Página 1 dos resultados de 5402 itens digitais encontrados em 0.019 segundos

Boundary Work for Sustainable Development: Natural Resource Management at the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR)

Clark, William C.; Tomich, Thomas P.; Noordwijk, Meine van; Guston, David; Delia, Catacutan; Dickson, Nancy M.; McNie, Elizabeth
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
Previous research on the determinants of effectiveness in knowledge systems seeking to support sustainable development has highlighted the importance of “boundary work” through which research communities organize their relations with new science, other sources of knowledge, and the worlds of action and policymaking. A growing body of scholarship postulates specific attributes of boundary work that promote used and useful research. These propositions, however, are largely based on the experience of a few industrialized countries. We report here on an effort to evaluate their relevance for efforts to harness science in support of sustainability in the developing world. We carried out a multicountry comparative analysis of natural resource management programs conducted under the auspices of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. We discovered six distinctive kinds of boundary work contributing to the successes of those programs—a greater variety than has been documented in previous studies. We argue that these different kinds of boundary work can be understood as a dual response to the different uses for which the results of specific research programs are intended, and the different sources of knowledge drawn on by those programs. We show that these distinctive kinds of boundary work require distinctive strategies to organize them effectively. Especially important are arrangements regarding participation of stakeholders...

Household Welfare and Natural Resource Management around National Parks in Zambia

Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Tembo, Gelson
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.18%
Game management areas in Zambia aim to combine nature conservation with economic empowerment of rural households. By looking at households inside and outside game management areas, this study advances the knowledge of the impact of community based natural resource management on household welfare. The paper focuses on the economic welfare of households living inside game management areas. It tries to answer the question: Do the households in game management areas enjoy higher levels of welfare relative to the conditions they would have been in had the area not been designated as a game management area? Within the game management area, the paper tries to determine the factors that influence household participation in natural resource management, and whether the participating households get any extra benefits. Also of interest is whether such benefits of living in a game management area, and, once in such an area, those of participating accrue more to the poorer segments of the communities. The study finds that the gains from living in a game management area and from active participation in natural resource management are large but unevenly distributed. Only game management areas near Kasanka...

Capacity Strengthening in Environmental and Natural Resource Policy : Lessons from Malawi

Babu, Suresh; Rhoe, Valerie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This article is based on a case study of environmental and natural resource (ENR) capacity strengthening efforts in Malawi between 1994-1999. The Bunda College of Agriculture, Malawi and the International Food Policy Research Institute jointly implemented an Agricultural Policy Analysis Training sub-project as a part of the agriculture service project of the Malawi Ministry of Agriculture, funded by the World Bank. The overall objective of the sub-project was to strengthen the capacity of the Malawian policy analysts in the food, agricultural, and natural resource sectors. It reports on the process and the lessons learned from the experiences and insights gained in developing institutional and human capacity through graduate programs and short-term training courses in ENR policy analysis. The lessons from the Malawi exercise show that the elements of a successful capacity strengthening effort include assessing the needs for capacity strengthening, designing, and implementing courses that match the capacity needs...

West Africa : Community Based Natural Resource Management

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This has to be accomplished against a background of high illiteracy rates, rapidly growing populations, low and erratic rainfall, inherently infertile soils, and development strategies which have had a strong urban bias. Under such conditions, traditional production systems are unable to sustain the population. Without significant change, land degradation will accelerate and the natural resource base on which agricultural production depends will continue to decline. The efforts made in the 1970s and 1980s to tackle this problem were not particularly successful. They tended to focus too much on production and did not attempt to involve the local population in decision-making and management. Drawing on the lessons learned from these projects, governments, and donors initiated a new generation of community-based, decentralized, multi sectoral Natural Resource Management (NRM) projects. Starting as a series of pilot operations in the late 1980s, this approach sought to ensure local community participation in the identification development and implementation of NRM projects...

The Fiscal Management of Natural Resource Revenues in a Developing Country Setting (or How to Design a Fiscal Rule If You Are Not Norway)

Eckardt, Sebastian; Sarsenov, Ilyas; Thomas, Mark Roland
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
The exhaustibility and volatility of natural resource revenues pose well-known economic challenges, of which those facing oil producers are the most prominent. If oil revenues represent an important share of export earnings and of government revenues, then they can be part of overheating during booms and costly adjustments during downturns, making fiscal policy exacerbate volatility. At the same time, considerations of intergenerational equity suggest that fiscal policy should also preserve part of current oil revenues for future generations. To address both of these challenges, resource-rich countries commonly establish commodity funds, into which part of their resource-linked revenues are deposited and invested in income-generating assets (usually offshore financial assets). A key question in designing such funds is what share of current revenues should be spent and what share saved. Based on recent advisory services offered to the Ministry of Economy and Trade in Kazakhstan, this note summarizes one possible approach...

The Varieties of Resource Experience : Natural Resource Export Structures and the Political Economy of Economic Growth

Isham, Jonathan; Woolcock, Michael; Pritchett, Lant; Busby, Gwen
Fonte: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank Publicador: Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the World Bank
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.17%
Many oil, mineral, and plantation crop-based economies experienced a substantial deceleration in growth following the commodity boom and bust of the 1970s and early 1980s. This article illustrates how countries dependent on point source natural resources (those extracted from a narrow geographic or economic base, such as oil and minerals) and plantation crops are predisposed to heightened economic and social divisions and weakened institutional capacity. This in turn impedes their ability to respond effectively to shocks, which previous studies have shown to be essential for sustaining rising levels of prosperity. Analysis of data on classifications of export structure, controlling for a wide array of other potential determinants of governance, shows that point source and coffee and cocoa exporting countries do relatively poorly across an array of governance indicators. These governance effects are not associated simply with being a natural resource exporter. Countries with natural resource exports that are diffuse relying primarily on livestock and agricultural produce from small family farms do not show the same strong effects and have had more robust growth recoveries.

Economic instruments for environmental and natural resource conservation and management in the South Pacific

Hunt, Colin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 145114 bytes; application/pdf
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
Trends in natural resource exploitation and consumption patterns have increased the need for resource conservation and pollution control in the South Pacific.

The need for greater government resources, implied by the intensification of environmental management, has coincided with budgetary restraints in the South Pacific that have often been severe.

Economic (as opposed to command and control) instruments are of increasing interest because they possess the potential to shift from government to producers or consumers the onus to comply with environmental measures.

In this paper, argument about the applicability of economic intruments in conservation and management in developing countries in general and the South Pacific in particular, is prefaced by a brief exposition of the theory and a description of the types of instruments. (The typology follows Panayotou (1995).)

An analysis of some twenty case studies in the South Pacific enables some conclusions to be drawn about the conditions necessary for the application of economic instruments and enables some recommendations to be made about their adoption.

The paper reports on work in progress and as such acknowledges gaps.

Meanwhile comments are welcomed by the author.; no

Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems

Bardsley, D.; Sweeney, S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.09%
Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts...

Bridging the gap: recognising the role of community in natural resource management.

Cosgrove, Karen Anne
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This study illustrates the need for purposeful community engagement, the significance of social capital and governance and the need for landholders to participate in the decision-making process regarding natural resource management. It recognises that while the contribution of social science to community based natural resource management has been significant over recent times; consideration of the links between government discourse and the generally less than favourable outcomes of community based natural resource management has been at the most, minimal. The study consists of a comparative study of two contrasting communities and two natural resource management projects. One study focuses on the role of the regional NRM Board for the South Australian Arid Lands and its endeavour to engage with and assess outback communities in the region to undertake natural resource management. The second study examines the attempts of a government authority to engage with a rural community so as to administer a rehabilitation project of their lands. Buy undertaking a comparative study of these two communities this thesis examines (1) the belief that strong networks, trust and transparency are prerequisites for the management of community based projects...

Prioritizing engagement for sustainable adaptation to climate change: An example from natural resource management in South Australia

Bardsley, D.; Rogers, G.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Inc Publicador: Taylor & Francis Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
This article describes a regional approach to climate change adaption that focuses on engaging the natural resource management community. In a world tempered by increasing climatic uncertainty as a result of projected climate change, natural resource management practitioners are looking for approaches to respond through effective adaptation, yet the availability of practical tools to guide and inform their decision-making processes is limited. The social learning approach described was developed between the South Australian Government and the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board. The approach successfully engaged stakeholders and provided a foundation upon which informed adaptation planning and action could take place. Techniques ranged from direct relationship building and participatory action learning, through to a regional vulnerability analysis and the development and application of a comprehensive regional adaptation response framework to guide future decisions.; Douglas K. Bardsley, Geoffrey P. Rogers

Social Assessment in Natural Resource Management Institutions

Dale, Allan P.; Taylor, N.; Lane, Marcus B.
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Livro
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.26%
This book is the first significant international attempt to outline and analyse how social assessment has been integrated within natural resource management institutions. In doing so, it focuses on contemporary Australian and New Zealand experiences, and relates these back to the international context [with a chapter each on South Africa and California].; Part I. Introduction to social assessment in natural resource institutions: [1]. Social assessment in natural resource management: promise, potentiality and practice -- Part II. Institutionalising social assessment in the global context: [2]. The international institutionalisation of social impact assessment; [3]. Institutionalising social assessment at the World Bank; [4]. The institutionalisation of social assessment in South Africa: the post-apartheid window of opportunity; [5]. Assessing environmental justice: social assessment lessons from the California Energy Commission's sitting process -- Part III. Institutionalising social assessment at the national level: [6]. Social assessment in New Zealand resource management; [7]. Limitation and opportunity: the institutional basis for social assessment in natural resource management in Australia; [8]. Social assessment and resource management at the Australian federal level: trapped in an epistemiological corner?; [9]. Reframing the nature and scope of social impact assessment: psychological and social (psychosocial) impacts -- Part IV. Institutionalising social assessment at the provincial level: [10]. Institutionalising social assessment in Queensland: the Social Impact Assessment Unit 1993-1996; [11]. The Western Australian Social Impact Unit 1989-1993: nicety or necessity?; [12]. Social assessment in New South Wales and the 2000 Olympics: a great leap forward? -- Part V. Institutionalising social assessment at the local level: [13]. Social impact assessment in the Australian Capital Territory; [14]. Institutionalising social impact assessment in Australian local government: a practitioner's perspective from Brisbane City Countil...

The Political Economy of Natural Resource Use : Lessons for Fisheries Reform

Leal, Donald R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The release of 'Sunken billions: The economic justification for fisheries reform' has drawn renewed attention to the enormous loss of wealth suffered in fisheries each year due to weak fisheries governance and the need for fundamental fisheries reform. Such reform calls for addressing the issues plaguing the world's fisheries, such as persistent overfishing and fleet overcapitalization, and addressing the political economy challenges of developing country-specific pathways of reform. Despite growing evidence of success in selected fisheries, less than two percent of the world's fisheries have actually undergone effective reform because of these challenges. At the same time, it is estimated that the world's fisheries could generate at least fifty billion US dollars per annum and the economic benefits generated could be much higher if management systems were established to enable investment in growing this important economic sector in a sustainable manner. The potential pay-off from economic fisheries reform is not only globally significant for the sector...

Republic of Ecuador Country Environmental Analysis : Environmental Quality and Natural Resource Management for Sustained Economic Growth and Poverty Alleviation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis (CEA); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Ecuador is a country with exceptional natural resource and environmental advantages and challenges. It is strategically located and has considerable oil reserves in the interior and the coastal region. This document does not aim to describe the state of the environment in Ecuador. Rather, its main objective is to provide an analytical foundation to identify the country's institutional weaknesses and provide practical policy options that will enhance its capacity to establish and address environmental policy priorities linked to poverty reduction and sustained economic growth. Linking environmental considerations to sectoral projects and policies will provide important information on key synergies and tradeoffs involving the environment, economic growth, and poverty. The second objective is to guide environmental assistance and capacity building supported by the bank or other development partners through the assessment of capacity issues, especially in relation to specific environmental priorities. The main elements of the Country Environment Analysis (CEA) include analyses of: a) environment and natural- resource-related institutions...

Putting Tanzania's Hidden Economy to Work : Reform, Management, and Protection of its Natural Resource Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.27%
This paper tells a story about conditions in Tanzania's hidden economy, the parts of the natural resource sector often ignored in conventional economic analyses and studies, and makes recommendations for future policy actions. The paper draws primarily from extensive background studies undertaken of the forestry, fishery, wildlife, mining, and tourism sub sectors (COWI 2005) as well as a wide range of complementary studies undertaken by the World Bank and others. It de-emphasizes those sectors with factors of production that are not readily traded or exported (such as land and water), although some examples are given relating to soil quality and water management based on extensive studies undertaken within the agriculture and water sectors. The story is relatively simple: pricing distortions, coupled with institutional weakness and the lack of rule of law, have created an environment that undermines economic growth. This paper also acknowledges that Tanzania has already taken positive steps to making some of the needed corrections to protect its natural resources. In recent analyses of corruption indicators world-wide (World Bank Institute 2006)...

Rents to Riches? The Political Economy of Natural Resource-led Development

Barma, Naazneen H.; Kaiser, Kai; Le, Tuan Minh; Vinuela, Lorena
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.23%
This volume emphasizes instead the notion of 'good fit,' taking the position that welfare-promoting policies, institutions, and governance must be tailored, at least in part, to a country's specific context. In this vein, the volume presents an analytical framework for assessing a country's political economy and institutional environment as it relates to natural resource management and, on that basis, it offers a substantial set of targeted prescriptions across the natural resource value chain that are technically sound and compatible with the identified underlying incentives. In other words, the objective of this book is to help development practitioners unravel the political economy dynamics surrounding natural resource management in order to complement their technically grounded engagement. To this end, the analytical approach has been two-pronged. First, case studies were conducted on the political economy of the hydrocarbon and mineral value chains in 13 countries in the Africa, East Asia and Pacific...

On Limits to the Use of Linear Markov Strategies in Common Property Natural Resource Games

GAUDET, Gérard; LOHOUES, Hervé
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 167749 bytes; application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.08%
We derive conditions that must be satisfied by the primitives of the problem in order for an equilibrium in linear Markov strategies to exist in some common property natural resource differential games. These conditions impose restrictions on the admissible form of the natural growth function, given a benefit function, or on the admissible form of the benefit function, given a natural growth function.

Successes and failures to embed socioeconomic dimensions in integrated natural resource management modeling: Lessons from Thailand

Ekasingh, Benchaphun; Letcher, Rebecca
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
This paper discusses the necessity, successes, and failures of attempts to embed socioeconomic aspects into integrated natural resource modeling. It examines experiences in Thailand over the past 20-30 years to illustrate advances and difficulties experie

Capacity building for natural resource management: Lessons from risk and emergency management

Robins, Lisa
Fonte: Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand Publicador: Environment Institute of Australia and New Zealand
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.11%
This article examines capacity building measures used by the risk and emergency management (REM) sector in Australia relevant to natural resource management (NRM), and in particular to the regional delivery of two national NRM programs - the Natural Herit

National Parks Conservation Association State of the Parks Report: Natural Resource Assessment Cumberland Island National Seashore, Camden County, Georgia

Laliberté, Jennifer
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project Formato: 1255125 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2007 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.21%
The National Parks Conservation Association through their Center for the State of the Parks (NPCA-SOTP) is currently performing natural resource assessments of the nation’s national parks. As a part of this program, I was contracted to do a natural resource assessment of Cumberland Island National Seashore (CUIS) in Camden County, Georgia. CUIS is a barrier island located off the coast of Georgia just north of the Florida border. It has been subject to anthropogenic use for at least 4000 years, with major occupations beginning with the arrival of the Spainards in the 1500s. After changing hands several times, the island became the property of the National Park Service in 1972 (16 U.S.C. 459i et seq) under the authority of the National Parks Organic Act of 1916. CUIS also includes a Congressionally-designated wilderness area that was established in 1982 (16 U.S.C. 1131 et seq.) under the authority of the Wilderness Act of 1964. There are 18 retained-rights estates within the boundaries of the seashore, as well as 2 tracts of land that are still held as private property. The management regime for the park includes a general management plan that was published in 1984. There is currently a new management plan being drafted for the park...

Committing to place and evaluating the higher purpose: increasing engagement in natural resource management through museum outreach and educational activities

Vanclay, Francis Martin; Lane, R; Wills, Jo; Coates, Ian; Lucas, Damien
Fonte: Imperial College Press Publicador: Imperial College Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.14%
The Australian "Committing to Place" Research Project investigates the potential of outreach activities and educational programmes to increase community commitment to natural resource management. New communication technologies offer tools for enhancing participation - in terms of a deeper commitment from communities and participation of a wider range of groups - through their interactive qualities and capacity to link people in different places. The research project evaluates the piloting, by the National Museum of Australia, of several innovative outreach activities which use information and communication technologies specifically for community capacity building and developing platforms for change. With an understanding of evaluation as research to inform decision-making at all phases of project design, the Research Team is evaluating: (1) the effectiveness of each outreach activity in meeting stakeholder objectives, including community participants; (2) the potential each activity has to increase participation in the activity and other activities associated with cultural heritage or natural resources; and (3) progress towards "the higher purpose", that is, the potential for such activities to affect natural resource management outcomes in the long run. The research project is an Australian Research Council Linkage Grant involving the University of Tasmania...