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Uma Análise do Mercado e do Preço Competitivo de Gás Natural em São Paulo; An Analysis of Market and Competitive Pricing of Natural Gas in São Paulo

Gomes, Ieda Correia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/11/1996 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.14%
O desenvolvimento de uma indústria de gás natural no Brasil tem sido debatido com mais ênfase desde meados da década de 80, quando diversos estados, desejosos de diversificar sua matriz energética, provendo o mercado com um energético de inegável apelo ambiental, reuniram-se em Brasília, sob a égide da Comissão Nacional de Energia e iniciaram as primeiras projeções de demanda e de uso nal para o gás natural. Desde então, a indústria de gás no pais tem apresentado índices signicativos de crescimento, com a criação de novas empresas concessionárias de distribuição e o aumento do consumo, notadamente nos estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia e Rio de Janeiro. A perspectiva de importação de gás boliviano, com a assinatura, em 1992, de um primeiro protocolo de intenções entre a Petrobrás e a Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos- YPFB, gerou um longo processo de negociações entre a estatal brasileira e as distribuidoras de gás canalizado de São Paulo (Comgás), Minas Gerais (Gasmig), Rio de Janeiro (CEG), Mato Grosso do Sul (Enersul), Paraná (Compagás), Santa Catarina (SC Gás) e Rio Grande do Sul (SuIgás), visando a assinatura de contratos de suprimento com prazo de 20 anos. O principal impasse à concretização desses contratos diz respeito à definição do preço máximo do gás no ponto de entrega às concessionárias ("city gate")'...

Tarifação na malha de gasodutos de transporte no Brasil: evolução e perspectivas; Tariff Policy on Gas Pipeline Network in Brazil: Developments and Prospects

Pinto, Raul Penazzo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.26%
Este estudo analisa a indústria de gás natural de modo a contribuir para o melhor entendimento acerca das políticas tarifárias da atividade de transporte de gás natural conduzidas pelo governo sob a ótica de um programa de expansão da malha de gasodutos e de fortalecimento da indústria de gás natural no país. A adoção de mecanismos que possibilitem a separação e abertura das parcelas que compõem o preço de venda do gás natural visa a proporcionar uma maior modicidade tarifária, reduzindo os subsídios cruzados entre os Estados (regiões produtoras frente a distantes centros consumidores) e ampliando a eficiência econômica na utilização da malha de gasodutos do sistema de transporte. A partir do auxílio das teorias e modelos tarifários empregados nas indústrias de infraestrutura de rede, a pesquisa analisa a evolução da regulação tarifária associada à Parcela de Produto (Parcela Variável) e à Parcela de Transporte (Parcela Fixa) na formação do preço de venda do gás natural de origem nacional entre a Petrobras e as concessionárias estaduais de distribuição de gás canalizado. A análise dos resultados permite observar que a introdução de mudanças na sistemática de formação do preço de venda do gás natural provoca um retrocesso em relação à transparência na estrutura tarifária e na comercialização do gás natural. A atual política tarifária e os descontos (aproximadamente 32%) praticados pela Petrobras nos preços de venda para as distribuidoras das regiões Nordeste e Sudeste provocam alterações significativas não apenas na competitividade do gás natural frente aos demais combustíveis...

O gás natural como indutor de desenvolvimento na Venezuela: uma leitura à luz de Bambirra, Dos Santos e Marini; Natural gas as an inductor of development in Venezuela: a reading based on Bambirra, Dos Santos and Marini.

Nava, Pablo José Carrizalez
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2015 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
Esta dissertação visa estudar a indústria do gás natural da Venezuela a partir da Teoria Marxista da Dependência (TMD). Mudanças estruturais acontecem nesse país desde o início do século XXI, e esse processo não pode ser entendido sem se observar o papel fundamental da energia. O termo energia refere-se, neste trabalho, ao petróleo e gás natural. O primeiro tem sido o responsável pela penetração do capital estrangeiro no país e o segundo foi historicamente tratado como subproduto da indústria petroleira. A principal mudança nessa perspectiva foi introduzida pelo atual processo político, que usa ambos os recursos como instrumento para superar a relação de subordinação aos países industrializados. Portanto, objetiva-se analisar, com base na TMD, se, dada uma ampliação da indústria do gás natural da Venezuela estarão presentes os elementos capazes de promover uma ruptura com a forma subordinada em que se inseriu o país na economia mundial. Entende-se essa ampliação como um projeto nacional que procura a diversificação da economia e a conquista do desenvolvimento, entendido nos termos expostos pela TMD. Para facilitar o uso da TMD, foram selecionados três de seus expoentes, a saber: Vânia Bambirra, Theotônio dos Santos...

Gas natural no Brasil : elementos para uma nova etapa de desenvolvimento; Brazilian natural gas industry : elements for a new development stage

Jose Augusto Gaspar Ruas
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/08/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.17%
A indústria de gás natural é um dos grandes vetores do atual desenvolvimento energético mundial. No Brasil, após passar por períodos de importância secundária, tem adquirido destaque nas estratégias empresariais e governamentais e ampliado sua participação na matriz energética nacional. Este trabalho busca elucidar o movimento de ascensão da Indústria de Gás Natural no Brasil, descrevendo sua formação e componentes estruturais de desenvolvimento histórico. Valendo-se de análises sobre as condições de oferta, transporte, distribuição e consumo, traça as principais características e tendências no mercado nacional desse combustível. A análise das políticas, regulação em gás natural e estratégias da Petrobrás, por sua vez, é responsável pelo entorno institucional e complementação do cenário, subsidiando perspectivas em torno do avanço do energético no país. A identificação de etapas de desenvolvimento históricas e das específicas inter-relações de suas dimensões, são ferramentas para sugestão de alguns caminhos a serem seguidos para a delimitação de uma nova etapa de desenvolvimento harmônico na indústria de gás natural no Brasil; The Natural Gas Industry (NGI) is one of the most important sectors in the recent growth of energy industry. In Brazil...

Regulação do livre acesso no transporte de gás natural à luz da ordem econômica da Constituição de 1988; Open access regulation to natural gas pipelines according to Brazilian constitutional economic order

Silva, Anderson Souza da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.27%
In the middle of modern social changes produced by globalization and capitalism, several markets have changed. States have left the direct coordination of these markets (chiefly public utility sector in the form of monopolies), introducing regulation in order to promote competition. These changes have affected natural gas industry by promoting competition as a key factor to the development and the increase of firms in this market. The regulatory reform of natural gas industry ocurred in EUA and Europe Union and it has produced its first results. In Brazilian context, Constitutional Amendment nbr. 09 and Federal Law nbr. 9.478/97 ( Petroleum Law ) opened the natural gas market to a broad range of private economic agents and they finished the monopoly over the industry before managed by Petrobras. The new regulatory framework of Brazilian natural gas industry has designed competition as a central element to the new form of managment of business and contractual relationships of this industry. Among the regulatory instruments, open access regulation in natural gas pipelines is directed to promote competition. The questions arised about its implementation in Brazilian context are studied in the present work, in which it is discussed the constitutional rules and principles are to be applied to the open access regulation within the theme of statal regulation of economy present in constitutional economic order; ; No movimento de mudanças sociais capitaneados pelo capitalismo global e pelo discurso neoliberal...

Fatores de sucesso no desenvolvimento de novos produtos em pequenas empresas: um estudo de caso em um fabricante de equipamentos para gás natural veicular; Sucess factors in the development of new products in small companies: a case study in a manufacturer of equipments for vehicular natural gas

Silva, Luciana Nicácio
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.21%
This study presents itself as a contribution to the solidification of the Natural Gas industry, within the scope of the development of new products. The goal of this paper is to analyze the factors that lead to the success of new products through the evaluation of the activities done during the process of development of these products in the Natural Gas sector. To achieve this goal a case study was done in a small company of this segment. At first, as a basis for the study, a bibliographical research was done with books, theses, dissertations, monographies, publications in national and international periodicals, congress annals and publications in the internet related to the subject. Afterwards, a case study was done, aiming at the acquisition of further knowledge about the real process of development of products in a small company of the Natural Gas sector, allowing for the performance of the evaluation. The case study was done at Gas Project and Systems do Brasil, a company that works with the development of electronic equipment to the conversion of car engines to natural gas, through direct observations and interviews with the person responsible for the development and management of products. Through the evaluation of the process it was observed that the activities related to it are done in an informal way and some activities are considered unnecessary for their success. The results also suggest an emphasis in the technological activities...

Competition in the Natural Gas Industry : The Emergence of Spot, Financial, and Pipeline Capacity Markets

Juris, Andrej
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.2%
Countries in Asia, Europe, and North and South America are introducing reforms to boost efficiency and attract new private investment in their natural gas industries. The trend has been to unbundle along vertical and horizontal lines and to open wholesale gas markets to new entrants. These new entrants stimulate competition and the development of new markets--in gas supply, in financial gas contracts, and in pipeline capacity. Such has been the success of these new markets--especially in the United States and the United Kingdom-- that it has prompted a search for other potential markets in the industry. This Note, part of the broad effort to aid reformers by disseminating knowledge from early reforms, describes the underlying structural and trading arrangements in the gas and pipeline markets. Two companion Notes examine these markets in the United Kingdom and the United States.

Natural Gas Markets in the U.K. : Competition, Industry Structure, and Market Power of the Incumbent

Juris, Andrej
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.26%
The deregulation of the U.K. natural gas industry has facilitated new entry and competition in almost all segments of the industry except pipeline transportation. The new regulatory framework, developed largely by the Office of Gas Regulation (Ofgas), has allowed market forces to stimulate a variety of specialized services and market transactions to meet customer needs. But the entire process has been difficult because of a flaw in the initial industry structure: the government privatized British Gas as a vertically integrated company. The U. K. experience shows that leaving gas supply integrated with pipeline transportation and tying up gas in long-term contracts impede competition. This Note reviews the U.K. reform and the development of new spot, on-system, and "Flexibility Mechanism" markets.

Breathing Clean : Considering the Switch to Natural Gas Buses

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
In response to emerging epidemiological evidence of the toxicity of diesel vehicular emissions, there is growing interest in substituting conventional diesel with much cleaner natural gas in cities where ambient concentrations of particulate matter are markedly higher than what is internationally considered acceptable. This paper compares the performance of natural gas and conventional diesel buses, and outlines the barriers to the adoption of natural gas buses in developing countries. In the absence of emissions standards that effectively require natural gas, natural gas-fueled buses are unlikely to be adopted because they are more expensive to operate relative to diesel buses. The social case for replacing diesel with natural gas a fuel for buses rests on environmental grounds. If a local government decides that the reduction in air pollution associated with the substitution of conventional diesel with natural gas for use in buses is worth the cost, then it needs to adopt policies to encourage the switch to natural gas. These might include emissions standards for buses...

Export Restraints on Russian Natural Gas and Raw Timber : What Are the Economic Impacts?

Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.18%
Export restraints by the Russian Federation on natural gas and timber have been the source of major controversy between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis of this paper suggests that the export restraints in natural gas very substantially benefit Russia. On the other hand, in raw timber the analysis suggests that a substantial reduction of Russian export taxes would increase Russian welfare. The paper explains that Gazprom has failed to invest adequately, resulting in little development of new gas supplies. The result has been progressively increasing use by Gazprom of Central Asian gas supplies, at progressively higher prices for Russia. The increased prices of gas for Russian consumers have shown that it is crucial for Russia to allow new entrants and to introduce competition in the Russian domestic market. Without export restraints, however, competition among multiple gas suppliers from Russia would erode or eliminate the monopoly profits of the Russian Federation on gas exports. Thus...

Investment in Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southern Cone of Latin America

Jadresic, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.18%
Increasing demand for clean energy sources is expanding investment in natural gas infrastructure around the world. Many international projects involve pipelines connecting energy markets in two or more countries. A key feature of investment taking place in Latin America is the convergence of gas and electricity markets. Many projects are being developed to supply gas to new power generation plants needed to meet electricity demand. Construction of a pipeline over the Andes mountains to supply gas from Argentina to energy markets in central Chile was an idea long unfulfilled for political, economic, and technical reasons. Great changes have now taken place in a very short time. The author discusses both the achievements and the challenges to be faced by pipeline developers and Chiles energy sector. He details the benefits of the cooperative effort to consumers in terms of lower energy prices, higher environmental standards, and a more reliable energy system. The experience in Latin Americas southern cone shows how technological innovation...

Private Participation in the Transmission and Distribution of Natural Gas : Recent Trends

Izaguirre, Ada Karina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.23%
This paper examines the increasing participation of the private sector in the transmission and distribution of natural gas in developing countries during the 1990s, resulting mainly from the growing demand for new gas transport facilities coinciding with a growing consensus in favor of private participation in infrastructure. This note, drawing on the bank's PPI (Private Participation in Infrastructure) Project database, provides an overview of the patterns and trends in the projects in the twenty six developing countries which introduced private participation in natural gas between 1990 and 1997. It concludes with the thought that growth in privately funded and operated export projects promise s to bring the economic and environmental benefits of natural gas to a larger number of countries.

Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

Reinstein, David; Benítez, Daniel A. Benítez; Johnson, Todd M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.27%
This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, infrastructure development and prospects for decentralization of the natural gas market in Peru, and the potential of natural gas pricing reforms for the promotion of hydroelectricity and other renewable energy sources. This report is divided into five chapters. Chapter I describes the context in which this study was prepared. Chapter II presents a history of the natural gas sector and the Government of Peru s policy objectives to increase the use of natural gas in the domestic economy. Chapter III presents potential new markets for natural gas within the present context of the natural gas industry and the Peruvian economy. Chapter IV describes findings...

Yemen : A Natural Gas Incentive Framework

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Mining/Oil and Gas; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.22%
Yemen is planning to export gas through Yemen Liquefied Natural Gas (YLNG) starting from 2009. Yemen is also aiming to develop the domestic gas market, in particular gas-to-power. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export revenue and domestic gas sales are expected to partially offset the decline in crude oil revenue from currently producing fields. The development of a gas sector has the potential to substantially contribute to Yemen's economic growth and fiscal revenue generation. Because of the high risk and considerable investment involved in developing a gas sector, attracting foreign capital and expertise will be essential. To this end, in addressing the public interest and developing the preferred policies, Yemen should ensure that decisions on project development and technologies will be based on their economic merits, and gas will be allowed to find its highest value market.

Regulatory Reform in Mexico's Natural Gas Industry : Liberalization in the Context of a Dominant Upstream Incumbent

Rosellon, Juan; Halpern, Jonathan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.28%
The natural gas industry combines activities with natural monopoly characterisitics with those that are potentially competitive. Pipeline transport and distribution, which have natural monopoly characterisitcs, require regulation of price and non-price behavior. Production is a contestable activity, but in a few countries (including Mexico) it remains a state monopoly. Gas marketing is also contestable, but the presence of a dominant, upstream, vertically integrated incumbent may pose significant barriers to entry. Market architecture decisions--such as horizontal structure, regional development, and the degree of vertical integration--are also crucial. The authors report that Mexico has undertaken structural reform in the energy sector more slowly than many other countries, but it has introduced changes to attract private investment in natural gas transport and distribution. These changes were a response to the rapid growth in demand for natural gas (about 10 percent a year) in Mexico, which was in turn a response to economic development and the enforcement of environmental regulations. The new regulatory framework provides incentives for firms to invest and operate efficiently and to bear much much of the risk associated with new projects. It also protects captive consumers and improves general economic welfare. The continued vertical integration of the state-owned company Pemex and its statutory monopoly in domestic production posed a challenge to regulators. Their response in liberalizing trade...

Development of Competitive Natural Gas Markets in the United States

Juris, Andrej
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.26%
The United States has the world's largest natural gas market. Fifteen years of deregulation have delivered significant gains to consumers in the form of lower prices and more services. The experience shows that liberalizing wholesale gas prices and the bulk supply of natural gas frees market forces in segments where competition is feasible. But regulators must focus on improving the regulation of pipeline transportation and minimizing its distortive effect on competitive gas markets. Introducing flexibility into pricing and other conditions of transportaion contracts such as delivery locations or the balancing of gas shipments and standardizing pipeline operations promote more efficient use of pipelines and benefit all industry participants. The U.S. experience also shows the important role of gas marketers and spot markets in increasing the efficiency of gas transactions and prices. Deregulation of the U.S. gas industry is far from complete, however. The most important task, and the biggest challenge for regulators...

Oportunidades e alternativas para a mudança da matriz energética peruana : o papel do gás natural; Opportunities and alternatives for change of the Peru's energy matrix : the role of natural gas

Raul Gonzales Palomino
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
Nos últimos anos, várias discussões e análises sobre um maior uso de gás natural no Peru foram realizadas. No início de 2011, durante os debates presidenciais, este era um item da agenda, e a priorização do desenvolvimento do mercado interno de gás, em vez de sua exportação foi o tema central. A presente tese analisa as alternativas de uso do gás natural nos setores de transporte, residencial, terciário, industrial de grande porte e de geração elétrica no Peru, assim como avalia o impacto da sua penetração na substituição de combustíveis derivados do petróleo e a possibilidade de produção de eletricidade através da cogeração. Para tanto, foram efetuadas uma análise da matriz energética peruana, uma revisão das reservas e infraestrutura da indústria do gás natural, para uma avaliação complementar e como ferramenta de comparação foram calculados os indicadores de sustentabilidade energética do País. Além disso, foi realizada uma revisão das metodologias existentes e empregadas para este tipo de estudo, além de definidos a abrangência e os cenários deste trabalho. Dos cenários avaliados, o tendencial- moderado seria o mais provável de acontecer e se viabilizar. Este mostra que o uso do gás natural aumentará de 3.280 Mm3...

Desenvolvimento da competição e da infra-estrutura na industria de gas natural do Brasil; Developing competition and intrastructure in the natural gas industry in Brazil

Paulo Henrique de Mello Sant'Ana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.23%
Nos últimos 20 anos, inúmeros países vêm realizando reformas estruturais na indústria do gás natural, buscando a eficiência e a racionalidade econômica através da introdução da competição em determinadas etapas da cadeia. A presente tese buscou responder à seguinte pergunta: Qual é o arcabouço legal e regulatório adequado para a atração de investimento e o desenvolvimento da competição na indústria do gás natural no Brasil, considerando-se o atual estágio de desenvolvimento desta indústria no país? Para tanto, o trabalho efetuou uma fundamentação teórica sobre a teoria da regulação, analisou a experiência internacional na reestruturação do setor de gás natural, as particularidades do regime legal e regulatório no Brasil, a experiência brasileira da reestruturação do setor elétrico e a Lei 11.909/09, conhecida como a Lei do gás. Com o provável excedente de oferta de gás natural a partir de 2011 no Brasil, haverá condições propícias para o desenvolvimento da competição em algumas etapas da cadeia da indústria do gás. Dentre os principais pontos do arcabouço legal e regulatório considerado ideal para a atração dos investimentos e do desenvolvimento da competição, destacam-se: 1) regime único de autorização para a construção de gasodutos de transporte...

Controlling regional monopolies in the natural gas industry: the role of transport capacity

Gasmi, Farid; Oviedo Arango, Juan Daniel
Fonte: Facultad de Economía Publicador: Facultad de Economía
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/book; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.01%
This paper analyzes some optimal fiscal, pricing, and capacity investment policies for controlling regional monopoly power in the natural gas industry. By letting the set of control instruments available to the social planner vary, we provide a characterization of the technological and demand conditions under which “excess” capacity in the transport network arises in response to the loss of the two other control instruments, namely, transfers and pricing. Hence, the analysis yields some insights on an economy’s incentives to invest in infrastructures for the purpose of integrating geographically isolated markets.

POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF NATIONALIZATION OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY IN LATIN AMERICA

Cabezas, Brian F.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' Project Formato: 600041 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2007 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.13%
Nationalization is a particular type of organizational structure where the state or nation controls the industry as opposed to private companies or multinational organizations. If one imagines a continuum of organizational structure, nationalization and privatization would be at opposite ends. Nationalization could include joint ventures where the state controls the industry but allows for private companies to participate in the resource extraction and retain some of the profit. Within the past few years, Venezuela and Bolivia have announced plans to renationalize their oil and natural gas industry. The first part of this project seeks to perform a qualitative analysis to discern the common characteristics of a nationalized country focusing specifically on four countries – Bolivia, Venezuela, Mexico and Nigeria. There are various components influencing the efficiency of a nationalized industry including civil society, regionalism, and reliance on oil. The main findings were that a nationalized country with a high reliance on oil or natural gas and weak financial institutions will have an authoritarian form of government, and that there will likely be more incidences of Latin American countries nationalizing in the near future if oil prices remain high. The project also performs a quantitative analysis on indirect measures of efficiency using subsidies and also analyzes the effect of nationalization on social development using the Gini coefficient (a measure of income equality) and public spending on education. Nationalization is found to have a positive effect on income equality and a negative effect on public spending on education. The project culminates with policy recommendations specifically focused on the four selected countries with implications for broader applications. The main objectives of the recommendations are to strengthen financial institutions...