Página 1 dos resultados de 11851 itens digitais encontrados em 0.033 segundos

Receitas públicas de recursos naturais no direito financeiro brasileiro; Natural resources revenues in Brazilian public finance law

Rubinstein, Flávio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/11/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
A presente tese de doutorado analisa, de forma crítica, como as receitas de recursos naturais devem ser arrecadadas, distribuídas aos entes federativos e aplicadas no Direito Financeiro Brasileiro. Para tanto, parte-se do exame dos contornos econômicos e políticos da exploração de recursos naturais, apresentando breve histórico sobre a cobrança de royalties no estrangeiro, da evolução da legislação brasileira sobre as compensações financeiras, discutindo então a natureza jurídica destas receitas públicas no direito pátrio. Com base nessas premissas, apresentam-se considerações gerais sobre a concentração geográfica de recursos naturais e o dilema da repartição de receitas provenientes da exploração destes recursos nas federações, procedendo-se então ao estudo do modelo de repartição federativa de receitas de compensações financeiras adotado pelo Brasil. Reconhecendo-se a constante evolução deste modelo e apontando-se suas virtudes e seus defeitos, desenvolve-se uma avaliação de proposições normativas de mudanças dos critérios atualmente adotados, especialmente no que diz respeito à equalização fiscal enquanto elemento de promoção de desenvolvimento subnacional e redução das desigualdades inter-regionais e intrarregionais...

Natural Resources Governance : Way Forward Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
A 2003 World Bank study, "Governance of Natural Resources in the Philippines," analyzed natural resources management and governance in the Philippines. It assessed sector policies, particularly property rights, institutions, and financing mechanisms as well as program implementation. The study concluded that implementation failures in the Department arose from: (a) Unclear institutional mandates between national and local governments; (b) Lack of sustained financing at the national level and limited generation of revenues at the local level for natural resources management; (c) Protracted procedures in the issuance of forestry tenure instruments and difficulties in the enforcement of provisions of agreements; (d) Lack of equivalent tenure instruments for coastal waters and resources; (e) Administrative constraints, such as inadequate funds and personnel to carry out sustainable natural resources management; and, (f) Insufficient capacity, accountability and transparency in public and private institutions responsible for natural resources management. Because the Governance study stopped short of proposing a way forward, this follow-on activity was designed to develop an actionable follow-on plan that could be translated into short-term to medium-term investments. This follow-on study had the following specific objectives: (a) A Policy Review of the various legislations...

The Relative Richness of the Poor? Natural Resources, Human Capital and Economic Growth

Bravo-Ortega, Claudio; de Gregorio, José
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
Are natural resources a blessing or a curse? The authors present a model in which natural resources have a positive effect on the level of income and a negative effect on its growth rate. The positive and permanent effect on income implies a welfare gain. There is a growth effect stemming from a composition effect. However, the authors show that this effect can be offset by having a large level of human capital. They test their model using panel data for the period 1970-90. They extend the usual specifications for economic growth regressions by incorporating an interaction term between human capital and natural resources, showing that high levels of human capital may outweigh the negative effects of the natural resource abundance on growth. The authors also review the historical experience of Scandinavian countries, which in contrast to Latin America, another region well-endowed with natural resources, shows how it is possible to grow fast based on natural resources.

Niger : The Natural Resources Management Project

Mohan, P. C.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The Natural Resources Management Project (1996-2002), was intended to provide assistance to the Government of Niger to (a) assist rural communities in designing and implementing community-based land management plans by providing them with the necessary know-how, information, technical and financial resources, and proper institutional and legal framework for implementation; and (b) assist the Borrower in building capacity to promote, assist and coordinate various natural resources management initiatives within the framework of a long term national program. Project design capitalized on experience gained in Niger and the sub-region by the Bank and other donors (multilateral and bilateral) in community-based operations and natural resources management. During the first phase (1996-1999), efforts focused on capacity building at both Institutional and community level, and by January 2000, when the MTR was implemented, the 95 communities originally targeted for implementation had drafted their community development plans including CBNRM (Community-Based Natural Resources Management). An episode of acute food crisis in 1998 resulted in these plans focusing initially on food security and the establishment of community cereal banks. At the Mid term Review (January 2000)...

Natural Resources and Violent Conflict : Options and Actions

Bannon, Ian; Collier, Paul
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Recent research undertaken by the Bank and others, suggest that developing countries face substantially higher risks of violent conflict, and poor governance if highly dependent on primary commodities. Revenues from the legal, or illegal exploitation of natural resources have financed devastating conflicts in large numbers of countries across regions. When a conflict erupts, it not only sweeps away decades of painstaking development efforts, but creates costs and consequences-economic, social, political, regional-that live on for decades. The outbreak of violent domestic conflict amounts to a spectacular failure of development-in essence, development in reverse. Even where countries initially manage to avoid violent conflict, large rents from natural resources can weaken state structures, and make governments less accountable, often leading to the emergence of secessionist rebellions, and all-out civil war. Although natural resources are never the sole source of conflict, and do not make conflict inevitable...

Revenue Sharing of Natural Resources in Africa : Reflections from a Review of International Practices

Brosio, Giorgio; Singh, Raju Jan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
The African continent is one of the world richest regions in oil, gas and minerals. Proven reserves have expanded and prospects improved recently making the continent an important player on the world stage. The share of natural resources in GDP is increasing rapidly. Exports of minerals and hydrocarbons account for more than a quarter of total exports in half of the sub-Saharan economies and the share of natural resources revenue (NRR) on total government revenue is expected to become dominant for an increasing number of countries. Wealth of natural resources offers opportunities but it also brings in challenges. Natural resources have generally been linked to a series of negative outcomes like economic decline, corruption and autocratic rule (McNeish, 2010). Oil and minerals reserves are often point source natural resources, being usually very spatially concentrated. Their discovery becomes almost inevitably a potential source of conflict between the governments, the people of the producing areas and those of the rest of the country (Fearon and Laitin...

Indonesia Sustainable Natural Resources Management through PNPM Green Investments

Rambe, Vivianti; Johnsen, Steffen
Fonte: World Bank, Jakarta Publicador: World Bank, Jakarta
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The PNPM Green program has been implemented for four years. The studies reported in summary here were undertaken to identify the benefits of the program, and to examine to what extent the program meets its objective to make the utilization of natural resources by rural communities sustainable. PNPM Green aims to improve environmental and natural resources management (NRM) and associated governance, while increasing household incomes in poor communities, and empowering local groups who prepare and execute the sub-projects and activities. To assess the effects and outcomes of PNPM Green in targeting these objectives, the Economic and Livelihoods Study applied the concepts of financial, natural, human, and social assets, as well as influence and access . The Micro-Hydropower Return on Investment (MHP ROI) Study analyzed Micro-Hydropower (MHP) schemes using a business assessment methodology. This was expanded by incorporating non-tangible and social benefits of MHP schemes. The Spillover Effect Study measured the extent of benefits in non-participating communities. These studies indicate that participation of beneficiaries in PNPM Green sub-projects and activities is likely to be higher if the sub-project: (a) conforms to the priority needs of participants livelihoods; (b) provides immediate benefits to the community; (c) directly increases household incomes in participating communities; (d) is supported by local values...

Potential Sand and Gravel Resources of the Canton 30 x 60-Minute Quadrangle, Ohio

Pavey, Richard R.; Aden, Douglas J.; Larsen, Glenn E.; Angle, Michael P.; Wolfe, Mark E.
Fonte: Ohio Department of Natural Resources Publicador: Ohio Department of Natural Resources
Tipo: Map
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR), Division of Geological Survey has completed a reconnaissance map showing areas of mineable sand and gravel resources in the Canton, Ohio, 30 x 60-minute 1:100,000-scale quadrangle. The main purpose of this map was to create a reconnaissance-level map that would show the potential for mining sand-and-gravel in this quadrangle. The map shows areas of surficial materials in increments of 10 feet and then differentiates sand, sand and gravel, and ice-contact deposits from finer grained materials, such as glacial till, lacustrine clay and silt, and alluvial materials. The sand and sand-and-gravel units include both surficial and buried outwash and valley train deposits and ice-contact deposits, such as kames, kame terraces, and eskers. This map was created to show the total thickness or accumulation of sand and gravel in the Canton 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. The thickness of sand-and-gravel deposits helps determine if it is economically viable.; United States Geological Survey: National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, Great Lakes Geologic Mapping Coalition

Potential Sand and Gravel Resources of the Mansfield 30 x 60 minute quadrangle

Venteris, Eric R.; Shrake, Douglas L.; Larsen, Glenn E.; Pavey, Richard R.; Schumacher, Gregory A.
Fonte: Ohio Department of Natural Resources; Division of Geological Survey Publicador: Ohio Department of Natural Resources; Division of Geological Survey
Tipo: Map
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
The Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR), Division of Geological Survey has completed a reconnaissance map showing areas of mineable sand and gravel resources in the Mansfield, Ohio, 30 x 60 minute (scale 1:100,000) quadrangle. The main purpose of this map was to create a reconnaissance-level map that would show the potential for mining sand and gravel in this quadrangle. The map shows areas of surficial materials in increments of 10 feet and then differentiates sand, sand and gravel, and ice-contact deposits from finer grained materials, such as glacial till, lacustrine clay and silt, and alluvial materials. The sand and sand-and-gravel units include both surficial and buried outwash and valley train deposits and ice-contact deposits, such as kames, kame terraces, and eskers. To determine if a sand-and-gravel deposit was economically viable, this map shows the total thickness or accumulation of sand and gravel in the Mansfield 30 x 60-minute quadrangle.; United States Geological Survey: National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, Great Lakes Geologic Mapping Coalition

Lao People's Democratic Republic - Investment and Access to Land and Natural Resources : Challenges in Promoting Sustainable Development, A Think Piece (A Basis for Dialogue)

Lao PDR Ministry of Planning and Investment; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Public Sector Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
The aim of this discussion paper is to ascertain the government of Lao's (GoL) current practices in negotiating, awarding, and managing land concessions; enhance GoL understanding and commitments to develop national capacities targeting improved land management, that will generate revenues for GoL, and ensure sustainable development as an urgent priority; and provide a basis for dialogue within the government to enable its determination of priorities to better address land development issues in Laos, to enable the achievement of sustainable, responsible economic development. The paper also examines key issues revolving around the sustainable utilization of land, and the mechanisms, through an examination of GoL s policy statements. The findings are provided, and the report advises that GoL pay special attention to four major points: the availability of adequate and accurate information on which to make decisions on concessions; adequate capacity within GoL agencies to determine, award and monitor/oversee the operation of concessions; and governance over land and natural resources. These points of guidance are expected to contribute towards developing sustainable approaches for land administration and management programs in Lao PDR...

Using Natural Resources in an Optimal Way

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
To ensure sustainable and optimal use of its common property natural resources, Mexico will need to strengthen its focus on enhancing stewardship in three key sectors-forests, water, and energy resources. The key objectives include the following: 1) identifying options that would contribute to Mexico's climate agenda and build social resilience through forest management; 2) ensuring economically efficient and environmentally and socially sustainable water management to promote 'green' growth in the context of water scarcity and climate uncertainty; and 3) assessing the impacts of declining oil and gas reserves and the role of renewable energy as an alternative and cleaner source. Forests can play an important role in mitigating and adapting to climate change. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and other forest-related activities could account for almost 20 percent of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions that Mexico could achieve by 2030. Although much remains to be done...

Uruguay : The Rural Sector and Natural Resources, Volume 1. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The report reviews the macroeconomic perspectives of Uruguay, focused on its rural development and natural resources intensive sectors, to form the basis for expanding agricultural production, and increasing productivity. It reviews the country's sectoral composition, exports of natural resource intensive products, and labor and capital use, as well as the tax burden. Although agriculture represents less than ten percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of Uruguay, the combination of agriculture, and agro-industry makes up twenty three percent of GDP, of which half of the output is exported, which represented in 2000, seventy three percent of the country's total export earnings, with the composition of exports, significantly diversified. Nonetheless, the agricultural sector remains vulnerable to both external shocks, and domestic factors, and, while the government's ability to ameliorate the impacts of these shocks is limited, the likely increasing importance of international trade calls for a long-term approach to agricultural...

Governance of Natural Resources in the Philippines : Lessons from the Past, Directions for the Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Environmental Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
T his report analyzes natural resource management and governance in the Philippines, identifying recent trends, current challenges, and future goals. The first half of the report summarizes the status of the country's natural resources, describes sector policies, institutions, and budget mechanisms, and identifies impediments to improvements. The second half focuses on three crucial issues for natural resource governance: property rights, institutions, and financing. As part of its analysis of these three overarching issues, the report considers cross-cutting governance concepts such as participation, accountability, transparency, corruption, and service delivery. The report's final section offers conclusions and recommendations.

Trade and Migration with Renewable Natural Resources : Out-of-Steady-State Dynamics

López, Ramón; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
Commodity price increases associated with the entry of China, India, and other countries into the world economy have led to increased pressure on common-property renewable natural resources. The problem is particularly worrisome for economies that obtain a large share of their income from the exploitation of natural resources in the production of an exportable commodity. This paper contributes to the analysis by examining the issue in the framework of a general equilibrium dynamic model and by solving for both the steady state and the transition dynamics. The authors show that i) a resource-rich, capital-poor economy is more likely to be subject to a "natural resource curse" and complete (irreversible) depletion of natural resources; ii) the latter's likelihood rises with the relative commodity price and labor inflow; iii) a labor inflow under internal equilibrium results in a higher steady-state capital-labor ratio and manufacturing output, and unchanged natural resources and commodity output; iv) import and export taxes result in larger steady-state natural resources and commodity output and smaller capital stock and manufacturing output...

Nigeria - An Economic Analysis of Natural Resources Sustainability : Land Tenure and Land Degradation Issues

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis (CEA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.16%
The scope and urgency of the threats to Nigeria's rural land are no secret. In 2005, a working group dedicated to formulating a national agricultural land policy began the process with a comprehensive articulation of the challenges facing Nigeria's agricultural land. The litany included recognition that: 1) agricultural land use in the country has been unsustainable, resulting in no fewer than eleven types of extensive land degradation and significant degradation of water resources; 2) the country has not classified its land - including its prime agricultural land - according to its use capabilities, and thus has no foundation for allocating land among uses or creating the mechanisms and processes for such allocation; 3) the majority of Nigeria's farmers are smallholders relying on subsistence-level cultivation practices; 4) the country's agricultural labor pool is shrinking, and practices that promote better conservation of natural resources have been too limited; and 5) the rural areas of the country lack of basic and necessary infrastructure...

Natural Resources, Weak States and Civil War : Can Rents Stabilize Coup Prone Regimes?

Bodea, Cristina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This paper argues that state weakness is broader than implied previously in the civil war literature, and that particular types of weakness in interaction with natural resources have aggravating or mitigating consequences for the risk of civil war. While in anocracies or unstable regimes natural resources can be expected to increase the risk of civil war, we suggest that resource wealth allows weak leaders to stabilize their relationship with their inner elite circle. In particular, for regimes at risk of coup d'etat, the availability of substantial resources is more likely to be channeled in ways that deter rebellion, plausibly countering the grievances generated by natural resources and rebels' viewing of such resources as a prize for taking over the state. Data from 1946-2003 and multiple empirical operationalizations broadly support our argument. These findings are consistent with work showing that resource rents can induce stability in state - society relationships.

Natural Resources Management; Gestion des ressources naturelles

Mohan, Prasad C.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.15%
Participatory community-based Natural Resources Management (NRM) Projects have been implemented over the last 5-6 years in Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger with the support of France, Germany, Norway, the United States, and the World Bank's International Development Association facility. Furthermore, pilot operation concentrating on specific NRM issues are underway in Chad (pastoral perimeters) and Guinea (land tenure securement). Since 70 to 90 percent of the land in these countries is collectively owned, such projects are in fact trying to reinforce common property management systems, with the dual objective of alleviating poverty and improving the management of (crop) land, water, pasture, and forest resources. This Note summarizes the impact of NRM on the ground, presents the lessons learned, and provides a list of key documents on NRM.

The Role of Natural Resources in Fundamental Tax Reform in the Russian Federation

Bosquet, Benoit
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
The Russian Federation has one of the richest natural resource endowments in the world. Despite their importance in the Russian economy, natural resources do not contribute as much as they could to public revenues. Large resource rents (excess payments, or above-normal profits generated by natural resources in scarce supply) are dissipated through subsidies and wastage, or appropriated by private interests. Failure to tax this rent means that taxes must be levied elsewhere (on capital and labor) to sustain revenues, thereby depressing investment and employment, or that potential revenues are foregone. Failure to reinvest rent means that Russia perpetuates the tradition of exporting low value-added raw materials and excessive capital outflows, and retards its transition to sustainable economic development. The author provides estimates of the average and total current rent on crude oil, natural gas, and round wood in Russia. The sum of appropriated rent on oil and gas was estimated at US$9 billion in 1999 (in excess of $15 billion in 2000)...

Avaliação econômica dos recursos naturais.; Economic evaluation of natural resources.

Vivas Aguero, Pedro Hubertus
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/05/1996 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.13%
Este estudo tem como objetivo principal examinar se os recursos naturais considerados como bens de consumo ou fatores de produção, tem valor econômico e como este valor pode ser quantificado. Na primeira parte, fez-se uma revisão cronológica da literatura existente sobre o assunto, encontrando-se um grande número de estudos esparsos, relacionados de alguma forma com o tema da tese. Analogamente, procedeu-se a uma revisão conceitual e temática das principais escolas do pensamento econômico, com a finalidade de identificar as concepções dos autores e aproveitar os instrumentos já existentes relacionados à avaliação econômica dos recursos naturais. A seguir, procurou-se definir a melhor forma de analisar e avaliar os recursos naturais em relação ao consumo, produção e distribuição, e sob os aspectos estático e dinâmico. A partir desses cuidados, concluiu-se que os recursos naturais, quando quantificados como bens escassos, devem fazer jus a um valor econômico, para garantir o seu melhor uso e a sua conservação ao longo do tempo. Alicerçados nas considerações anteriores, passou-se a formalizar e a construir métodos para avaliar economicamente os principais recursos naturais, considerando e interpretando os antecedentes já disponíveis e...

The Role of “Livelihood” Natural Resources in Conflict and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding

Menke, Brianna
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project Formato: 993569 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
Much attention has been paid to the role of high-value natural resources—timber, diamonds, oil, gas, etc.—in exacerbating and sustaining violent conflicts worldwide. However, a number of other, less prominent “livelihood” resources also play a role in, or are affected by, conflicts. Examples of these resources include cocoa in the Ivory Coast, bananas in Somalia and Colombia, charcoal in Somalia, and coffee in Colombia. In some cases, these resources have been used to fund conflicts; in other cases, the production of these resources as a source of livelihoods has sparked shortages and conflict over other resources; and in other cases, conflicts have arisen over control of these resources as a source of valuable income. In order to strengthen the transition to peace in post-conflict societies, it is important to address the role of these "livelihood" natural resources in peacebuilding efforts, including how these resources and their revenue can be better managed to help prevent a return to conflict. This project explores the various roles that livelihood natural resources play in violent conflicts as well as what post-conflict measures may be taken in order to improve the management of these resources as a central component of peacebuilding...