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Um processo para modelagem e aplicação de técnicas computacionais para detecção de fraudes em transações eletrônicas; A process for modeling and application of computational techniques for fraud detection in electronic transactions

Santiago, Gabriel Preti
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46%
Nos últimos anos, tem-se observado um aumento significativo no volume de transações financeiras realizadas pela Internet. Esse crescimento no volume financeiro, associado à fragilidade inerente à ausência de verificações básicas, possíveis somente em transações do mundo físico, tem atraído a atenção de pessoas com o objetivo de obter vantagens financeiras de forma ilícita. Devido aos prejuízos causados pelas fraudes, surgiram empresas de pagamento online com o objetivo de tornar as transações de compra e venda na Internet mais seguras. Essas empresas atuam como um intermediário das transações e assumem os riscos associados, mostrando-se ser esse um negócio de alto risco. Dado o alto volume de transações com as quais essas empresas precisam lidar, torna-se clara a necessidade de métodos computacionais para detecção de transações fraudulentas, visto que a utilização estrita de verificações manuais é inviável para lidar com tal volume de transações. Essa tarefa de análise e identificação de transações fraudulentas pode ser vista como um problema computacional de classificação, sendo então aplicáveis técnicas de classificação, aprendizado computacional e mineração de dados. Porém...

Farmácia Popular Program: changes in geographic accessibility of medicines during ten years of a medicine subsidy policy in Brazil

Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins; do Nascimento, José Miguel; Pereira, Marco Aurélio; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Ross-Degnan, Dennis
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.65%
Objectives: The Brazilian constitution guarantees the right to health, including access to medicines. In May 2004, Brazil’s government announced the “Farmácia Popular” Program (FPP) as a new mechanism to improve the Brazilian population’s access to medicines. Under FPP, a selected list of medicines is subsidized by the government and provided in public and private pharmacies. The aim of this study is to describe the historical stages of the FPP and to identify associated changes in the geographical accessibility of medicines through the FPP over time. Methods: It was performed documentary review and an ecological study assessing program coverage in terms of number of facilities and a FPP Pharmacy Facilities Density (PFD) index at national and regional levels from 2004 to 2013, using the FPP database. We used geographic information system mapping to depict a pharmaceutical facilities density (PFD) index at the municipality level on thematic maps. Results: A growth of the PFD index coincident with the phases of the FPP was noticed. In the public sector, the program started in 2004; by 2006, there was a sharp increase in the numbers of participating pharmacies, stabilizing in 2009. In the private sector, the program started in 2006; by 2009 the PFD ratio had increased substantially and it continued to grow through 2011. There was an increase in FPP coverage in most regions between 2006...

New Technologies, New Risks? Innovation and Countering the Financing of Terrorism

Zerzan, Andrew
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.2%
Recent developments in the way financial services are delivered have provided both opportunities for economic development and prompted fears of their attractiveness for crimes such as terrorist financing. This paper explores four innovations, value cards, mobile financial services, online banking and payments, and digital currencies, outlining how they work, analyzing their risks, and identifying some ways in which governments and providers are attempting to reduce their attractiveness to financiers of terrorism. Determining what the actual risks are is critical to ensuring that laws and regulations balance both the need to protect integrity in the market and to create an environment friendly to business and empowering to the poor. The paper concludes that these new methods of payment do not offer particular usefulness to terrorist financiers. However, some of these channels could be attractive for general criminal abuse because they have an ambiguous place in the legal regime. Providers therefore, may not know about or elect to properly mitigate risks. The industry is encouraged to work within itself to share information to prevent and detect criminal activity. Governments should consult with industry in deciding regulation and industry should notify government prior to rolling out a new service. This will make government oversight more effective. Lastly...

Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.02%
This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: East Asia and the Pacific, European Union, Latin America, OECD High Income and South Asia. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2013, except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January to December 2012. Regional Doing Business reports capture differences in business regulations and their enforcement across countries in a single region. They provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve performance in each of the indicator areas. The report sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business...

Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.96%
This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in East Asia and the Pacific (EAP). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Europe and Central Asia, European Union, Latin America, South Asia, and OECD High Income. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2013, except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January to December 2012. Regional Doing Business reports capture differences in business regulations and their enforcement across countries in a single region. They provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve performance in each of the indicator areas. The report sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business...

Enabling International Market Linkages : Lessons and Insights

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.75%
Growth-oriented entrepreneurs, especially those in small countries and those that are highly innovative, often look to international markets to grow their business. From a development perspective, entrepreneurs successful expansion into international markets can mean revenue growth and job creation at the enterprise level, along with spillover effects into innovation, industry competitiveness, and foreign exchange on a broader economic level. However, entrepreneurs do not always have the necessary know-how and networks to expand beyond their national market, nor do they have effective resources they can draw upon to gain access to the required knowledge and contacts. InfoDev focuses on enabling the growth of early-stage enterprises across the developing world. During 2010 - 2013, infoDev piloted a few approaches to enable international market access for small, relatively early-stage, growth-oriented enterprises. In total, about 200 enterprises from more than 35 countries participated in these pilots. The results and lessons from these pilot projects summarized in this document provide insights for practitioners who are considering increasing international market access for early stage entrepreneurs. Recommendations as to further research in this field are also provided.

Mobile Applications for Agriculture and Rural Development

Zhenwei Qiang, Christine; Kuek, Siou Chew; Dymond, Andrew; Esselaar, Steve
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.88%
The dynamic growth of mobile communications technology is creating opportunities for economic growth, social empowerment, and grassroots innovation in developing countries. One of the areas with the greatest potential impact is in the contribution that mobile applications can make to agricultural and rural development (ARD), by providing access to information, markets, and services to millions of rural inhabitants. For both agricultural supply and demand, mobile phones can reduce waste, make delivery more efficient, and forge closer links between farmers and consumers. This report provides policymakers and development practitioners with a guide that facilitates the development and deployment of mobile applications for ARD. It also informs their understanding of the key drivers for promoting such applications and services in their countries. Using James Moore’s (1996) revised definition of ecosystems: economic communities based on interacting organizations and individuals the report identifies a wide range of players in the ecosystem for m-ARD apps...

El comercio electrónico en España; E-commerce in Spain

García González, Rubén
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.65%
RESUMEN: Durante los últimos años, el comercio electrónico B2C ha mantenido una tendencia de crecimiento a razón de dos dígitos anuales, pese a estar en una época de crisis donde el consumo en general ha disminuido. Esta tendencia alcista va a continuar hasta 2017 (Forrester, 2014), lo que puede hacer que sea una de las principales vías de desarrollo de este país. Este crecimiento se justifica con el aumento del número de internautas que hay en nuestro país, y, a su vez, también crece, en mayor proporción, el número de estos que compra a través de Internet, superando ya el 50%, contrarrestando estos dos factores el descenso del gasto anual medio por internauta comprador. Esta importancia y futuro que tiene el comercio electrónico B2C no es aprovechada por gran parte de las empresas españolas, lo que hace que estén desperdiciando la principal característica que tiene Internet, el acceso mundial. La posibilidad de realizar compras a través de la web de las empresas incrementa en gran medida el público objetivo y los clientes potenciales, ya que es un medio que llega a prácticamente todo el mundo, por lo que, las empresas, pueden realizar ventas a cualquier lugar del mundo, e incrementar así sustancialmente su negocio. Pese a que cada vez son más los internautas que deciden realizar compras por Internet...

Integrity in Mobile Phone Financial Services : Measures for Mitigating Risks from Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing

Chatain, Pierre-Laurent; Hernández-Coss, Raúl; Borowik, Kamil; Zerzan, Andrew
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.99%
This working paper explores strategies to identify and manage potential money laundering (ML) and terrorist financing (TF) risks in mobile financial services (m-FS). Using fieldwork in seven economies as a basis, the paper provides guidance on the best means of assessing perceived versus actual ML and TF risks, and then identifies specific measures to mitigate the actual risks. The paper concludes with recommendations that aim to promote a regulatory balance to foster an enabling environment for business while minimizing ML and TF risks that hinder its sustainability. The paper identifies four risk factors in m-FS and appropriate mitigation responses. The risk factors are anonymity, elusiveness, rapidity, and poor oversight. Anonymity is the risk of not knowing a customer's actual identity, and it can be diminished through enhanced know-your-customer procedures and identification tools. Elusiveness is the ability to disguise mobile transaction totals, origins, and destinations. It can be diminished through transaction limits and enhanced customer profiling...

IFC Mobile Money Study 2011; Summary Report

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.96%
Mobile money (m-money) refers to the use of mobile phones to perform financial and banking functions. However, the technology is far ahead of the infrastructure of financial and technical network service providers needed for an m-money system to function. This study was undertaken to increase the understanding of m-money and to address key issues in scaling up development of m-money services globally. It examines the potential demand for m-money, national regulatory environments, major obstacles, and the requirements of potential service providers and networks to run m-money services as viable businesses. Four countries - Brazil, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, and Thailand - each of which represents a different world region, socioeconomic situation, and financial sector context, were included in the study. The countries were analyzed in terms of m-money business models, money flows and demand, potential user perceptions and behavior, regulations, and agent networks. In each country, an m-money service provider acted as a partner institution. To place these four countries in the wider context of m-money developments...

ICT Indicators and Implications for Methods for Assessing Socioeconomic Impact of ICT

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.81%
This report is being delivered pursuant to the agreement (Agreement) between the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology of the Arab Republic of Egypt (MCIT) and the World Bank (Bank) for the provision by the Bank of technical assistance (RTA) to MCIT and certain of its affiliates. One of those affiliates is the Information Technology Industry Development Authority (ITIDA). When it comes to designing and implementing ICT policies, the availability of proper indicators is key to efficiency and effectiveness. However, the indicators should go further, and should help policymakers also to measure how well the sector or projects are performing, provide an assessment over time on the status of a project, program, or policy, promote credibility and public confidence by reporting on the results of programs, provide in-depth information about public sector performance, help formulate and justify budget requests, and identify potentially promising programs or practices for duplication or scalability. Thus...

Analysis of new threats to online banking authentication schemes

Delgado, Óscar; Fúster Sabater, Amparo; Sierra, J. M.
Fonte: Universidad de Salamanca Publicador: Universidad de Salamanca
Tipo: Comunicación de congreso Formato: 176996 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
8 pages, 6 figures.-- Contributed to: X Spanish Meeting on Cryptology and Information Security (Salamanca, Spain, Sep 2-5, 2008).; In this work it is shown how current online banking and payment methods are highly insecure. All the countermeasures currently used by financial institutions are vulnerable to some kind of attack, mainly to the recent and powerful last generation trojans, which are able to defeat mechanisms as strong as SSL sessions or two-factor authentication schemes. We point out the problems of these models and we propose a mobile phone OTP scheme with a new method for the challenge generation.; This work has been done in the frame of the project HESPERIA (http://www.proyecto-hesperia.org) supported by Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico Industrial (CDTI) under programme CENIT and also supported by the enterprises: Soluziona Consultoría y Tecnología, Unión Fenosa, Tecnobit, Visual-Tools, BrainStorm, SAC and TechnoSafe.; Peer reviewed

Nuevos métodos de pago online, seguridad y confiabilidad; New online payment methods, security and reliability

Rodríguez Martínez, Miguel
Fonte: Universidade de Cantabria Publicador: Universidade de Cantabria
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.31%
RESUMEN: El uso de internet claramente ha cambiado nuestros hábitos y costumbres a lo largo de estos últimos años y principalmente a comienzos del siglo XXI. La economía, que siempre está en constante cambio tampoco podría haberse quedado atrás por lo que se ha ido adaptando a este gran cambio social. El E-commerce o Comercio Electrónico basado en la compra y venta de bienes y servicios mediante internet, ha sufrido un gran incremento tanto en el volumen de operaciones como el número de usuarios. Los negocios deben posicionarse de forma eficiente para poder atraer a un mayor número de consumidores mediante medidas de negocio. Una de las decisiones claves que deben tomar los servicios de comercio electrónico es la de elegir los medios de pago que pondrán a disposición de sus clientes. Los medios de pago tradicionales han tenido y siguen teniendo el mayor peso en las operaciones de compraventa. El pago en efectivo, el pago con tarjeta y con transferencias, entre otros sistemas, son conocidos por los usuarios pero en ciertos aspectos no cumplen con las expectativas futuras de los negocios online. Los nuevos medios de pago online son el incentivo de desarrollo del comercio electrónico. Su principal objetivo es la de facilitar las compras...