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Deficit democrático na União Européia; Democratic déficit in the European Union

Carvalho, Daniel Campos de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/03/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.57%
A presente pesquisa tem por pano de fundo o debate sobre a legitimidade do processo de integração da Europa, iniciado na década de 1950. Uma das principais expressões desta seara corresponde ao contemporâneo tema das assimetrias entre as expectativas das populações nacionais sobre a condução do processo de integração e o procedimento decisório verificado na praxis comunitária. O variado rol de limitações à ação participativa dos cidadãos no cerne deliberativo da União Europeia é reunido doutrinariamente sob a alcunha de déficit democrático. Mote frequente das análises de Filosofia Política e assunto recorrente dos estudiosos de Relações Internacionais, a existência de um déficit democrático na principal iniciativa de integração regional da Europa encontra escassos trabalhos sedimentados em uma abordagem jurídica. Deste modo, o principal escopo deste estudo é aclarar de que forma o Direito contribuiu para o advento do déficit democrático europeu e como são articuladas, pela via jurídica, as tentativas atuais de combate a este fenômeno. Para tanto, há de se demarcar o referencial teórico utilizado pela pesquisa, essencialmente no tocante a) à possibilidade de se aproximar regionalismo e democracia; b) à influência das teorias da integração no tema de estudo e c) à versão do conceito de democracia eleita no trabalho. Ademais...

The European Union after 9/11: the demise of a liberal democratic asylum regime?

Levy, Carl
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 214539 bytes; 353 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
EN_AU
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Introduction:.....This paper will illustrate in a most relevant and painful way the paradoxes of European liberal democracy. The argument is approached by firstly examining the extent to which the rise of the Far or Populist Right has pressurised the European Union into becoming more intolerant, and then it proceeds to examine to what extent the threat of terrorism has undermined the liberal democratic consensus (outlined above). The argument is therefore pitched at two levels: the effects of domestic politics on the national policies of Member States and the inputs of Member States on the joint policies of the European Union. Elsewhere I have used this argument as an illustrative case study in the wider debate about the nature of multi-level governance in the European Union and the associated debate about the extent to which the European Union had taken on the attributes of a sovereign nation-state. Here I can only declare my interest, but of course this interest does shape the way I will pitch my argument.; no

Europäisches Verwalten aus der Bürgerperspektive gedacht - Eine Untersuchung der Internalisierung von Good Administration-Normen auf europäischer Ebene unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Rolle der europäischen Ombudsman-Institution; European Administration from a Citizens’ Perspective - The Internalisation of Good Administration-Norms on EU-Level with special Attention to the Role of the European Ombudsman

Silbernagl, Carolin
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Masterarbeit
DE_DE
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Seit Mitte der 1990er Jahre, im Zuge der weltweiten Diskussion um eine Ausrichtung bürokratischer Verfahren am Ideal des Public Service, lässt sich auch auf europäischer Ebene eine Tendenz verfolgen, die dem Bürger im Verwaltungsprozess eine gewichtigere Position einräumt. Die vorliegende Magisterarbeit untersucht in diesem Kontext die Rolle des Europäischen Bürgerbeauftragten (auch: Ombudsman, im folgenden EB) bei der Entwicklung von Good Administration-Normen auf EU-Ebene in den Jahren 1995 bis 2003. Die Institution des EB wurde mit dem Vertrag von Maastricht als Element der Unionsbürgerschaft institutionalisiert und während der ersten beiden Amtsperioden durch den Finnen Jacob Söderman verkörpert. Sie stellt eine außergerichtliche Beschwerdeinstanz für EU-Bürger dar, untersucht Streitfälle mit allen EU-Institutionen, die in direktem Kontakt zu den Bürgern stehen und vertritt so dessen Interessen im europäischen Verwaltungssystem. Mit weitreichenden Untersuchungskompetenzen ausgestattet, ist der EB in der Lage, wiederholt auftretenden Missständen nachzugehen und die Verwaltungsverfahren der EU in zentralen Punkten wie Transparenz, Gleichbehandlung und Rechtschaffenheit fortzuentwickeln. Somit wirkt er zweifach: Er schlichtet Konfliktfälle und entwickelt Normen für das Verwaltungssystem als Ganzes. Die Ombudsman-Institution hat schwedische Wurzeln und existiert heute in ca. 110 Staaten der Welt. Für die junge supranationale EU-Verwaltung stellte ihre Einrichtung eine Innovation dar...

Mandating identity : citizenship, kinship laws and plural nationality in the European Union

HORVATH, Eniko
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.54%
For over a century it has been the case that a person exists, at least for legal purposes, only after she has been recognized by the state. As a unique element of this acknowledgement, nationality has also been an essential component of individual identity. Now, under pressure from a variety of directions, the nature of the link between state and individual is changing, with as yet unclear implications and long-term effects. In this original and insightful analysis, Enikő Horváth focuses on three processes of legal evolution in Europe that affect the meaning of membership and individual identity: the increasing salience of supranational ‘culture’ and rights; ‘kinship’ legislation privileging non-nationals with linguistic, cultural, and ethnic ties to a given state; and the emergence of plural nationality as an acceptable (and even welcome) phenomenon. The author’s treatment is notable for its informed appreciation of both the content of relevant European and national laws and the ways in which these laws are embedded in particular social and political frameworks. In addition to extending the legal theory on citizenship and nationality, the analysis draws on sociology, social psychology, and political theory to anchor its insights and recommendations. After two in-depth chapters introducing the complexities of the subject matter...

A Door into the Dark; Doing Justice to History in the Courts of the European Union

LYONS, Carole
Fonte: European University Institute Publicador: European University Institute
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The European Court of Justice in Luxembourg has been issuing judgments since 1954. It is beyond doubt that this body has, in these judgments, influenced the nature of European integration, indeed the nature of Europe itself, in a far reaching manner. Over the years, this Court has been called upon many times to judge in cases and claims originating in wartime Europe. The first of these occurred in 1975 and there are still, in 2008, several cases rooted in the Second World War awaiting judgment. In other words, the legacy of what happened in Europe between 1933 and 1945 is very much a live, if not very well known, issue before the judges of the European Union. This paper examines how the European Court of Justice responds to wartime based claims and how its jurisprudence deals with the history of the Member States of the EU. It is, in other words a specific analysis of the Vergangenheitsbewältigung (the management of the past) by one institution of the Union. This analysis is framed within an appreciation of the difficulties inherent in confronting memories within the European Union. The Court of the Union is no different in this respect and it emerges as closed and restrained when faced with wartime narratives. This struggle to judicially handle its own history...

Adjusting to Europe: The Impact of the European Union on National Institutions and Policies

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.61%
Adjusting to Europe provides lively coverage of the impact of Europe on national policies. With contributions from some of the leading writers on European politics and public policy--including Philippe Schmitter, Stanford University; Jeremy Richardson, University of Essex; Helen Wallace, University of Sussex; and Giandomenico Majone, European University Institute, Florence--the volume delivers an exciting analysis of the policy-making process. The notion of the European Union is paradoxical: its regulatory powers are immense but its redistributive functions are negligible; its decisions penetrate all aspects of economic and social life, yet Brussels has no local administration or tribunals and no controllers capable of guaranteeing the correct and faithful implementation of the regulations. Exploring the means through which this paradox is confronted, Adjusting to Europe examines the nature of policy-making at Community level and discusses the implications of the specific nature of European institutions for bargaining group mobilization and policy style. It then studies how the three major nation states have adjusted their policy processes and institutions to the European challenges. Finally, it considers the impact of community decisions in three areas: industrial...

Power and Gestalt of political concepts: A study of the emergence, nature and self-understanding of the Europe Union Polity

BALLI, Volker
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This thesis proposes a new way of addressing two central questions in the study of the European Union: What is the nature of the European Union as a political entity and how does it emerge? The point of departure is the, by now widely accepted, conceptualisation of the EU as a polity and the extensive discussions, not least in normative and prescriptive terms, that this process implied. Judging that many of the debates have reached dead-ends, the thesis proposes a novel way of conceptualising the concept ‘polity’ in its application to the European Union. It argues that the European Union polity should be understood as a configuration of agreements to collectively address common problems. The thesis then offers an analysis of three such fields of agreed upon common activities over the period 1992 to 2005 which are constitutive of the European Union polity and construct its boundedness: ‘Enlargement to the East’; ‘Immigration policy’; and ‘Europe as an actor in the world.’ Under scrutiny includes: the context in which these policies emerged; the normative ideas through which the problems at stake were identified; and the agreed-upon mechanisms for addressing common problems. To understand the emergence and nature of these common activities...

A paradigm for coherence in EU external relations law : the European neighbourhood policy

VAN VOOREN, Bart
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.54%
Coherence is a powerful rhetorical device that is prevalent throughout decades of EU external relations discourse and practice. There is intuitiveness to coherence, an implied sense of ‘good fit’ between the different elements of an all-encompassing system. Yet, any attempt to concretize coherence will open up a plethora of context-specific legal and political questions. The European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) is a recent example of an external policy drawn up explicitly with the objective of achieving coherence across different EU and Member State external policies. Positioning the ENP in the legalhistorical context of political Union, this thesis first argues why coherence is an issue at all in EU external relations, and why law is integral to attaining the ever-enigmatic single voice of the European Union. Subsequently, the text examines the role of EU external relations law in attaining a coherent neighbourhood policy. It is argued that the innovative nature of the ENP for coherence lies beyond the narrowly defined legal sphere, but stems mostly from its hybrid composition of hard legal, soft legal and nonlegal policy instruments. It is concluded that from a purely EU-internal and institutional perspective, this approach was reasonably successful in involving different actors towards common objectives in the neighbourhood. However...

Report of the 17th plenary workshop of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Contact Materials and its Network of National Reference Laboratories : 2012 mid-year progress review and establishment of work programme 2013 Dublin, 26-27 June 2012

SIMONEAU Catherine
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
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Delegates of 25 National Reference Laboratories (NRLs), and Bastiaan Schupp from the Directorate General for Health and Consumers (DG SANCO) gathered in Dublin for the plenary workshop of June 2012 hosted by the Food Standard Agency of Ireland. The plenary was chaired by C. Simoneau, operating manager of the EURL-FCM. The meeting included a review of the work completed and the mid-year progress, as well as the planning and establishment of the work programme 2013. In the first half of the year of the WP 2012, two interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) were completed. The first ILC was the validation of a method of a dry material (Tenax) that officially simulates all dry foods presented by Natalia Jakubowska (EURL-FCM). The exercise included 20 matrix-measurands combinations. The other completed work item was presented by Georgia Beldi (EURL-FCM) and consisted of the proficiency testing (PT) of plastics kitchen utensils for the release of formaldehyde and melamine. The work programme for 2013 was established and will include developments on testing for ceramics in support to the revisions currently discussed for the Directive on ceramics. It will also include 1) a follow up to the validation of method for Tenax consisting of a proficiency testing on unknowns...

Report of an interlaboratory comparison from the European Reference Laboratory for Food Contact : ILC002 2013 - Identification of polymeric materials

PELTZER MERCEDES ANA; SIMONEAU Catherine
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
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Interlaboratory comparisons (ILCs) are an important element of laboratory quality assurance which allows individual laboratories to compare their analytical results with those from other laboratories while providing them objective standards to perform against. One of the core duties of the European Reference Laboratories is to organise such ILCs, as stipulated in Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council [1]. In accordance with the above requirements the European Reference Laboratory for Food Contact Material (EURL-FCM) organised in 2013 a number of ILCs for its network of appointed National Reference Laboratories (NRLs).The scopes of the 2013 ILCs were agreed in a plenary meeting of June 2012 which established the work programme of the agreed exercises for the year 2013. The ILC 002 2013 was directed towards evaluation of the laboratory performance on the identification of polymeric materials with unknown nature. This report present the work and results obtained in this exercise which targeted 12 monolayer materials. The results of the identification of such materials were fully satisfactory. In addition a scoping exercise was conducted on multilayer foils, which highlighted needs for guidance for the separation and identification of layers within multilayer materials.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing

Annual Activity Report 2013: European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Contact Materials

SIMONEAU Catherine
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
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95.48%
The work programme 2013 for the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Contact Materials was established during the June 2012 Plenary meeting in consensus with the Network of NRLs and DG SANCO. It included developments on testing for ceramics in support to the revisions currently discussed for the Directive on ceramics. It also included 1) a first-time proficiency testing (PT) as next phase to the 2012 validation of a method for the new simulant for dry foodstuffs 2) a first-time PT on fingerprinting as identification of the nature of plastics FCM materials, 3) a follow up on the PT 2012 on measurement of formaldehyde from imports melaware, 4) an exercise on calculation of surface areas in contact for kitchen utensils using different methods and 5) a workshop and evaluation of supporting documents for the establishment of compliance. It also initiated exploratory work on testing of kitchen paper and napkins as a non-regulated issue for primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and on strategies to develop multianalyte methods. In addition continuing work items included the development of a databank for substances regulated under the Regulation 10/2011 for plastics as well as the development of an inventory of methods of analysis.; JRC.I.1-Chemical Assessment and Testing

Regional Human Poverty Index - poverty in the regions of the European Union

WEZIAK-BIALOWOLSKA DOROTA MARIA; DIJKSTRA Lewis
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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We measure area-specific poverty in the European Union (EU) at the second level of the nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS 2). We construct the regional human poverty index (RHPI), which comprises four dimensions: social exclusion, knowledge, a decent standard of living, and a long and healthy life. The RHPI provides information regarding the relative standing of a given country with respect to the level of poverty but also shows the variability of poverty within a country with respect to NUTS 2. The approach we propose has four properties. (1) Because the RHPI comprises only six indicators it is relatively simple to be replicated in subsequent years. (2) The RHPI provides information about the absolute magnitude of poverty experienced by Europeans in a given country and provides information about the relative standing of the country. (3) The RHPI shows the variability of poverty within a country with respect to NUTS 2. (4) The RHPI shows satisfactory statistical coherence confirmed by the results of correlation analysis and principal component analysis. As confirmed by uncertainty analysis, the RHPI also shows satisfactory robustness to the normative assumptions made during the construction process. The RHPI also has some limitations. First...

La reorientación estatalista del proceso de integración europea

Alcoceba Gallego, María Amparo
Fonte: Universidad del Norte (Colombia) Publicador: Universidad del Norte (Colombia)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream; application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2008 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.62%
El proceso europeo de integración es tradicionalmente utilizado como modelo que se debe seguir muy particularmente en Latinoamérica. Sin embargo, este modelo adolece de ciertas deficiencias y, en especial en los últimos años, de una deriva estatalista que le alejan del tradicional modelo europeo de integración y amenazan la consecución de los objetivos tal como fueron establecidos inicialmente. En este sentido, la reorientación estatalista del proceso de integración permite preguntarse sobre la posibilidad de que la Unión Europea esté abandonando el modelo preexistente hasta el punto de alterar su propia naturaleza como modelo de integración tendiente a la consecución de una Unión cada vez más estrecha entre los pueblos de Europa. En este artículo se estudia la deriva estatalista del proceso europeo, situando su inicio en 1992 con el Tratado de Maastricht, y se plantea la posible alteración de su naturaleza._______________________________________________________; The European integration is traditionally used as a model by Latin American States in their integration process. Nevertheless, in the last twenty years, the European model has taken a new direction in order to give States more power. The current trend is far from the original model of integration and it is possible the European Union is rethinking the approach of an ever closer union between the member States. The following text analyses this new direction...

Indicators of biodiversity in agroecosystems: insights from Article 17 of the Habitat Directive and IUCN Red List of Threatened Species

MASANTE DARIO; REGA CARLO; COTTAM ANDREW; DUBOIS Gregoire; PARACCHINI Maria-Luisa
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.45%
In the current decade, the main goals for biodiversity conservation and environmental protection at the level of the European Union are set in the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020: halting biodiversity loss and restoring ecosystem services. A key requirement for the implementation of the Strategy in terms of targeting measures and funds, and monitoring trends is the construction of a biodiversity knowledge base, including spatially explicit information on biodiversity distribution and ecosystem condition. The work presented in this report is based on the analysis of two primary datasets on biodiversity and habitat status. The first one is the Habitats assessment carried out by EU Members States under Art.17 of the Habitats and Birds Directive. Information reported by Member States is analysed to derive the links between pressures and conservation status, showing that agriculture-related habitats have, on average, a worse conservation status when compared to other habitats. Consequently, threats and pressures having most influenced the status of the agricultural-related habitats can be identified. The second one is the global dataset on species threat status elaborated by The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Spatially explicit representations of species distribution...

Building Borders: The regulatory framework for the management of the external borders of the European Union

RIJPMA, Jorrit J.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.55%
Defense date: 23/11/2009; Examining board: Marise Cremona (EUI, Supervisor), Bruno de Witte (EUI), Jörg Monar (College of Europe), Steve Peers (University of Essex); This thesis, starting from the premise that territorial borders retain their importance in public international law, examines in detail the EU's regulatory framework for the management of its external borders. It will argue that there are in fact two sets of external borders: those of the area in which the rules on the free movement of persons apply, and those of the Schengen area. The border crossing rights under the two corresponding sets of rules will be examined in detail. The focus will then shift to the broader Schengen rules for the management of the external borders. The thesis will discuss the rationale of the EU's interest in borders, the legislative acquis adopted, and the relation between legislation and executive action. An elaborate discussion on the organisation and functioning of the "European Border Agency" (Frontex) serves to illustrate the importance of operational cooperation in this area. A final chapter will look at the external dimension of this policy field. A distinction is made between the relations with third countries for the purpose of managing the external borders and the exportation of Community standards. Also in the external sphere...

Le principe de primauté du droit de l'Union Européenne : contribution à l'étude de la nature juridique de l'Union Européenne et des rapports de système européens

CAUNES, Karine
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.61%
Defense date: 15/06/2009; Examining Board: Loïc Azoulay (Université de Paris II), Bruno De Witte (EUI), Michel Troper (External Co-Supervisor, Université de Paris X-Nanterre), Neil Walker (Supervisor, EUI); The definition of the European Union (EU) from a positivist standpoint depends on the definition of its relationship with the Member States. This definition in turn depends on the way the conflicting interpretations of the principle of primacy of EU law by European and national courts are reconciled. Based on an analysis of European and national case-law, three different positions exist on the matter. According to the European Court of Justice, which has adopted a monist approach with primacy of EU law, the principle of primacy of EU law is absolute, which is reflected in terms of validity in the subordination of Member States to the European Union, which is thus a European state or a monist internal legal system, characterized by its single ground of validity. According to the national courts of Member States, which have adopted a monist approach with primacy of national law, the principle of primacy of EU law is relative only, and the validity of EU norms in the national arena is defined by higher national norms. Whatever the definition of EU law...

The Enlargement of the European Union

Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.57%
This collection of essays reflects on the fifth enlargement of the European Union, projected to take place in 2004. It examines the process of enlargement, its impact both on the candidate States and on the institutions and policies of the European Union. In so doing, it discusses these issues from a variety of perspectives - legal, economic, and political - reflecting the different dimensions of the enlargement. This enlargement will be unlike any other, not only in terms of its scale, and the unprecedented nature of the lengthy and complex pre-accession process, but also in its wider implications for the future direction of the European Union itself and for the whole of Europe. The contributions thus focus not only on the adjustments having to be made by the candidate States and the EU’s institutions, but also on enlargement as an interaction between the candidate States and the European Union, and between the EU and the wider world community. Policies which have developed and matured during this enlargement, such as conditionality, also have effects on regions and States which are outside the current enlargement process, such as the Balkans. A greatly enlarged EU also has implications for the EU’s trading partners and for its role within the WTO. Different chapters deal with the pre-accession process...

Les défis de la politique européenne de défense

Ribet, Roseline
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation Formato: 21967491 bytes; application/pdf
FR
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Les États européens n'ont, jusque dans les années 90, envisagé leur défense que dans le cadre d'alliances militaires et restaient maîtres de leur défense nationale. La mise en place d'une politique européenne de défense a toujours connu des obstacles, reflets des problèmes de souveraineté. Dans l'Union européenne, l'intégration politique, et en particulier celle de la défense, reste le domaine le plus incertain. Cette thèse de nature essentiellement empirico-descriptive aborde le thème de la défense européenne sous une approche réaliste, en plaçant les États au centre de la construction européenne et en en faisant les acteurs principaux. Depuis 1992, les États tentent de définir une politique européenne de défense mais rencontrent différentes difficultés. En effet, la politique européenne de défense souffre d'un double déficit. Le premier est un déficit institutionnel puisque la P.E.D. est loin d'être une politique commune et se limite à un mécanisme de coopération. Le second est un déficit matériel puisque l'Union européenne n'a pas la puissance militaire pour mettre en oeuvre une éventuelle décision commune. Afin d'évaluer les perspectives d'évolution d'une politique européenne de défense...

Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union and Social-Labor Declaration of Mercosul: origins, judicial nature and applicability; Carta dos Direitos Fundamentais da União Europeia e Declaração Sociolaboral do Mercosul: origem, natureza jurídica e aplicabilidade

Silva, Walküre Lopes Ribeiro da
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Direito
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/12/2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
105.53%
Este artigo analisa, comparativamente, a Carta dos Direitos Fundamentais da União Europeia e a Declaração Sociolaboral do Mercosul, quanto à origem, natureza jurídica e aplicabilidade.; This article analyses comparatively the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the Social-labor Declaration of Mercosul, concerning their origins, juridical nature and applicability.

Legitimate to whom? Comparing national perspectives on the legitimacy of the European Union.

Richter, Fabian Felix
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.51%
The thesis compares national perspectives on the legitimacy of the European Union. It develops a definition of legitimacy as a dual concept. Formal legitimacy describes the constitutional nature of a political system, whereas felt legitimacy is defined as the aggregate citizen beliefs about the legitimacy of their political system. Legitimacy is important for the EU because it is a necessary condition for its efficacy and long-term stability. The EU's need for legitimacy also increases in proportion to the degree of integration. The legitimacy of the EU is unusual in that it varies among the member state from whose perspective it is evaluated. That is because the EU's legitimacy is contingent on the constitutional structure and national identity of its member states. An empirical analysis of the legitimacy of the EU from the perspective of Britain and Germany reveals that the EU suffers from a legitimacy deficit relative to the British and German political systems. The nature and severity of the deficit depend on country-specific factors, but the single most significant cause from both countries' perspective is the lack of a European identity. Europeans do not regard themselves as one political community, and they feel limited attachment or trust towards each other. This diagnosis implies that the legitimacy deficit can only be remedied either by creating a European identity or by reducing the need for its creation. The legitimising potential of these two strategies differs between Britain and Germany...