects and challenges for the conservation of farm animal genomic resources, 2015-2025

Bruford, Michael W.; Ginja, Catarina; Hoffmann, Irene; Joost, Stéphane; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Alberto, Florian J.; Amaral, Andreia J.; Barbato, Mario; Biscarini, Filippo; Colli, Licia; Costa, Mafalda; Curik, Ino; Duruz, Solange; Ferenčaković, Maja;
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
16%
Livestock conservation practice is changing rapidly in light of policy developments, climate change and diversifying market demands. The last decade has seen a step change in technology and analytical approaches available to define, manage and conserve Farm Animal Genomic Resources (FAnGR). However, these rapid changes pose challenges for FAnGR conservation in terms of technological continuity, analytical capacity and integrative methodologies needed to fully exploit new, multidimensional data. The final conference of the ESF Genomic Resources program aimed to address these interdisciplinary problems in an attempt to contribute to the agenda for research and policy development directions during the coming decade. By 2020, according to the Convention on Biodiversity's Aichi Target 13, signatories should ensure that “…the genetic diversity of …farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives …is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.” However, the real extent of genetic erosion is very difficult to measure using current data. Therefore, this challenging target demands better coverage, understanding and utilization of genomic and environmental data...

When are non-signatories bound by the arbitration agreement in international commercial arbitration?

Rodler, Irmgard Anna
Fonte: Universidad de Chile Publicador: Universidad de Chile
Tipo: Tesis
ES
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Tesis (master en derecho internacional (LL.M.) de la inversión, el comercio y arbitraje); This thesis concerns the issue of third non-signatory parties and analyses under what circumstances they should be bound by an arbitration agreement not signed by them. First it refers to the effects of signing an arbitration agreement between the parties, and then analyses the different theories that eventually could support an extension of the arbitration agreement to third parties. Also, it refers to the legislation of different countries and the treatment courts dispense on this subject, as well as to some international rules to discover which approaches are contained in those rules. It concludes by referring to the most important trends existing presently regarding the subject, used by arbitral tribunals to bring third non-signatory parties into arbitration proceedings

Exploring the Links between Bilateral and Regional Trade Agreements and Merchandise Trade

Barbalet, Felix; Greenville, Jared; Crook, Wayne; Gretton, Paul; Breunig, Robert
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
26%
Over 200 bilateral and regional trade agreements are currently in force, yet their impact remains a topic of debate. We analyse effects of 27 agreements that are of particular importance for Australia on the value of merchandise trade flows using data from 1970 up to the global financial crisis in 2008. We show that preferential trade agreements generally increase trade between members but that there are often offsetting negative effects on trade with non-signatories. In contrast to regional trading blocs and bilateral accords, agreements more oriented towards open trade principles have a positive impact on all trade flows of member nations.

Investigating Political Participation and Social Information Using Big Data and a Natural Experiment

Hale, Scott A.; John, Peter; Margetts, Helen; Yasseri, Taha
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
16%
Social information is particularly prominent in digital settings where the design of platforms can more easily give real-time information about the behaviour of peers and reference groups and thereby stimulate political activity. Changes to these platforms can generate natural experiments allowing an assessment of the impact of changes in social information and design on participation. This paper investigates the impact of the introduction of trending information on the homepage of the UK government petitions platform. Using interrupted time series and a regression discontinuity design, we find that the introduction of the trending feature had no statistically significant effect on the overall number of signatures per day, but that the distribution of signatures across petitions changes: the most popular petitions gain even more signatures at the expense of those with less signatories. We find significant differences between petitions trending at different ranks, even after controlling for each petition's individual growth prior to trending. The findings suggest a non-negligible group of individuals visit the homepage of the site looking for petitions to sign and therefore see the list of trending petitions, and a significant proportion of this group responds to the social information that it provides. These findings contribute to our understanding of how social information...

The Brighton declaration: the value of non-communicable disease modelling in population health sciences

Webber, Laura; Mytton, Oliver T.; Briggs, Adam D. M.; Woodcock, James; Scarborough, Peter
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
This is the final published version. The article was originally published in the European Journal of Epidemiology (2014) 29, 867?870, DOI 10.1007/s10654-014-9978-0.; The Brighton declaration arose out of a one day workshop held in Brighton in September 2013 as part of the Society for Social Medicine annual conference. The workshop convened UK based non-communicable disease modellers to discuss the challenges and opportunities for non-communicable disease modelling in the UK. The declaration describes the value and importance of non-communicable disease modelling, both for research and for informing health policy. The declaration also describes challenges and issues for non-communicable disease modelling. The declaration has been endorsed by many non-communicable disease modellers in the UK.; The following academics collaborated with the authors to finalise this article are and acknowledged as co-signatories on its content. The authors are extremely grateful for their input. University of Cambridge: Ali Abbas, Marko Tanio; University of Edinburgh: Dr Susannah McLean; UK Health Forum: Martin Brown, Tim Marsh, Marco Mesa-Frias, Lise Retat; Imperial College London: Anthony Laverty; The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine: Zaid Chalabi; University College London: Luz Sanchez Romero; University of Oxford: Anja Mizdrak...

L’Office des Nations Unies contre la drogue et le crime et la lutte internationale contre la corruption : perceptions des professionnels

Stefanov, Ivaylo
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Travail aux cycles supérieurs / Graduate student work
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.07%
Outre les changements sociaux associés à la fin du communisme, les années 1990 marquent également une augmentation de l’intérêt à l’égard de la corruption et de ses effets néfastes sur le développement. En raison de la pression exercée par les États-Unis et l’augmentation de la visibilité de la corruption, plusieurs organisations internationales ont vu l’intérêt de s’impliquer dans la lutte anticorruption. La littérature soutient que la Convention des Nations Unies contre la corruption représente le document international anticorruption par excellence. Adopté en 2003, il compte aujourd’hui 144 pays signataires. Cependant, et malgré l’importance du document, les perceptions des professionnels demeurent cachées derrière les discours institutionnels. Par conséquent, cette étude de cas se concentre sur les perceptions des employés travaillant au sein de la Branche de corruption et crime économique de l’ONUDC. Ils révèlent plusieurs difficultés techniques reliées à leur travail. Entre autres, les professionnels évoquent la charge de travail, les moyens financiers et la considération de leur jugement lors du processus d’évaluation. Leurs fonctions sont également limitées par des défis associés à la mise en oeuvre de la convention : l’absence de sanctions directes pour les pays non conformes...

Partes e terceiros na arbitragem; Parties and third parties in arbitration

Costa, Guilherme Recena
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/03/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
A tese discute o problema dos terceiros na arbitragem. Ela distingue os planos substantivo (contratual) e processual (jurisdicional) da arbitragem e, portanto, o status de parte e terceiro com relação, respectivamente, à convenção de arbitragem e ao processo arbitral. Depois de desenvolver as premissas teóricas na Parte 1, a Parte 2 expõe as teorias contratuais e societárias por meio das quais um não-signatário pode ficar vinculado à convenção de arbitragem, com destaque para a extensão a todos os acionistas da companhia da cláusula compromissória estatutária, bem como para a aplicação do princípio da boa-fé objetiva (teoria dos atos próprios, estoppel) para impedir com que determinados signatários burlem a convenção de arbitragem ao incluir terceiros no polo passivo da demanda ou, ainda, para impor a arbitragem a não-signatários que derivaram um benefício do contrato inter alios. Na Parte III, a atenção volta-se para o processo e a sentença arbitral. Expõe-se uma teoria dos efeitos da sentença, buscando-se explicar a sua potencial eficácia ultra partes com base: a) na necessidade de realizar o direito da contraparte à tutela jurisdicional (adquirente do direito litigioso, sucessores post rem judicatam); e b) na identificação de nexos de prejudicialidade-dependência permanente entre as relações jurídicas no plano do direito material (terceiro titular de situação dependente). Refutam-se...