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Can an adequate energy intake be able to reverse the negative nitrogen balance in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients?

JAPUR, Camila C.; MONTEIRO, Jacqueline P.; MARCHINI, Julio Sergio; GARCIA, Rosa Wanda Diez; BASILE-FILHO, Anibal
Fonte: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC Publicador: W B SAUNDERS CO-ELSEVIER INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
Purpose: Adequate energy provision and nitrogen losses prevention of critically ill patients are essentials for treatment and recovery. The aims of this study were to evaluate energy expenditure (EE) and nitrogen balance (NB) of critically ill patients, to classify adequacy of energy intake (El), and to verify adequacy of El capacity to reverse the negative NB. Methods: Seventeen patients from an intensive care unit were evaluated within a 24-hour period. Indirect calorimetry was performed to calculate patient`s EE and Kjeldhal for urinary nitrogen analysis. The total El and protein intake were calculated from the standard parenteral and enteral nutrition infused. Underfeeding was characterized as El 90% or less and overfeeding as 110% or greater of EE. The adequacy of the El (El EE(-1) x 100) and the NB were estimated and associated with each other by Spearman coefficient. Results: The mean EE was 1515 +/- 268 kcal d(-1) and most of the patients (11/14) presented a negative NB (-8.2 +/- 4.7 g.d(-1)). A high rate (53%) of inadequate energy intake was found, and a positive correlation between El EE(-1) and NB was observed (r = 0.670; P = .007). Conclusion: The results show a high rate of inadequate El and negative NB, and equilibrium between El and EE may improve NB. Indirect calorimetry can be used to adjust the energy requirements in the critically ill patients. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Substituição do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia em dietas de bovinos de corte: I. digestibilidade dos nutrientes, balanço de nitrogênio, parâmetros ruminais e sanguíneos; II. desempenho e III. avaliação de indicadores de digestibilidade.; Replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in beef cattle diet: I. igestibility, nitrogen balance, ruminal and blood parameters; II. performance and III. evaluation of digestibility markers.

Oliveira Junior, Reinaldo Cunha de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/03/2003 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição de uma fonte de proteína verdadeira (farelo de soja; dieta deficiente em PDR), por uréia ou amiréia (A-150S - fonte de nitrogênio não protéico de suposta liberação gradativa de nitrogênio; dietas adequadas em PDR), foram realizados três experimentos. Experimento I: Seis machos da raça Nelore, não castrados, com peso médio inicial de 420 kg, foram utilizados em quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado, avaliando-se: a digestibilidade, o balanço de nitrogênio, parâmetros ruminais e sanguíneos (capítulo 3); a estimativa da digestibilidade no trato gastrintestinal utilizando indicadores externo e internos comparados com colheita total de fezes (capítulo 6). O volumoso utilizado foi o BIN (20% da MS). A digestibilidade da MS, MO, CNF, EE, PB e o NDT não diferiram (P>0,05) entre os tratamentos. A digestibilidade da FDA e FDN foram superiores (P<0,05) nos tratamentos uréia e amiréia. Não houve efeito de tratamento e da interação tratamento x horários (P>0,05) nos valores de pH, AGV total, acetato, propionato, butirato e relação acetato:propionato do fluido ruminal. A concentração de nitrogênio amoniacal no fluido ruminal foi superior (P<0,05) no tratamento com uréia, comparado ao tratamento com farelo de soja...

Impacto do padrão alimentar na composição corporal, taxa metabólica de repouso, ritmo circadiano do cortisol e balanço nitrogenado em mulheres obesas; Impact of food pattern in body composition, resting metabolic rate, circadian rhythm of cortisol and nitrogen balance in obesity women

Nonino, Carla Barbosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/06/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.41%
Mudanças no hábito alimentar têm sido descritas como prováveis causas da obesidade. Estudos mostram que o peso depende do balanço energético definido pela relação entre a energia ingerida e o gasto energético. Sugere-se que o padrão alimentar, levando em consideração a freqüência de refeições e sua distribuição durante o dia, possa estar relacionado com a obesidade. Um efetivo programa de perda de peso tem como objetivo a perda do excesso da gordura corporal e a manutenção da massa livre de gordura apropriada para manutenção da saúde. O cortisol é um dos principais hormônios secretados pelo córtex supra-renal com ação predominante no metabolismo intermediário, incluindo a regulação das proteínas, carboidratos, lipídeos e ácidos nucléicos.O presente estudo teve como objetivos determinar se a ingestão alimentar hipocalórica em pacientes obesas grau III, feita exclusivamente no período das 9:00 às 11:00 h em contraposição à mesma dieta oferecida das 18:00 às 20:00 h, é capaz de alterar a perda de peso, a composição corporal, o ritmo de cortisol, o gasto energético e o balanço nitrogenado. As pacientes foram internadas na Unidade Metabólica da Divisão de Nutrologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica do Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto USP durante um período de 64 dias...

Efeito do teor de proteína e fonte nitrogenada em dietas com cana-de-açúcar sobre frações protéicas do leite, balanço nitrogenado e parâmetros metabólicos sanguíneos de vacas lactantes; Effect of crude protein content and nitrogen source with sugar cane diets on milk protein fraction, nitrogen balance and metabolic blood parameters of lactating dairy cows

Conti, Luís Henrique Andreucci
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/08/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do teor de proteína bruta (PB) e da fonte nitrogenada da dieta para vacas lactantes, utilizando cana-de-açúcar como volumoso sobre a síntese de proteína microbiana, composição da fração nitrogenada do leite, balanço nitrogenado e parâmetros metabólicos sangüíneos. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas Holandesas com média de 235 dias em lactação, agrupadas em três quadrados latinos contemporâneos 4x4, com período experimental de 21 dias, sendo 14 para adaptação as dietas e os 7 últimos para coletas. Os animais foram alimentados com rações isoenergéticas (1,29 Mcal/Kg de MS), com duas fontes nitrogenadas principais (farelo de soja e uréia) e dois teores de PB (14,5 e 16,0 %) na ração: A) 14,21% de PB e farelo de soja (FS) como fonte nitrogenada principal, com 65% de PDR, B) 15,57% de PB e FS, com 65% PDR, C) 14,23% de PB e Ureia, com 70% de PDR, D) 15,62% de PB e Uréia, com 70% PDR. Para a determinação da contagem de células somáticas e de nitrogênio ureico no leite (NUL) foram coletadas amostras de leite do 14º ao 18º dia de cada período. Para a determinação dos teores de proteína bruta, nitrogênio não protéico, nitrogênio não caseinoso, proteína verdadeira...

Fontes nitrogenadas e teor de proteína bruta em dietas com cana de açúcar para vacas em lactação: balanço de nitrogênio e análise econômica; Nitrogen sources and level of crude protein in diets with sugarcane for lactating dairy cows: nitrogen balance and economical evaluation

Silano, Camila
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/02/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
O estudo consistiu de dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito metabólico, custos e viabilidade econômica de dietas com diferentes fontes nitrogenadas e teores proteicos. No primeiro experimento avaliou-se o efeito de dois teores de proteína bruta (PB) (130 e 148g/kg de MS) e duas fontes nitrogenadas (farelo de algodão 38 e grão de soja cru integral) na dieta de vacas leiteiras com cana de açúcar como volumoso, sobre as frações nitrogenadas do leite, balanço de nitrogênio e perfil metabólico. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa com 155 (±65) dias em lactação, agrupadas em três quadrados latinos 4x4 contemporâneos, com período experimental de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias para adaptação às dietas e os sete últimos para a realização das coletas. As vacas foram alojadas em baias individuais e alimentadas ad libitum. As amostras de leite para análise do balanço nitrogenado e frações nitrogenadas foram coletadas no 15° dia de cada período. O consumo e balanço de nitrogênio foram maiores para vacas alimentadas com dietas com 148 g PB/kg de MS. Por outro lado, vacas alimentadas com dietas contendo farelo de algodão apresentaram maior excreção de nitrogênio no leite do que vacas alimentadas com grão de soja cru integral. A relação entre caseína e proteína verdadeira no leite foi maior em vacas alimentadas com grão de soja cru integral. Houve interação entre fonte nitrogenada e teor de PB da dieta sobre as concentrações de nitrogênio ureico no leite (NUL) e nitrogênio não proteico (NNP). A concentração de NUL foi maior em vacas alimentadas com farelo de algodão e com maior teor de PB...

Equações de Predição das Exigências de Proteína Bruta para Matrizes Pesadas em Crescimento

Filardi, R. D.; Sakomura, N. K.; Basaglia, R.; Resende, Kleber Tomás de; Sanches, A.
Fonte: Revista Brasileira Zootecnia Brazilian Journal Animal Sci Publicador: Revista Brasileira Zootecnia Brazilian Journal Animal Sci
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2308-2315
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.4%
The objective of this work was to determine the crude protein requirements for broiler breeder pullets, using the factorial method. The protein requirements for maintenance were obtained by comparative slaughter technique and also by nitrogen balance technique, as usual. In the case of comparative slaughter technique we have examined the nitrogen retained as function of different nitrogen intake levels (ad libitum, 54, 24 and 19% of the ad libitum). For the nitrogen balance technique it has been investigated the nitrogen balance as function of nitrogen intake, at different protein levels (16, 10 6 and 3% CP). The results obtained were 3.77 and 2.02 CP/kg(0.75)/day for comparative slaughter and nitrogen balance techniques, respectively. The protein requirements for weight gain were achieved by weekly following the nitrogen level in the body, during the period from 3 to 20 weeks of age. The results were 350, 406 and 463 mg of CP/g of gain in the phases of 3 to 8, 9 to 14 and 15 to 20 weeks, respectively.

Exigências de proteína para frangas de postura de 1 a 18 semanas de idade

Basaglia, Roberta; Sakomura, Nilva Kazue; Resende, Kleber Tomás de; Silva, Rosemeire da; Junqueira, Otto Mack
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 556-563
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
The objective of this experiment was to determine the protein requirements for hen pullets from 1 to 18 weeks of age, by factorial method, using the nitrogen balance and the comparative slaughtering techniques. Protein requirements for maintenance, was obtained by the nitrogen balance technique using four diets with different protein levels (18,9, 4 and 2% of CP) aiming to obtain positive balance, next to zero and negative nitrogen balance. The endogenous nitrogen losses (0.2575 g of N/kg·75/day) was obtained by regression of nitrogen balance (NB) on ingestion nitrogen (IN). The requirements of nitrogen for maintenance was estimated by the intercept of axis X (0.3831 g of N/kg·75/day). The slope of the straight line still supplied the efficiency of N of the diet (67.21%). The regression coefficients of the equation represented the requirements of net nitrogen for weight gain. Considering the conversion efficiencies of nitrogen of the diet into nitrogen for weight gain, the requirements of nitrogen were determined for weight gain of .065, .087g and .090 g of N per gram of weight gain, for the phases 1 to 6, 7 to 12, and 13 to 18 weeks of age, respectively. Based on the results, three equations of prediction of the daily nitrogen requirements were fitted in function of live weight (LW in kg) and daily weight gain (G in g): 1 to 6 weeks N=.3831 x BW·75 + G .065...

Descrição do potencial de retenção de nitrogênio em frangas de postura por diferentes metodologias: mínima retenção

Silva, Edney Pereira Da; Sakomura, Nilva Kazue; Bonato, Melina Aparecida; Donato, Daniella Carolina Zanardo; Peruzzi, Nelson José; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 333-339
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.37%
The objectives of this study were to describe the potential for nitrogen retention by two techniques: comparative slaughter and nitrogen balance; compare the adjusted models for each technique and estimate the maintenance requirement for pullets. Assays were performed during 14 to 28, 56-70 and 98 to 112 days of age, using 168 pullets. The design was completely randomized with seven treatments and eight replications. Treatments consisted of protein levels ranging from 75 to 435gkg-1 of dry matter. The variables were collected by comparative slaughter and nitrogen ingested and deposited in nitrogen balance technique intake and nitrogen excretion. The intercept of the exponential relationship between ingested and excreted nitrogen was considered a requirement for maintenance. The adjusted models were compared by using the maximum likelihood ratio. The techniques described differently compared the requirement for maintenance of nitrogen. For comparative slaughter requiring maintenance was estimated at 342, 372 and 543mg/kgPC0,67 and for nitrogen balance was 342, 225 and 284mg/kgPC0,67 for the period of 14 to 28, 56-70 and 98 to 112 days of age, respectively.; Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa descrever o potencial de retenção de nitrogênio por duas técnicas: abate comparativo e balanço de nitrogênio. Também se objetivou comparar os modelos ajustados para cada técnica e estimar as exigências de mantença para frangas de postura. Os ensaios foram realizados no período de 14 a 28...

Digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed sugarcane hydrolyzed under different conditions as roughage in the diet

Endo, Viviane; Sobrinho, Américo Garcia Da Silva; Almeida, Fabiana Alves De; Lima, Natália Ludmila Lins; Zeola, Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 304-310
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); This study aimed to evaluate the digestibility and nitrogen balance (NB) of lambs fed sugarcane hydrolyzed under different conditions. Fifteen Ile de France lambs at, on average, 23.5kg of body weight were evaluated. Treatments were: in natura sugarcane (IN), sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% calcium oxide (CaO) under aerobic condition (AER), and sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% CaO under anaerobic condition (ANA). Therefore, a completely randomized design was constituted with five replicates per treatment. Treatments were supplied to animals along with concentrate. Both hydrolysis conditions aimed to alter the sugarcane fermentation pattern, therefore improving fiber digestibility. Lambs were housed in individual pens and fed with diet allowing 10% of refusals. Refusals, feces and urine were sampled daily during five days. They were collected to determine the digestibility and NB. A higher digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (57.05%), organic matter (85.39%), hemicellulose (72.09%), NB (29.46g day-1 and 2.78g kg-0.75 day-1) and rate of nitrogen absorbed (3.00g kg-0.75 day-1) were observed for lambs fed with ANA than for those fed IN (41.17%...

Avaliação do balanço azotado no doente queimado : trabalho de investigação : nitrogen balance assessment in burn patients

Beça, Andreia Bebiana Teixeira de
Fonte: Porto : edição de autor Publicador: Porto : edição de autor
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 2 vols.(tese + relatório); 30 cm
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.44%
Resumo da tese: Introdução: A lesão por queimadura representa provavelmente o maior estímulo para o catabolismo muscular proteico. Este estado é caracterizado por um catabolismo acelerado de massa magra ou massa esquelética que resulta clinicamente num balanço negativo de azoto e gasto muscular. A determinação de um valor adequado para a ingestão proteica é fundamental, uma vez que está positivamente relacionada com o balanço de azoto e vários autores defendem que a obtenção de um balanço azotado positivo é o principal parâmetro nutricional associado com uma melhoria do doente. Pelo facto de este balanço reflectir a adequação da ingestão proteica e energética, é de todo o interesse determinar por rotina o balanço de azoto, constituindo uma ferramenta importante para evitar ou minimizar o estado catabólico. Objectivos: Avaliação do grau de catabolismo proteico através do cálculo do Balanço Azotado; Definir o tipo de suporte nutricional (adequação proteica) a implementar no doente queimado com superfície corporal queimada (SCQ) 10%. Métodos: Foram consultados os processos clínicos e registadas as variáveis de interesse para o estudo: bio-demográficas; antropométricas; data de admissão; % SCQ; caracterização da lesão; patologias associadas; dados analíticos; terapêutica nutricional instituída e balanço hídrico das 24h correspondentes à recolha de urina das 24h...

Digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed sugarcane hydrolyzed under different conditions as roughage in the diet

Endo,Viviane; Sobrinho,Américo Garcia da Silva; Almeida,Fabiana Alves de; Lima,Natália Ludmila Lins; Zeola,Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.26%
This study aimed to evaluate the digestibility and nitrogen balance (NB) of lambs fed sugarcane hydrolyzed under different conditions. Fifteen Ile de France lambs at, on average, 23.5kg of body weight were evaluated. Treatments were: in natura sugarcane (IN), sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% calcium oxide (CaO) under aerobic condition (AER), and sugarcane hydrolyzed using 0.6% CaO under anaerobic condition (ANA). Therefore, a completely randomized design was constituted with five replicates per treatment. Treatments were supplied to animals along with concentrate. Both hydrolysis conditions aimed to alter the sugarcane fermentation pattern, therefore improving fiber digestibility. Lambs were housed in individual pens and fed with diet allowing 10% of refusals. Refusals, feces and urine were sampled daily during five days. They were collected to determine the digestibility and NB. A higher digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (57.05%), organic matter (85.39%), hemicellulose (72.09%), NB (29.46g day-1 and 2.78g kg-0.75 day-1) and rate of nitrogen absorbed (3.00g kg-0.75 day-1) were observed for lambs fed with ANA than for those fed IN (41.17%, 73.76%, 53.80%, 21.39g day-1, 2.00g kg-0.75 day-1 and 2.22g kg-0.75 day-1...

Soybean meal or cotton by-products associated with urea as source of nitrogen in the diet of lactating goats

Alves,Aldivan Rodrigues; Medeiros,Ariosvaldo Nunes de; Oliveira,Juliana Silva de; Costa,Roberto Germano; Costa,Marcone Geraldo; Queiroga,Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; Souza,Darklê Luiza de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.21%
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sources of nitrogen on the intake and digestibility of nutrients and production and chemical composition of goat milk. Soybean meal (SBM), soybean meal + urea (SBM+U), cottonseed meal + urea (CM+U), cottonseed cake + urea (CC+U) and whole cottonseed + urea (WC+U) were used, representing the different sources of nitrogen in the diet. Ten crossbred goats were used (Alpine + Saanen), weighing on average 47.90±1.94 kg of body weight at 30 days of lactation, distributed in a double Latin square (5 × 5) with five treatments and five periods. There was influence of the different sources of nitrogen on the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) of animals, with the lowest values found in most of the variables studied for animals that received CC+U and WC+U. There was an effect of diets on the DM, OM, CP and NFC digestibility coefficients. The diet with sole addition of SBM presented the best result regarding the amount of milk produced, followed by animals fed SBM+U and CM+U and values of 2.05 kg/day; 1.92 kg/day; 1.73 kg/day; 1.47 kg/day; and 1.24 kg/day of milk for diets with SBM...

Nitrogen metabolism and microbial production of dairy cows fed sugarcane and nitrogen compounds

Gonçalves,Geógenes da Silva; Pedreira,Marcio dos Santos; Pereira,Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Santos,Dimas Oliveira; Souza,Dicastro Dias de; Porto Junior,Antonio Ferraz
Fonte: UFBA - Universidade Federal da Bahia Publicador: UFBA - Universidade Federal da Bahia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dairy cow diets containing two different sources of urea on nitrogen metabolism and microbial synthesis. Eight crossbred cows were confined and distributed in two 4x4 Latin: FS - soybean meal (control), conventional urea (UC) 100%; ULL 44 UC = 56% / 44% ULL, ULL 88 UC = 12% / 88% ULL. Diets were offered to animals during 21 days with 14 days of adaptation. The N intake, retained nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion in milk, urine, feces and total N excretion were similar and presented averages of 340.27g/day, 136.73g/day, 43.25g/day, 53.17g/day, 103.54g/day, and 199.96g/day, respectively. The percentages of urine and total nitrogen excretion were 16.24 and 60.71 (%), respectively. Ureic nitrogen in milk, urine and blood were 3.95mg/dL, 4.32mg/dl and 23.73mg/dL, respectively. The results found for the excretion of purine derivatives, allantoin, absorbable purines, microbial nitrogen, microbial protein and the relationship between microbial protein and digestible nutrients were 321.68mmol/day, 296.35mmol/day, 334.61mmol/day, 210.6g/day, 1316.27g/day, and 127.36g/kg, respectively. The partial replacement of soybean meal by conventional urea and / or urea encapsulated in feeding lactating cows yielded similar results in nitrogenous compounds...

Nitrogen metabolism and microbial synthesis in sheep fed diets containing slow release urea to replace the conventional urea

Alves,Evanilton Moura; Magalhães,Daniel Rodrigues; Freitas,Mazzilli Amaral; Santos,Edileusa de Jesus dos; Pereira,Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Pedreira,Márcio dos Santos
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.23%
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adding slow release urea to replace conventional urea in diets for feedlot sheep on nitrogen metabolism and microbial protein synthesis. The substitution levels used as treatments were 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80%. We used 25 Santa Ines x SRD sheep distributed in the treatments in a completely randomized design. The animals were given 50% Tifton-85 hay and 50% concentrate, comprising diets with approximately 12% crude protein. The ingestion, digestion and excretion of nitrogen were not affected by the addition of slow release urea to the diet, in which the digested nitrogen accounted for 72.98% of the ingested. The concentration of plasma urea-N showed a quadratic variation, with the maximum at the level of 72.18% substitution. The microbial protein production and conversion efficiency of the protein into total digestible nutrients were not affected by the addition of slow-release urea in the diets. The replacement of conventional urea with slow release urea in the diet changes the concentrations of urea-N in plasma, however, does not affect the nitrogen balance, nor microbial synthesis and efficiency.

The effect of burn wound size on ureagenesis and nitrogen balance.

Kagan, R J; Matsuda, T; Hanumadass, M; Castillo, B; Jonasson, O
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1982 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.41%
Hypermetabolic burn patients are frequently in negative nitrogen balance despite provision of estimated caloric needs. We studied 18 thermally injured adult patients in order to evaluate the relationship of burn wound size to urea production and nitrogen balance. We selected data from 147 patient-days when the patients received 100 +/- 25% of their estimated caloric needs. Three significantly different burn size groups (by body surface area [BSA]) were identified by calculation of the catabolic index (CI): group 1, 0-10% BSA (CI = -0.1); group 2, 11-30% BSA (CI = 6.4); and group 3,31-60% BSA (CI = 10.5). The urine urea nitrogen (UUN) for groups 1,2, and 3 was 11.1, 18.9, and 25.3 gm/day, and nitrogen balance was 1.0, -3.9, and -5.8 gm/day, respectively. When nitrogen was given in a calorie:nitrogen ratio of 150:1, only those patients in group I were able to achieve positive balance. We conclude that large burn wounds are associated with increased ureagenesis and impaired nitrogen retention. The protein intake, at the customary calorie:nitrogen ratio of 150:1, may not provide adequate nitrogen to achieve equilibrium, even when energy demands have been met, in patients with burn wounds greater than 10% BSA.

Influence of energy and nitrogen contents of enteral diets on nitrogen balance: a double blind prospective controlled clinical trial.

Rees, R G; Cooper, T M; Beetham, R; Frost, P G; Silk, D B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1989 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Results of recent controlled studies show that because of difficulties in administering adequate quantities of enteral diet, positive nitrogen balance is not consistently achieved during enteral feeding. In order to determine whether nitrogen balance can be improved in routine clinical practice by prescribing enteral diets containing higher concentrations of nutrients, 118 patients with normal gastrointestinal function needing enteral nutrition were randomised to receive daily 21 of one of three polymeric diets: Standard diet (1.0 kcal/ml; 6.3 gN/l), Energy Dense diet (1.5 kcal/ml; 7.8 gN/l), and Energy-Nitrogen Dense diet (1.5 kcal/ml; 9.4 gN/l. The three diets, administered by continuous nasogastric infusion, were equally well tolerated. Results were analysed only for patients fed five or more days and who received at least 60% of prescribed enteral diet (n = 42). Positive nitrogen balance was achieved only in the patients receiving the Energy-Nitrogen Dense diet (n = 16; + 1.6 (SE) 0.6 gN/d, compared with the Standard diet (n = 12; -3.8 (1.1) gN/d; p less than 0.001), and the Energy Dense diet (m = 14; -1.9 (0.8) gN/d; p less than 0.005). As the findings of this prospective controlled trial show that positive nitrogen balance was not consistently achieved by administering 21 enteral diet containing up to 15.6 gN...

Age and sex affect protein metabolism at protein intakes that span the range of adequacy: comparison of leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance data☆

Conley, Travis B.; McCabe, George P.; Lim, Eunjung; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Campbell, Wayne W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.39%
Research suggests that changes in leucine oxidation (leuox) with feeding may reflect adult protein requirements. We evaluated this possibility by assessing the effects of age, sex, and different protein intakes on whole-body leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance. Thirty-four young (n = 18, 22–46 years) and old (n= 16, 63–81 years) men and women completed three 18-day trials with protein intakes of 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 g protein·kg body weight−1·d−1. Fasting and fed-state leucine kinetics were quantified on day 12 of each trial using a primed, constant infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. Protein requirement was estimated using classical nitrogen balance measurements and calculations. Leucine kinetics parameters were influenced by age and sex across all protein intakes. With feeding, leuox increased more in old vs. young adults. Independent of age, fasting and fed-state leuox were lower, and net leucine balance (fasting+fed-state) was higher in women vs. men. Among all subjects and protein intakes, nitrogen balance was correlated with fed-state leuox (r=0.39), fed-state leucine balance (r=0.60), net leucine balance (r=0.49) and the change in leuox from the fasting to fed state (r=0.49) (P<.05 for all results). At the highest protein intake...

Net nitrogen balances for cool-season grain legume crops and contributions to wheat nitrogen uptake: a review

Evans, J.; McNeill, A.; Unkovich, M.; Fettell, N.; Heenan, D.
Fonte: C S I R O Publishing Publicador: C S I R O Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
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46.41%
The removal of nitrogen (N) in grain cereal and canola crops in Australia exceeds 0.3 million t N/year and is increasing with improvements in average crop yields. Although N fertiliser applications to cereals are also rising, N2-fixing legumes still play a pivotal role through inputs of biologically fixed N in crop and pasture systems. This review collates Australian data on the effects of grain legume N2 fixation, the net N balance of legume cropping, summarises trends in the soil N balance in grain legume–cereal rotations, and evaluates the direct contribution of grain legume stubble and root N to wheat production in southern Australia. The net effect of grain legume N2 fixation on the soil N balance, i.e. the difference between fixed N and N harvested in legume grain (Nadd) ranges widely, viz. lupin –29–247 kg N/ha (mean 80), pea –46–181 kg N/ha (mean 40), chickpea –67–102 kg N/ha (mean 6), and faba bean 8–271 kg N/ha (mean 113). Nadd is found to be related to the amount (Nfix) and proportion (Pfix) of crop N derived from N2 fixation, but not to legume grain yield (GY). When Nfix exceeded 30 (lupin), 39 (pea) and 49 (chickpea) kg N/ha the N balance was frequently positive, averaging 0.60 kg N/kg of N fixed. Since Nfix increased with shoot dry matter (SDM) (21 kg N fixed/t SDM; pea and lupin) and Pfix (pea...

Nitrogen balance assessment in burn patients.; Avaliação do balanço azotado no doente queimado.

Beça, Andreia; Serviços de Endocrinologia e Cirurgia Plástica Reconstrutiva, Estética e Cirurgia Maxilo Facial, Unidade de Queimados, Hospital de S. João/Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentaç
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/10/2010 POR
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46.44%
The burn injury probably represents the largest stimulus for muscle protein catabolism. This state is characterized by an accelerated catabolism of the lean or skeletal mass that results in a clinical negative balance of nitrogen and muscle wasting. The determination of an appropriate value for protein intake is essential, since it is positively related to the nitrogen balance (NB) and accordingly several authors argue that a positive NB is the key parameter associated with nutritional improvement of a burn patient.Evaluation of the degree of protein catabolism by assessment of the Nitrogen Balance; Defining of nutritional support (protein needs) to implement in patients with burned surface area (BSA) = 10%.We prospectively evaluated the clinical files and scrutinized the clinical variables of interest. The NB was estimated according to three formulae. Each gram of nitrogen calculated by the NB was then converted into grams of protein, subtracted or added to protein intake (or administered enteric or parenterically) and divided by kg of reference Weight (kg Rweight), in an attempt to estimate the daily protein needs.The cohort consisted of 10 patients, 6 females, with average age of 58(23) years old, a mean of BSA of 21.4(8.4)%, ranging from a minimum of 10.0% and máximum of 35.0%. On average...

RETENÇÃO DE NITROGÊNIO EM SUÍNOS NA FASE DE CRESCIMENTO OBTIDA PELOS MÉTODOS DE ABATE COMPARATIVO E BALANÇO DE NITROGÊNIO; Nitrogen retention of growing pigs obtained by nitrogen balance technique or comparative slaughter technique

de Oliveira, Vladimir; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Fialho, Elias Tadeu; Universidade Federal de Lavras
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares
Publicado em 11/11/2010 PT
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56.32%
Um estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar a retenção de nitrogênio obtida pelos métodos de balanço de nitrogênio (BN) e abate comparativo (AC) em suínos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes teores de proteína. Foram usados 35 suínos castrados (34 ± 0,9 kg de peso vivo), sendo 9 no BN e 26 no AC. Os suínos receberam rações isoenergéticas e isolisínicas formuladas de acordo com o conceito de proteína ideal. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos em esquema fatorial com dois métodos (BN e AC) e três teores de proteína (12, 14 e 16%). O nitrogênio retido (NR) foi menor no AC e não sofreu influência da quantidade de proteína da dieta. A proteína retida (PR) foi influenciada pelos teores de proteína da dieta no método BN. O NR estimado pelo método BN foi 30% superior quando comparado ao NR estimado pelo abate comparativo. Esses resultados confirmam que as estimativas de retenção de nitrogênio obtidas com o método de balanço de nitrogênio são superiores as estimativas obtidas com o método do abate comparativo...