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Neuroplasticity as a target for the pharmacotherapy of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia

Krystal, John H.; Tolin, David F.; Sanacora, Gerard; Castner, Stacy; Williams, Graham; Aikins, Deane; Hoffman, Ralph; D’Souza, D. Cyril
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.3%
Current treatments for psychiatric disorders were developed with the aim of providing symptomatic relief rather than reversing underlying abnormalities in neuroplasticity or neurodevelopment that might contribute to psychiatric disorders. This review considers the possibility that psychiatric treatments might be developed that target neuroplasticity deficits or that manipulate neuroplasticity in novel ways. These treatments might not provide direct symptomatic relief. However, they might complement or enhance current pharmacotherapies and psychotherapies aimed at the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders. In considering neuroplasticity as a target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, we build on exciting new findings in the areas of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and schizophrenia.

Arc expression and neuroplasticity in primary auditory cortex during initial learning are inversely related to neural activity

Carpenter-Hyland, Ezekiel P.; Plummer, Thane K.; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Blake, David T.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
Models of learning-dependent sensory cortex plasticity require local activity and reinforcement. An alternative proposes that neural activity involved in anticipation of a sensory stimulus, or the preparatory set, can direct plasticity so that changes could occur in regions of sensory cortex lacking activity. To test the necessity of target-induced activity for initial sensory learning, we trained rats to detect a low-frequency sound. After learning, Arc expression and physiologically measured neuroplasticity were strong in a high-frequency auditory cortex region with very weak target-induced activity in control animals. After 14 sessions, Arc and neuroplasticity were aligned with target-induced activity. The temporal and topographic correspondence between Arc and neuroplasticity suggests Arc may be intrinsic to the neuroplasticity underlying perceptual learning. Furthermore, not all neuroplasticity could be explained by activity-dependent models but can be explained if the neural activity involved in the preparatory set directs plasticity.

Neuronal nitric oxide (NO) contributes to neuroplasticity-associated protein expression through cGMP, protein kinase G (PKG), and ERK

Gallo, Eduardo F.; Iadecola, Costantino
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/05/2011 EN
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27.37%
Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) has long been implicated in brain plasticity. However, it is unclear how this short-lived mediator contributes to the long-term molecular changes underlying neuroplasticity, which typically require activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and gene expression. To address this issue we used a neuroplasticity model based on treatment of neuronal cultures with bicuculline and a model of experience-dependent plasticity in the barrel cortex. In neuronal cultures, NOS inhibition attenuated the bicuculline-induced activation of ERK and the expression of c-Fos, Egr-1, Arc and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proteins essential for neuroplasticity. Furthermore, inhibition of the NO target soluble guanylyl cyclase or of the cGMP effector kinase PKG reduced both ERK activation and plasticity-related protein expression. NOS inhibition did not affect phosphorylation of CREB, a well-established ERK nuclear target, but it attenuated the nuclear accumulation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 and suppressed the activation of Elk-1, another transcription factor target of ERK. Consistent with these in vitro observations, induction of c-Fos, Egr-1, and BDNF was attenuated in the D1 cortical barrel of nNOS−/− mice subjected to single whisker experience. These results establish nNOS-derived NO as a key factor in the expression of proteins involved in neuroplasticity...

Probing the Role of HDACs and Mechanisms of Chromatin-Mediated Neuroplasticity

Haggarty, Stephen J.; Tsai, Li-Huei
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.3%
Advancing our understanding of neuroplasticity and the development of novel therapeutics based upon this knowledge is critical in order to improve the treatment and prevention of a myriad of nervous system disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms of neuroplasticity involve the post-translational modification of chromatin and the recruitment or loss of macromolecular complexes that control neuronal activity-dependent gene expression. While over a century after Ramón y Cajal first described nuclear subcompartments and foci that we now know correspond to sites of active transcription with acetylated histones that are under epigenetic control, the rate and extent to which epigenetic processes act in a dynamic and combinatorial fashion to shape experience-dependent phenotypic and behavioral plasticity in response to various types of neuronal stimuli over a range of time scales is only now coming into focus. With growing recognition that a subset of human diseases involving cognitive dysfunction can be classified as ‘chromatinopathies’, in which aberrant chromatin-mediated neuroplasticity plays a causal role in the underlying disease pathophysiology, understanding the molecular nature of epigenetic mechanisms in the nervous system may provide important new avenues for the development of novel therapeutics. In this review...

The Adaptive Neuroplasticity Hypothesis of Behavioral Maintenance

Peterson, Janey C.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Physical activity is a seemingly simple and clinically potent method to decrease morbidity and mortality in people with coronary heart disease (CHD). Nonetheless, long-term maintenance of physical activity remains a frustratingly elusive goal for patients and practitioners alike. In this paper, we posit that among older adults with CHD, recidivism after the initiation of physical activity reflects maladaptive neuroplasticity of malleable neural networks, and people will revert back to learned and habitual physical inactivity patterns, particularly in the setting of stress or depression. We hypothesize that behavioral interventions that successfully promote physical activity may also enhance adaptive neuroplasticity and play a key role in the maintenance of physical activity through the development of new neuronal pathways that enhance functional ability in older adults. Conversely, without such adaptive neuroplastic changes, ingrained maladaptive neuroplasticity will prevail and long-term maintenance of physical activity will fail. In this paper we will: (1) describe the enormous potential for neuroplasticity in older adults; (2) review stress and depression as examples of maladaptive neuroplasticity; (3) describe an example of adaptive neuroplasticity achieved with a behavioral intervention that induced positive affect in people with CHD; and (4) discuss implications for future work in bench to bedside translational research.

Promoting Neuroplasticity for Motor Rehabilitation After Stroke: Considering the Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Genetic Variation on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

Mang, Cameron S.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Ross, Colin J.D.; Boyd, Lara A.
Fonte: American Physical Therapy Association Publicador: American Physical Therapy Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Recovery of motor function after stroke involves relearning motor skills and is mediated by neuroplasticity. Recent research has focused on developing rehabilitation strategies that facilitate such neuroplasticity to maximize functional outcome poststroke. Although many molecular signaling pathways are involved, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a key facilitator of neuroplasticity involved in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Thus, rehabilitation strategies that optimize BDNF effects on neuroplasticity may be especially effective for improving motor function poststroke. Two potential poststroke rehabilitation strategies that consider the importance of BDNF are the use of aerobic exercise to enhance brain function and the incorporation of genetic information to individualize therapy. Converging evidence demonstrates that aerobic exercise increases BDNF production and consequently enhances learning and memory processes. Nevertheless, a common genetic variant reduces activity-dependent secretion of the BDNF protein. Thus, BDNF gene variation may affect response to motor rehabilitation training and potentially modulate the effects of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity. This perspective article discusses evidence that aerobic exercise promotes neuroplasticity by increasing BDNF production and considers how aerobic exercise may facilitate the acquisition and retention of motor skills for poststroke rehabilitation. Next...

Diabetes mellitus may induce cardiovascular disease by decreasing neuroplasticity

Zheng, Zhihua; Wu, Junyan; Wang, Ruolun; Zeng, Yingtong
Fonte: CIC Edizioni Internationali Publicador: CIC Edizioni Internationali
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/07/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Neuroplasticity has been defined “the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections”. The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function. Thus neuroplasticity may be associated with the pathogenesis of other diseases besides neuropsychiatric diseases. Decreased neuroplasticity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a disease related to decreased neuroplasticity may confer a greater CVD risk. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is related to CVD and DM induces decreased neuroplasticity, which is manifested as depression, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetic neuropathy. Therefore we conclude that DM may induce CVD by decreasing neuroplasticity.

Diffusion tensor and volumetric magnetic resonance imaging using an MR-compatible hand-induced robotic device suggests training-induced neuroplasticity in patients with chronic stroke

LAZARIDOU, ASIMINA; ASTRAKAS, LOUKAS; MINTZOPOULOS, DIONYSSIOS; KHANICHEH, AZADEH; SINGHAL, ANEESH B.; MOSKOWITZ, MICHAEL A.; ROSEN, BRUCE; TZIKA, ARIA A.
Fonte: D.A. Spandidos Publicador: D.A. Spandidos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.03%
Stroke is the third leading cause of mortality and a frequent cause of long-term adult impairment. Improved strategies to enhance motor function in individuals with chronic disability from stroke are thus required. Post-stroke therapy may improve rehabilitation and reduce long-term disability; however, objective methods for evaluating the specific impact of rehabilitation are rare. Brain imaging studies on patients with chronic stroke have shown evidence for reorganization of areas showing functional plasticity after a stroke. In this study, we hypothesized that brain mapping using a novel magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible hand device in conjunction with state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can serve as a novel biomarker for brain plasticity induced by rehabilitative motor training in patients with chronic stroke. This hypothesis is based on the premises that robotic devices, by stimulating brain plasticity, can assist in restoring movement compromised by stroke-induced pathological changes in the brain and that these changes can then be monitored by advanced MRI. We serially examined 15 healthy controls and 4 patients with chronic stroke. We employed a combination of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volumetric MRI using a 3-tesla (3T) MRI system using a 12-channel Siemens Tim coil and a novel MR-compatible hand-induced robotic device. DTI data revealed that the number of fibers and the average tract length significantly increased after 8 weeks of hand training by 110% and 64%...

Factors influencing the induction of neuroplastic changes in human motor cortex.

Sale, Martin V.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.54%
The human primary motor cortex (M1) undergoes structural and functional change throughout life by a process known as neuroplasticity. Techniques which artificially induce neuroplastic changes are seen as potential adjunct therapies for neurological conditions reliant on neuroplasticity for recovery of function. Unfortunately, the reported improvements in function when these techniques have been used in combination with regular rehabilitation have so far been inconsistent. One reason attributed to this is the large variability in effectiveness of these techniques in inducing neuroplastic change. This thesis has investigated factors influencing the effectiveness and reproducibility of neuroplasticity induction in human M1 using several experimental paradigms. The effectiveness and reproducibility of inducing neuroplasticity in human M1 using two variants of a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol was investigated in the first set of experiments (Chapter 2). Both protocols repeatedly paired a peripheral electrical stimulus to the median nerve of the left wrist with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered 25 ms later to the contralateral M1. Neuroplastic changes were quantified by comparing the amplitude of the muscle evoked potential (MEP) recorded in abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle by suprathreshold TMS prior to and following PAS. With both protocols...

Experimentally induced cortical plasticity: neurophysiological and functional correlates in health and disease.

Schabrun, Siobhan May
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
Neuroplasticity provides the basis for many of our most fundamental processes including learning, memory and the recovery of function following injury. This thesis is concerned with the neurophysiological and functional correlates of sensorimotor neuroplasticity in the healthy and focal dystonic populations. My initial experiments were conducted to determine the functional correlates of neuroplasticity induced in the primary motor (M1) and primary sensory (S1) cortices during a grip lift task. In healthy subjects these experiments further quantified the role of M1 in the anticipatory control of grip force scaling and demonstrated a role for S1 in triggering subsequent phases of the motor plan. My second series of experiments served to extend these findings by examining the functional correlates of neuroplasticity induced in the supplementary motor area (SMA). This study provided evidence for the role of left SMA in the control of grip force scaling and a role for left and right SMA in the synchronization of grip force and load force during the grip-lift synergy. Afferent input is known to be a powerful driver of cortical reorganisation. In particular, the timing and pattern of afferent input is thought to be crucial to the induction of plastic change. In healthy subjects...

Physiological evidence consistent with reduced neuroplasticity in human adolescents born preterm

Pitcher, J.; Riley, A.; Doeltgen, S.; Kurylowicz, L.; Rothwell, J.; McAllister, S.; Smith, A.; Clow, A.; Kennaway, D.; Ridding, M.
Fonte: Soc Neuroscience Publicador: Soc Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Preterm-born children commonly experience motor, cognitive, and learning difficulties that may be accompanied by altered brain microstructure, connectivity, and neurochemistry. However, the mechanisms linking the altered neurophysiology with the behavioral outcomes are unknown. Here we provide the first physiological evidence that human adolescents born preterm at or before 37 weeks of completed gestation have a significantly reduced capacity for cortical neuroplasticity, the key overall mechanism underlying learning and memory. We examined motor cortex neuroplasticity in three groups of adolescents who were born after gestations of ≤32 completed weeks (early preterm), 33–37 weeks (late preterm), and 38–41 weeks (term) using a noninvasive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation technique to induce long-term depression (LTD)-like neuroplasticity. Compared with term-born adolescents, both early and late preterm adolescents had reduced LTD-like neuroplasticity in response to brain stimulation that was also associated with low salivary cortisol levels. We also compared neuroplasticity in term-born adolescents with that in term-born young adults, finding that the motor cortex retains a relatively enhanced neuroplastic capacity in adolescence. These findings provide a possible mechanistic link between the altered brain physiology of preterm birth and the subsequent associated behavioral deficits...

A single bout of aerobic exercise promotes motor cortical neuroplasticity

McDonnell, M.; Buckley, J.; Opie, G.; Ridding, M.; Semmler, J.
Fonte: Amer Physiological Soc Publicador: Amer Physiological Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
Regular physical activity is associated with enhanced plasticity in the motor cortex, but the effect of a single session of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare corticospinal excitability and plasticity in the upper limb cortical representation following a single session of lower limb cycling at either low or moderate intensity, or a control condition. We recruited 25 healthy adults to take part in three experimental sessions. Cortical excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials in the right first dorsal interosseus muscle. Levels of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cortisol were assessed throughout the experiments. Following baseline testing, participants cycled on a stationary bike at a workload equivalent to 57% (low intensity, 30 min) or 77% age-predicted maximal heart rate (moderate intensity, 15 min), or a seated control condition. Neuroplasticity within the primary motor cortex was then examined using a continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) paradigm. We found that exercise did not alter cortical excitability. Following cTBS, there was a transient inhibition of first dorsal interosseus motor-evoked potentials during control and low-intensity conditions...

Approaches to optimise neuroplasticity induction in the human motor cortex.

McAllister, Suzanne Mary
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.43%
The human brain can change its connectivity with experience, and such neuroplasticity is critical for learning, memory, and recovery from brain injury. A number of non-invasive brain stimulation techniques can induce neuroplastic changes in the brain. In order to maximise the therapeutic potential of these techniques, we need to understand the factors influencing their effectiveness. This thesis investigates approaches to optimising neuroplasticity induction in the human motor cortex, focussing on a widely-used repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) paradigm, Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS). Subject responses to neuroplasticity induction methods are characterised by high inter- and intra-individual variability. One factor which may contribute to this variability is the excitability state of the targeted cortex at the time stimuli are applied. In Chapter Two, I investigate whether power in several electroencephalography (EEG) frequency bands can be used as a state-marker to predict responses to experimental (TBS) and behavioural (visuomotor training) plasticity induction. The results suggest pre-stimulation EEG power is not useful for predicting responses to plasticity induction. However, an interesting finding is a large increase in alpha (8-12 Hz) power following visuomotor training...

Chronic tension-type headache is associated with impaired motor learning

Vallence, A.M.; Smith, A.; Tabor, A.; Rolan, P.; Ridding, M.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
BACKGROUND: Supraspinal activity-dependent neuroplasticity may be important in the transition from acute to chronic pain. We examined neuroplasticity in a cortical region not considered to be a primary component of the central pain matrix in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) patients. We hypothesised that neuroplasticity would be exaggerated in CTTH patients compared to healthy controls, which might explain (in part) the development of chronic pain in these individuals. METHODS: Neuroplasticity was examined following a ballistic motor training task in CTTH patients and control subjects (CS). Changes in peak acceleration (motor learning) and motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude evoked by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation were compared. RESULTS: CTTH patients showed significantly less motor learning on the training task than CS (mean acceleration increase 87% CTTH, 204% CS, P  < .05), and CS but not CTTH patients showed a significant increased MEP amplitude following training (CS: F  = 2.9, P  < .05; CTTH: F  = 1.6, P  > .05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a deficit in use-dependent neuroplasticity within networks responsible for task performance in CTTH patients which might reflect reciprocal influences between primary motor cortex and interconnected pain processing networks. These findings may help explain the positive effects of facilitatory non-invasive brain stimulation targeting motor areas on chronic pain and help elucidate the mechanisms mediating chronic pain.; Ann-Maree Vallence...

Towards establishing long-lasting neuroplastic change in the human primary motor cortex.

Goldsworthy, Mitchell Ryan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.37%
Neuroplasticity is critical for learning, memory, and recovery of lost function following neurological insult. Whilst non-invasive brain stimulation techniques capable of inducing these neuroplastic changes within the human cortex could be therapeutically beneficial for a range of neurological and psychiatric conditions, the short duration, instability, and variability of induced effects limits their therapeutic potential. This thesis has investigated approaches to enhance the duration, stability, and consistency of the neuroplastic response to non-invasive brain stimulation protocols applied to the human primary motor cortex. The neuroplasticity-inducing paradigm employed throughout this thesis was continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) paradigm shown to suppress human motor cortical excitability. Studies in animals have shown the repeated, spaced application of stimulation protocols to prolong the duration of experimentally-induced synaptic plasticity. Therefore, Chapter 2 examined whether the spaced application of repeated cTBS protocols enhanced the lifetime of induced neuroplastic effects within the human primary motor cortex. Whilst the neuroplastic response to a single cTBS protocol was minimal...

Induktion der kortikalen Neuroplastizität durch die Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) bei Kindern mit frühkindlicher Hirnschädigung. Eine magnetenzephalographische Evaluation; Induction of cortical neuroplasticity by Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) in children with congenital neurocortical damage. A magnetoencephalographic evaluation

Ummenhofer, Frank
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.3%
In der hier vorliegenden Studie wurden zwei Studiengruppen mit Kindern, die an einer angeborenen spastischen Hemiparese der oberen Extremitäten leiden, nach einer zweiwöchigen constraint induced movement therapy (CIMT), mittels Magnetenzephalographie auf plastische neurokortikale Umbauvorgänge hin untersucht. Ziel der Arbeit war es, sowohl einen möglichen Benefit der CIMT durch taktile Stimulationen zu evaluieren, als auch die dadurch hervorgerufene Plastizität im heranreifenden jugendlichen Gehirn zu erforschen. Die CIMT-Therapie bedient sich dabei des erzwungenen Nicht-Gebrauchs der gesunden Hand durch eine Schienung, wobei die paretische obere Extremität zum Gebrauch gezwungen wird. Die Stimulation wurde an beiden oberen Extremitäten mittels pneumatisch taktiler Stimulation durchgeführt. Die zwei Untergruppen der Studienteilnehmer unterscheiden sich dabei in der Art ihrer zerebralen Läsionen, die Gruppe mit kortikaler Läsion (KL) ist somatosensorisch deutlich beeinträchtigter im Vergleich zur Gruppe der periventrikulär geschädigten Probanden (PL), deren primär somatosensorischer Kortex nahezu unbeeinträchtigt ist. Bei beiden Gruppen führte der somatosensorische Reiz an den beiden stimulierten Fingern zunächst zu einer Aktivitätszunahme der Repräsentationsfelder der entsprechenden Felder des primär somatosensorischen Systems...

Depression and treatment. Apoptosis, neuroplasticity and antidepressants.; Depressão e tratamento. Apoptose, neuroplasticidade e antidepressivos.

Arantes-Gonçalves, Filipe; Serviço de Psiquiatria e Saúde Mental. Hospital de São João.; Coelho, Rui
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2006 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
Depression's neurobiology begins to be better understood. The last decade data considers neuroplasticity and stress as implicated factors on the pathophisiology of depression. Because antidepressants have a lag-time on their action it is possible that inhibition of neurotransmitters recaptation is not sufficient to explain long term changes. For that purpose, neurogenesis increase, nervous fibers sprouting, new synapses and stabilization of the old ones can be responsible for those changes. AMPc-MAPcinases-CREB-BDNF cellular cascade can play a significant role in the mechanisms of dendritic restructuration, hippocampal neurogenesis increase and nervous cells survival. The aim of this article is to discuss if apoptosis could play a key role as an ethiopathogenic factor on the patogenesis of depression. It was done a medline search for references with apoptosis, stress, neuroplasticity, depression and antidepressants key-words. It were found 101 original or review references about these subjects. Stress plays a key role in the etiopathogeny of depression. Its deletery effects on apoptosis and neuroplasticity can be changed by antidepressants. Neurogenesis' increase is necessary for their action. This increase is reached with chronic antidepressant treatment and not with other psychotropic drugs which means some pharmacological specificity of antidepressants. AMPc...

Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications

Cramer, Steven C.; Sur, Mriganka; Dobkin, Bruce H.; O'Brien, Charles; Sanger, Terence D.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Rumsey, Judith M.; Hicks, Ramona; Cameron, Judy; Chen, Daofen; Chen, Wen G.; Cohen, Leonardo G.; deCharms, Christopher; Duffy, Charles J.; Eden
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.48%
Neuroplasticity can be defined as the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections. Major advances in the understanding of neuroplasticity have to date yielded few established interventions. To advance the translation of neuroplasticity research towards clinical applications, the National Institutes of Health Blueprint for Neuroscience Research sponsored a workshop in 2009. Basic and clinical researchers in disciplines from central nervous system injury/stroke, mental/addictive disorders, paediatric/developmental disorders and neurodegeneration/ageing identified cardinal examples of neuroplasticity, underlying mechanisms, therapeutic implications and common denominators. Promising therapies that may enhance training-induced cognitive and motor learning, such as brain stimulation and neuropharmacological interventions, were identified, along with questions of how best to use this body of information to reduce human disability. Improved understanding of adaptive mechanisms at every level, from molecules to synapses, to networks, to behaviour, can be gained from iterative collaborations between basic and clinical researchers. Lessons can be gleaned from studying fields related to plasticity...

The pharmacology of neuroplasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation: building models for the clinical use of CNS active drugs

Nitsche, Michael A; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Paulus, Walter; Ziemann, Ulf
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.43%
The term neuroplasticity encompasses structural and functional modifications of neuronal connectivity. Abnormal neuroplasticity is involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases, such as dystonia, epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal degeneration, schizophrenia, and post cerebral stroke. Drugs affecting neuroplasticity are increasingly used as therapeutics in these conditions. Neuroplasticity was first discovered and explored in animal experimentation. However, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has enabled researchers recently to induce and study similar processes in the intact human brain. Plasticity induced by NIBS can be modulated by pharmacological interventions, targeting ion channels, or neurotransmitters. Importantly, abnormalities of plasticity as studied by NIBS are directly related to clinical symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases. Therefore, a core theme of this review is the hypothesis that NIBS-induced plasticity can explore and potentially predict the therapeutic efficacy of CNS-acting drugs in neuropsychiatric diseases. We will (a) review the basics of neuroplasticity, as explored in animal experimentation, and relate these to our knowledge about neuroplasticity induced in humans by NIBS techniques. We will then (b) discuss pharmacological modulation of plasticity in animals and humans. Finally...

Neuroplasticidade na reabilitação de pacientes acometidos por AVC espástico; Neuroplasticity in the rehabilitation of patients affected by spastic spoke

Zilli, Francielly; Lima, Cristine Budal Arins de; Kohler, Maria Cecilia
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.19%
O Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) é uma das principais causas de incapacidades no mundo, tendo como um dos principais prejuízos a sequela de espasticidade. A partir do potencial de neuroplasticidade cerebral, a reabilitação desenvolve técnicas como a Terapia de Restrição e Indução do Movimento, que visa a melhora o desempenho motor. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os resultados benéfi cos de estudos baseados no princípio da neuroplasticidade como mecanismo de reabilitação em pacientes com AVC espástico. O estudo constituiu-se através de revisão de literatura impressa e digital com publicações nacionais e internacionais, a qual foi consultada em bases como SciELO, portal de periódicos da Capes, PubMed e em acervos da biblioteca dainstituição de ensino. Foram utilizadas as palavras chaves Acidente Vascular Cerebral; Espasticidade; Neuroplasticidade e a busca visou publicações entre 2000 e 2013. Dos 38 artigos pesquisados apenas 4 contemplaram o objetivo do trabalho, e apresentaram resultados positivos sobre a utilização da Terapia de Restrição e Indução do Movimentos que promove a reorganização cortical.; Stroke (CVA) is one of the leading causes of disability in the world, having as one of the major losses to rehab the sequel of spasticity. From the known potential of neuroplasticity...