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Levantamento da fauna de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) em ambiente domiciliar e infecção natural por Trypanosomatidae no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul; Survey of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) fauna in domestic environments and natural infection by Trypanosomatidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

ALMEIDA, Paulo Silva de; CERETTI JÚNIOR, Walter; OBARA, Marcos Takashi; SANTOS, Honório Roberto; BARATA, José Maria Soares; FACCENDA, Odival
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
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45.93%
Entre 2000 a 2004, foi realizado levantamento da fauna de Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) e exame de infecção natural por Trypanosomatidae, no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Um total de 13.671 espécimes foram capturados. Na análise faunística das espécies capturadas, Triatoma sordida foi caracterizada como muito abundante, muito freqüente, constante e dominante. Os índices de infecção natural para Trypanosoma cruzi apresentaram os valores de 3,2% para Panstrongylus geniculatus, 0,6% para Rhodnius neglectus e 0,1% para Triatoma sordida, apesar do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul apresentar-se livre da transmissão vetorial endêmica.; Between 2000 and 2004, a survey of Triatominae fauna (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and examination of natural infection caused by Trypanosomatidae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, was conducted. A total of 13,671 specimens were collected. Through fauna analysis on the insects that were caught, Triatoma sordida was characterized as very abundant, very frequent, constant and dominant. The rates of natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi were 3.2% for Panstrongylus geniculatus, 0.6% for Rhodnius neglectus and 0.1% for Triatoma sordida. Nevertheless, the State of Mato Grosso do Sul is free from endemic vector transmission.

The finding of Lutzomyia almerioi and Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected by Leishmania spp. in a cutaneous and canine visceral leishmaniases focus in Serra da Bodoquena, Brazil

SAVANI, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; NUNES, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; GALATI, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; CASTILHO, Tiago Moreno; ZAMPIERI, Ricardo Andrade; FLOETER-WINTER, Lucile Maria
Fonte: Amsterdam Publicador: Amsterdam
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
To identify natural infections by Leishmania spp. in insect vectors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, we performed field studies in natural and anthropic environments in the Guaicurus Settlement (Bodoquena Range) of the Bonito municipality, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. From October 2002 to October 2003, a total of 1395 sandfly females were captured with Shannon and light traps and dissected in search of flagellates. The sample is composed of a total of 13 species, with Lutzomyia almerioi (59.9%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (31.4%) predominant. Infections by flagellates were directly observed in three of the dissected of Lu. almerioi females (0.36%). To increase the sensitivity of detection, DNA extracted from pools of the 1220 dissected females (Lu. almerioi 808, Lu. longipalpis 399 and Nyssomyia whitmani 13) was subjected to small subunit rRNA-based polymerase chain reactions (SSU-PCR). DNA from Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi was detected in at least 0.37% of Lu. almerioi females and in 0.25% of Lu. longipalpis females. The DNA of the Leishmania (Viannia) sp. was detected in 0.12% of Lu. almerioi and in 0.70% of Lu. longipalpis. Leishmania (L.) amazonensis was found in 1.25% of Lu. longipalpis. Mixed infections of L. (Leishmania) sp. and L. (Viannia) sp. were found in 0.50% of Lu. longipalpis. When considering that each positive pool contained at least a single infected specimen...

Caracterização de novos isolados fracos do vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro ocorrendo naturalmente no estado do Espírito Santo; Avaliação da infecção natural de cucurbitáceas com esse vírus; Caracterização de um isolado do mosaico da alfafa infectando mamoeiro (Carica papaya) em campo; Characterization of new mild isolates of papaya ringspot virus naturally occurring in state Espirito Santo state; Evaluation of natural infection of cucurbits with this virus; Characterization of the alfalfa mosaic virus infecting papaya (Carica papaya) in the field

Moreira, Adriana Gonçalves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2009 PT
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No estado do Espírito Santo (ES), uma das principais áreas produtoras de mamão do país, a eliminação sistemática de plantas doentes tem sido aplicada desde a década de 1980 para o controle do mosaico do mamoeiro (Papaya ringspot virus - type P; PRSV-P). O uso permanente dessa prática nos últimos 25 anos levou a uma aparente seleção e predominância de isolados fracos do vírus. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: investigar a prevalência desses isolados fracos, bem como a estabilidade e o efeito protetor contra isolados severos do vírus; estudar a infecção natural de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo cv. Caserta) e abóbora moranga (C. maxima cv. Exposição) com o PRSV-P quando plantadas ao lado de mamoeiros infectados e caracterizar um isolado do Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) em infecção natural em mamoeiro. A detecção de possíveis isolados fracos do vírus foi realizada por PTAELISA, microscopia eletrônica e RT-PCR. Todos os isolados também foram inoculados mecanicamente em mamoeiro cv. Golden para avaliação de sintomas. Sequências de nucleotídeos e de aminoácidos deduzidos do gene da proteína capsidial de alguns isolados fracos mostraram identidades superiores a 89% e 90%, respectivamente, com isolados do PRSV-P. De 119 amostras de mamoeiros analisadas...

Toxoplasma gondii: diagnóstico da infecção experimental e natural em pombos (Columba livia) por técnicas sorológicas, biológicas e moleculares.; Toxoplasma gondii: diagnosis of experimental and natural infection in pigeons (Columba livia) by serological, biological and molecular techniques.

Godoi, Fernanda Sartori Lima de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/12/2009 PT
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55.92%
O trabalho teve por objetivo diagnosticar a infecção experimental e natural por Toxoplasma gondii em pombos (Columba livia), por técnicas sorológicas, biológicas e moleculares. Pombos foram infectados com oocistos esporulados de T. gondii e acompanhados por 60 dias com coleta de soro semanal para o acompanhamento da curva de anticorpos séricos e eutanásia quinzenal para avaliar a presença do parasito em diferentes tecidos. Observou-se concordância em todas as técnicas utilizadas, indicando serem eficazes no diagnóstico da infecção nessa espécie. Pombos de vida livre foram capturados nos municípios de São Paulo, Sorocaba e Ibiúna e anticorpos anti-T. gondii não foram observados. Nestas aves o bioensaio em camundongos foi realizado, independente da ausência de anticorpos e em nenhuma foi possível o isolamento do parasito.; The study aimed to diagnose the experimental and natural infection by Toxoplasma gondii in pigeons (Columba livia), by serological, biological and molecular techniques. Pigeons were infected with sporulated oocysts of T. gondii and monitored for 60 days with weekly serum collection for monitoring the curve of serum antibodies and euthanasia two weeks to assess the presence of parasites in different tissues. Agreement was observed in all the techniques used...

Natural infection with zoonotic subtype of Cryptosporidium parvum in Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from Brazil

Vasconcelos Meireles, Marcelo; Martins Soares, Rodrigo; Bonello, Fabio; Maria Gennari, Solange
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 166-170
ENG
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A total of 145 capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) fecal samples from the state of Sdo Paulo, Brazil, were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts using the malachite green method. Eight samples (5.52%) showed positive results and were further submitted to nested PCR reaction for amplification of fragments of 18S rRNA gene and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene for determination of species, alleles and subtypes of Cryptosporidium. Sequencing of the PCR products of the 18S rRNA gene fragments and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene fragments showed that for both genes all Cryptosporidium isolates from capybara were respectively 100% genetically similar to a bovine isolate of C. parvum and to C parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in this rodent. The finding of zoonotic C parvum infection in a semi-aquatic mammal that inhabits anthroponotic habitats raises the concern that human water supplies may be contaminated with zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts from wildlife. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Natural Infection with Cryptosporidium galli in Canaries (Serinus canaria), in a Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), and in Lesser Seed-Finches (Oryzoborus angolensis) from Brazil

Antunes, Romulo G.; Simoes, Daniel C.; Nakamura, Alex A.; Meireles, Marcelo V.
Fonte: Amer Assoc Avian Pathologists Publicador: Amer Assoc Avian Pathologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 702-705
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 05/53809-5; Processo FAPESP: 05/57626-2; Processo FAPESP: 05/57625-6; Processo FAPESP: 05/59173-5; Proventricular infection by Cryptosporidium sp. or Cryptosporidium galli has been associated with mortality, weight loss, diarrhea, and pasty feces. The purpose of this study is to report the occurrence of natural C. galli infection in canaries (Serinus canaria), in a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), and in lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis) with clinical complaints of apathy and sporadic mortality. Screening for Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopic examination of fecal samples and stained smears, histopathology, and nested polymerase chain reaction for actin gene and 18S ribosomal RNA gene following sequencing of amplified fragments allowed for the identification of C. galli. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. galli in birds in Brazil and the first report of this species in lesser seed-finches.

Natural infection of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a visceral-leishmaniasis focus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Nascimento,João Cezar do; Paiva,Byanca Regina de; Malafronte,Rosely dos Santos; Fernandes,Wedson Desidério; Galati,Eunice Aparecida Bianchi
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2007 EN
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The main purpose of this study was to investigate natural infection by Leishmania in phlebotomine females in a visceral-leishmaniasis focus in Antonio João county in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Between June and October 2003, the digestive tracts of 81 females captured in Aldeia Campestre, Aldeia Marangatu and Povoado Campestre were dissected. The females were separated by species, location, area and date of capture into 13 groups and kept in ethanol 70%. To identify the Leishmania species using the PCR technique, amplifications of the ribosomal-DNA (rDNA) and mini-exon genes were analyzed. Of the 81 specimens, 77 (95%) were Lutzomyia longipalpis, making this the most common species; only one specimen of each of the species Brumptomyia avellari, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia lenti and Nyssomyia whitmani was found. Trypanosomatids were identified in eight of the nine groups of Lutzomyia longipalpis (10.39%) one group from Aldeia Campestre, one from Aldeia Marangatu and six from Povoado Campestre; of the eight groups, one from Aldeia Marangatu and another, with promastigotes forms also confirmed by dissection (1.23%) from Povoado Campestre, were identified by PCR as Leishmania chagasi (2.6%). The other groups gave negative results. These findings indicate that there is a high risk of leishmaniasis transmission in this area.

Natural infection of wild rodents by Schistosoma mansoni parasitological aspects

Silva,Rosângela Rodrigues e; Silva,José Roberto Machado e; Faerstein,Nilcéa Freire; Lenzi,Henrique Leonel; Rey,Luis
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1992 EN
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The evaluation of the role of rodents as natural hosts of Schistosoma mansoni was studied at the Pamparrão Valley, Sumidouro, RJ, with monthly captures and examination of the animals. Twenty-three Nectomys squamipes and 9 Akodom arviculoides with a shistosomal infection rate of 56.5% and 22.2% respectively eliminated a great majority of viable eggs. With a strain isolated from one of the naturally infected N. squamipes, we infected 75% of simpatric Biomphalaria glabrata and 100% of albino Mus musculus mice. The adult worms, isolated from N. squamipes after perfusion were located mainly in the liver (91.5%) and the mesenteric veins (8.5%). The male/female proportion was 2:1. The eggs were distributed on small intestine segments (proximal, medial and distal portions) and the large intestine without any significant differences in egg concentration of these segments. In A. arviculoides, the few eggs eliminated by the stools were viable and there was litlle egg retention on intestinal segments. Considering the ease to complete S. mansoni biological cycle in the Nectomys/Biomphalaria/Nectomys system under laboratory conditions, probably the same is likely to occur in natural conditions. In support to this hypotesis there are also the facts that human mansonic shistosomiasis has a very low prevalence in Sumidouro and endemicity among the rodents has not changed even after repetead treatments of the local patients. Based on our experiments...

Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)

Costa,Jane; Almeida,Josimar Ribeiro de; Britto,Celia; Duarte,Rosemere; Marchon-Silva,Verônica; Pacheco,Raquel da S
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911), it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941), the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956), the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources...

Longitudinal Study on the Natural Infection of Biomphalaria straminea and B. glabrata by Schistosoma mansoni in an Endemic Area of Schistosomiasis in Pernambuco, Brazil

Favre,Tereza C; Pieri,Otávio S; Zani,Luciana C; Ferreira,Jainne M; Domás,Glauce G; Beck,Lilian H; Barbosa,Constança S
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
The abundance of snail hosts and the rates of infection with Schistosoma mansoni were monitored monthly for four years in two representative localities subjected to repeated chemotherapy of infected persons. Snail abundance varied from 1.0 to 4.4 collected per person/minute/station for Biomphalaria straminea and from 0.1 to 7.0 for B. glabrata. Infection rates of snails in nature varied from 0% to 15% for the former and from 0% to 70% for the latter species. Human infection increased from 35.5% to 61.9% in the locality occupied by B. straminea, and decreased from 40.3% to 20.8% in that occupied by B. glabrata. No relationship could be detected between human infection and the snail variables. Despite seasonal variations, natural infection persisted throughout the monitoring period in both snail species. It reached remarkably high levels in B. straminea when compared to those obtained by other authors probably because of differences in methodology. It is recommended that longitudinal studies should be carried out focally and periodically to avoid underestimating the prevalence of schistosome infection in snails.

Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia

Trujillo,Adolfo Vasquez; Reina,Angelica E Gonzalez; Orjuela,Agustin Gongora; Suarez,Edgar Prieto; Palomares,Jairo Enrique; Alvarez,Luz Stella Buitrago
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.95%
Lutzomyia antunesi has been commonly reported in outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. The bionomics of this species were studied in the municipality of Villavicencio (Meta, Colombia). Sandflies were captured over the course of one week per month for one year in intradomiciliary, peridomiciliary and extradomiciliary housing areas. The captures were performed from 06:00 pm-06:00 am using CDC light traps and the females were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Leishmania spp. A total of 22,097 specimens and 19 species were captured of which Lu. antunesi (89%) and Lutzomyia walkeri (5%) were the most abundant. Other species recognised as anthropophilic (Lutzomyia panamensis, Lutzomyia gomezi, Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and Lutzomyia fairtigi) were present in very low abundance (< 2%). Natural infection with Leishmania spp was detected using PCR in Lu. antunesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. flavicutellata, showing infection rates of 1%, 4.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The present paper provides information on various ecological aspects of Lu. antunesi. An analysis of seasonality shows that this species increases in abundance in the hottest months (December, January and February), directly correlating with the maximum temperature and inversely correlating with precipitation. The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance.

Coccidiosis in japanese quails (Coturnix japonica): characterization of a naturally occurring infection in a commercial rearing farm

Teixeira,M; Teixeira Filho,WL; Lopes,CWG
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.86%
A study about coccidiosis in Japanese quails was carried out in order to identify species of the genus Eimeria and characterize a naturally occurring infection in a commercial rearing farm. For this purpose, fecal exams, oocyst counting and morphological study were performed, besides necropsy and histopathology to confirm diagnosis. Three species of the genus Eimeria were found and identified as E. tsunodai, E. uzura and E. bateri. The natural infection was characterized as subclinical because of the mild and nonspecific clinical signs. Nevertheless, coccidiosis was considered an important disease because endogenous stages of the parasites and a high number of oocysts in feces were associated with intestinal lesions. The results suggest that such infection might represent a limiting factor to this branch of the modern poultry industry.

Use of enzyme immunoassays and the latex agglutination test to measure the temporal appearance of immunoglobulin G and M antibodies after natural infection or immunization with rubella virus.

Meegan, J M; Evans, B K; Horstmann, D M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1983 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
The time course of appearance of antibodies after infection with rubella virus was determined with an immunoglobulin G (IgG) detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a latex agglutination test, and an IgM detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In six naturally infected rubella patients and 26 vaccinees, antibodies measured by either the IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or the latex agglutination test generally appeared in parallel with those detected by the hemagglutination inhibition test. By 28 days after inoculation of live virus vaccine and by 2 days postonset of clinical rubella symptoms caused by natural infection, antibodies were found by the two tests for all individuals. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used to detect rubella-specific IgM. After natural infection, IgM appeared earlier than IgG, and although IgM titers decreased rapidly postinfection, in four of five patients antibodies were still detectable 40 to 43 days after the onset of clinical symptoms. After vaccine-induced infection, rubella-specific IgM was lower in titer than after natural infection and was detected in only three of seven vaccinees 70 days post-immunization.

Evolutionary Dynamics of the Glycan Shield of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope during Natural Infection and Implications for Exposure of the 2G12 Epitope

Dacheux, Laurent; Moreau, Alain; Ataman-Önal, Yasemin; Biron, François; Verrier, Bernard; Barin, Francis
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Elucidation of the kinetics of exposure of neutralizing epitopes on the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during the course of infection may provide key information about how HIV escapes the immune system or why its envelope is such a poor immunogen to induce broadly efficient neutralizing antibodies. We analyzed the kinetics of exposure of the epitopes corresponding to the broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies immunoglobulin G1b12 (IgG1b12), 2G12, and 2F5 at the quasispecies level during infection. We studied the antigenicity and sequences of 94 full-length envelope clones present during primary infection and at least 4 years later in four HIV-1 clade B-infected patients. No or only minor exposure differences were observed for the 2F5 and IgG1b12 epitopes between the early and late clones. Conversely, the envelope glycoproteins of the HIV-1 quasispecies present during primary infection did not expose the 2G12 neutralizing epitope, unlike those present after several years in three of the four patients. Sequence analysis revealed major differences at potential N-linked glycosylation sites between early and late clones, particularly at positions known to be important for 2G12 binding. Our study, in natural mutants...

Differential Specificity and Immunogenicity of Adenovirus Type 5 Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by Natural Infection or Immunization▿

Cheng, Cheng; Gall, Jason G. D.; Nason, Martha; King, C. Richter; Koup, Richard A.; Roederer, Mario; McElrath, M. Juliana; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Churchyard, Gavin; Baden, Lindsey R.; Duerr, Ann C.; Keefer, Michael C.; Graham, Barney S.; Nabel, Gary J.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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A recent clinical trial of a T-cell-based AIDS vaccine delivered with recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) vectors showed no efficacy in lowering viral load and was associated with increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Preexisting immunity to Ad5 in humans could therefore affect both immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy. We hypothesized that vaccine-induced immunity is differentially affected, depending on whether subjects were exposed to Ad5 by natural infection or by vaccination. Serum samples from vaccine trial subjects receiving a DNA/rAd5 AIDS vaccine with or without prior immunity to Ad5 were examined for the specificity of their Ad5 neutralizing antibodies and their effect on HIV-1 immune responses. Here, we report that rAd5 neutralizing antibodies were directed to different components of the virion, depending on whether they were elicited by natural infection or vaccination in HIV vaccine trial subjects. Neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection were directed largely to the Ad5 fiber, while exposure to rAd5 through vaccination elicited antibodies primarily to capsid proteins other than fiber. Notably, preexisting immunity to Ad5 fiber from natural infection significantly reduced the CD4 and CD8 cell responses to HIV Gag after DNA/rAd5 vaccination. The specificity of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies therefore differs depending on the route of exposure...

Differences in Antibody Responses of Individuals with Natural Infection and Those Vaccinated against Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza▿

Chan, Kwok-Hung; To, Kelvin K. W.; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Zhang, Anna J. X.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Tse, Herman; Che, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The differential antibody response measured by the commonly used hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays in patients with natural infection and vaccination has not been fully assessed. HI and conventional MN (CMN) assays were performed on sera from 651 patients with natural infection by pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus and on sera from 567 recipients of the corresponding vaccine. Surprisingly, the overall seroprotection rates determined by CMN and HI assays in vaccine recipients were only 44.8 and 35.1%, respectively. Antibody titers measured by the CMN assay was significantly higher than that obtained by HI assay in vaccine recipients aged ≥50 years, but these titers were not significantly different among younger vaccine recipients. In contrast, the HI titer was greater than the CMN titer for the age group from 16 to 29 years but was not significantly different in other age groups for natural infection. Lower antibody levels were found in both naturally infected patients and immunized recipients in the older than in the younger age groups, but naturally infected patients exhibited higher HI and CMN titers than did the corresponding vaccine recipients. In addition, we developed a rapid fluorescent focus microneutralization (FFMN) assay to test sera from naturally infected patients. The FFMN assay has a better correlation with CMN than with HI (ρ = 0.810 versus 0.684)...

Pattern of Circulation of Norovirus GII Strains during Natural Infection

Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Fobisong, Cajetan; Tah, Ferdinand; Lindh, Magnus; Nkuo-Akenji, Theresia; Bergström, Tomas
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.95%
Norovirus (NoV) is considered a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis among people of all ages worldwide, but the natural course of infection is incompletely known. In this study, the pattern of circulation of NoVs was studied among 146 children and 137 adults in a small community in southwestern Cameroon. The participants provided monthly fecal samples during a year. NoV RNA was detected in at least one sample from 82 (29%) of the participants. The partial VP1 region could be sequenced in 36 NoV GII-positive samples. Three different genotypes were identified (GII.1, GII.4, and GII.17), with each genotype circulating within 2 to 3 months and reappearing after a relapse period of 2 to 3 months. Most infections occurred once, and 2 episodes at most within a year were detected. No difference in the frequency of NoV infection between children and adults was recorded. The same genotype was detected for a maximum of 2 consecutive months in 3 children only, suggesting that a less than 30-day duration of viral shedding in natural infection was common. Reinfection within a year with the same genotype was not observed, consistent with short-term homotypic immune protection. The study revealed that NoV strains are circulating with a limited duration of viral shedding both in the individuals and the population as part of their natural infection. The results also provide evidence of cross-protective immunity of limited duration between genotypes of the same genogroup.

Dinâmica da infecção natural por Babesia bigemina em bezerros a partir do nascimento detectado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase; Dinamic of natural infection in newborn calves exposed to by Babesia bigemina as detected by polimerase reaction chain

SANTANA, Ângela Patrícia; LINHARES, Guido Fontgalland Coelho; MURATA, Luci Sayori; BERNAL, Francisco Ernesto; TORRES, Fernando Araripe; MADRUGA, Cláudio Roberto
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás
Tipo: Artigo publicado em periódico científico
PT_BR
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v.9, n.3, p.721-730, jul./set. 2008.; Com o objetivo de estudar por PCR a dinâmica da infecção natural da Babesia bigemina em bezerros criados em sistema extensivo, foram colhidas 266 amostras de sangue de um grupo de 37 bezerros, a partir do nascimento até aproximadamente 165 dias de vida, com intervalo médio de 19 dias entre as colheitas. Distribuíram-se as amostras de acordo com os grupos de diferentes faixas etárias (entre 0 e 15 dias, entre 16 e 30 dias e assim sucessivamente até 165 dias). Do total de 266 amostras, 116 (43,60%) mostraram-se positivas para a PCR. A reação foi capaz de detectar a presença do parasito em todos os intervalos das colheitas e registrou-se o maior número de primo-infecções – 12 em 37 (32,43%) – no período de 31 a 45 dias. Dos 37 bezerros estudados, apenas um apresentou resultado da PCR positivo nos dois grupos de faixa etária inferior a 31 dias. Este animal apresentava dois dias de vida no momento da colheita, sugerindo um caso de transmissão transplacentária de B. bigemina. _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ABSTRACT _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ With the objetive of using PCR to study the dynamic of natural infection caused by Babesia bigemina in calves livestock in extensive system...

Feeding habits, natural infection and distribution of domiciliary Triatominae bugs Northeast of Brazil; Hábitos alimentares, infecção natural e distribuição de triotomíneos domiciliados na região nordeste do Brasil

Forattini, Oswaldo Paulo; Barata, José Maria Soares; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Silveira, Antônio Carlos
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/1981 POR
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São apresentadas as informações obtidas no inquérito triatomíneo levado a efeito na região nordeste do Brasil. As características biogeográficas incluem a presença de áreas semi-áridas da caatinga e amplas faixas transicionais com outras feições paisagísticas. Entre estas foram incluídas as da floresta tropical atlântica e as inclusões florestadas mais extensas. No período de 1975 a 1980 foram examinados 15.342 triotomíneos coletados no ambiente domiciliar, visando detectar as presenças de sangue ingerido e de infecção natural por Trypanosoma tipo cruzi. O conteúdo intestinal foi submetido a reações com antisoros para homem, cão, gato, roedor (Kattus), marsupial (Didelphis) e ave (Gallus). Por ordem de freqüência, as espécies encontradas foram Triatoma pseudomaculada (40,6%), Panstrongylus megistus (19,7%), Triatoma brasiliensis e T. sordida (ambos com 14,3%), Rhodnius nasutus (6,1%) e Triatoma infestans (1,1%); além de em algumas outras raras. A presença de sangue foi detectada em 42,4% e a infecção em 3,4% desse total de espécimens examinados. Observou-se elevada mobilidade alimentar, com coeficientes gerais de 54,8% para ave e 30,0% para homem. Em nível específico pôde determinar apreciável grau de antropofilia em P. megistus e...

Infecção natural de flebotomíneos (Diptera: Psychodidae) em foco de leishmaniose visceral no Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil; Natural infection of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a visceral-leishmaniasis focus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Nascimento, João Cezar do; Paiva, Byanca Regina de; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Fernandes, Wedson Desidério; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2007 ENG
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Com o objetivo de investigar a infecção natural por Leishmania em fêmeas de flebotomíneos, em um foco de leishmaniose visceral, no município de Antônio João, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, no período de junho a outubro de 2003, dissecou-se o trato digestivo de 81 fêmeas de cinco espécies de flebotomíneos capturadas em três localidades: Aldeia Campestre, Aldeia Marangatu e Povoado Campestre. Após dissecção estas foram divididas em 13 grupos monoespecíficos e armazenadas em etanol 70%. Para identificação das espécies de Leishmania pela técnica de PCR, esses grupos foram analisados por meio da amplificação dos genes de DNA ribossômico e mini-exon. Das fêmeas analisadas, Lutzomyia longipalpis foi a espécie mais freqüente com 95% (77/81) dos espécimes e apenas um exemplar das demais espécies, Brumptomyia avellari, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia lenti e Nyssomyia whitmani, foi encontrado. Tripanosomatídeos foram identificados em oito dos nove grupos de L. longipalpis (10,39%), sendo um da Aldeia Campestre, seis do Povoado Campestre e um da Aldeia Mangaratu. Desses, dois (2,6%) foram identificados, por PCR, como Leishmania chagasi sendo um proveniente da Aldeia Mangaratu e outro, que em dissecção apresentou formas promastigotas (1...