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Plant biology in the future

Bazzaz, F. A.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/05/2001 EN
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In the beginning of modern plant biology, plant biologists followed a simple model for their science. This model included important branches of plant biology known then. Of course, plants had to be identified and classified first. Thus, there was much work on taxonomy, genetics, and physiology. Ecology and evolution were approached implicitly, rather than explicitly, through paleobotany, taxonomy, morphology, and historical geography. However, the burgeoning explosion of knowledge and great advances in molecular biology, e.g., to the extent that genes for specific traits can be added (or deleted) at will, have created a revolution in the study of plants. Genomics in agriculture has made it possible to address many important issues in crop production by the identification and manipulation of genes in crop plants. The current model of plant study differs from the previous one in that it places greater emphasis on developmental controls and on evolution by differential fitness. In a rapidly changing environment, the current model also explicitly considers the phenotypic variation among individuals on which selection operates. These are calls for the unity of science. In fact, the proponents of “Complexity Theory” think there are common algorithms describing all levels of organization...

Plant genetic resources: What can they contribute toward increased crop productivity?

Hoisington, David; Khairallah, Mireille; Reeves, Timothy; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Skovmand, Bent; Taba, Suketoshi; Warburton, Marilyn
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/05/1999 EN
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To feed a world population growing by up to 160 people per minute, with >90% of them in developing countries, will require an astonishing increase in food production. Forecasts call for wheat to become the most important cereal in the world, with maize close behind; together, these crops will account for ≈80% of developing countries’ cereal import requirements. Access to a range of genetic diversity is critical to the success of breeding programs. The global effort to assemble, document, and utilize these resources is enormous, and the genetic diversity in the collections is critical to the world’s fight against hunger. The introgression of genes that reduced plant height and increased disease and viral resistance in wheat provided the foundation for the “Green Revolution” and demonstrated the tremendous impact that genetic resources can have on production. Wheat hybrids and synthetics may provide the yield increases needed in the future. A wild relative of maize, Tripsacum, represents an untapped genetic resource for abiotic and biotic stress resistance and for apomixis, a trait that could provide developing world farmers access to hybrid technology. Ownership of genetic resources and genes must be resolved to ensure global access to these critical resources. The application of molecular and genetic engineering technologies enhances the use of genetic resources. The effective and complementary use of all of our technological tools and resources will be required for meeting the challenge posed by the world’s expanding demand for food.

Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production

Allwood, Julian M.; Ashby, Michael F.; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Worrell, Ernst
Fonte: The Royal Society Publishing Publicador: The Royal Society Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/03/2013 EN
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Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production...

Indicadores bibliométricos em sistemas de informação: uma análise a partir de artigos publicados no Encontro Nacional de Engenharia de Produção; Bibliometric indicators of the information systems: an analysis from the articles published in the National Meeting of Production Engineering

Marques, Márcia Maria
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção; Estratégia; Qualidade; Gestão Ambiental; Gestão da Produção e Operações
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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This research aims at to contribute to show the consolidation of the area of Information Systems (IS) as area of knowledge in Production Engineering. For this, it according to presents a scenery of the publication in IS in the field of the Production Engineering in Brazil amount of articles, the authorship profile, the methodologies, the citations, the research thematic and the continuity of the research thematic. The base for this study was the works published in the National Meeting of Production Engineering - ENEGEP of years 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2004, inside of the area of Information Systems. Classified as bibliographical research, of applied nature, quantitative boarding, of the point of view of the objectives description-exploration was called and for the collection of data its comment was systematic with bibliographical survey. As field research, the method of collection of data if constituted of the elaboration of an analysis protocol and, to arrive itself at the final diagnosis, it operation the data through the statistical method, with the accomplishment of descriptive analyses. It approached concepts of IS and the seek areas and, it studied research correlate in Production Engineering, in Information Systems, in Information Science and other areas of the knowledge. How much to the results one concluded that the national and international contents are compatible and that the area of IS is in constant evolution. For the continuity of research lines it was observed that the majority of the authors was faithful to the area of Systems of Information. Amongst other found results...

Yield Impact of Irrigation Management Transfer : Story from the Philippines

Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Shyamsundar, Priya; Xei, Mei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Irrigation management transfer is an important strategy among donors and governments to strengthen farmer control over water and irrigation infrastructure. This study seeks to understand whether irrigation management transfer is meeting the promise of its commitments. The authors use data from a survey of 68 irrigator associations and 1,020 farm households in the Philippines to estimate the impact of irrigation management transfer on irrigation association performance and on rice yields. They also estimate a stochastic frontier production function to assess contributions to technical efficiency. There are three main results. First, the presence of irrigation management transfer is associated with an increase in maintenance activities undertaken by irrigation associations. Second, by increasing local control over water delivery, the presence of irrigation management transfer is associated with a 2-6 percent increase in farm yields. Rice production in irrigation management transfer areas is greater even after controlling for various differences among rice farmers in transfer and non-transfer areas. Third...

WWER RPV Embrittlement Knowledge Consolidation

Fonte: Inderscience Publicador: Inderscience
Tipo: Books Formato: Printed
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In the beginning of this millennium several publications from different National and International Organizations [1-5] were forecasting a shortcoming regarding nuclear knowledge transfer to the next generation of nuclear experts. Also the education of new nuclear experts was observed as having a downwards trend quantitatively. Now, with the renaissance of nuclear energy production, student numbers are rising again. But still, there is a gap to fill, both in terms of educating students to become nuclear engineers, and passing the nuclear knowledge acquired by the experts of the first generation of nuclear reactor design. Therefore, the Institute for Energy (IE) of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) has started in 2008 an activity related to the transfer of knowledge to the next generation. The project is named CAPTURE (Knowledge Management, Training and Education in Reactor Design and Operation) and has its own Website http://capture.jrc.ec.europa.eu. CAPTURE is aiming to preserve, consolidate and disseminate nuclear knowledge [6] as well as looking at possible shortcomings in the related human resource capital in the EU. This is done mainly in view of supporting the development of the next generation (GEN IV) of nuclear reactors and the lifetime extension licensing for the present nuclear reactors. In some specific areas...

Editorial: Special edition on HTR 2012 conference

HINO Ryutaro; FUETTERER Michael; HASSAN Yassin A.
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Online
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This special edition features selected articles from the 6th International Topical Meeting on High Temperature Reactor Technology (HTR 2012), held under the motto “Nuclear Energy for the Future” from October 28 to November 1, 2012 in Tokyo, Japan. Following earlier HTR Conferences in Petten (2002), Beijing (2004), Johannesburg (2006), Washington, DC (2008), and Prague (2010), this meeting served once again as a podium for more than 200 stakeholders in HTR technology from 13 countries: vendors, utilities, engineering firms, end-user companies and research organizations. Japan as the venue for this conference had been agreed upon well before the Fukushima-Daiichi accident. All participants have honored the undivided commitment of the Japanese organizers to maintain this event, despite already huge workloads and the risk of anti-nuclear demonstrations against this conference. A keynote speech on the situation in Japan in the aftermath of Fukushima triggered multiple discussions on how to make nuclear energy safer and how to communicate correctly with the public and industrial and political decision makers. In three plenary sessions national perspectives and energy policies were presented, and it was discussed how HTR deployment could be accelerated. A panel session was devoted to a discussion on which safety standards to set for commercial HTRs. The technical sessions saw active discussions on HTR development plans in various countries and in eight topics...

Policy and Investment Priorities to Reduce Environmental Degradation of the Lake Nicaragua Watershed (Cocibolca) : Addressing Key Environmental Challenges; Prioridades de política e inversion para reducir la degradacion ambiental de la cuenca del lago de Nicaragua (Cocibolca) : los principales desafíos ambientales

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This study, policy and investment priorities to reduce environmental degradation of the Lake Nicaragua watershed, has assessed the sources and the magnitude of the pressures that threaten Lake Cocibolca. It was accomplished by applying a hydrological and land use model to the lake's watershed and by conducting additional estimates of nutrients generated from wastewater sources and tilapia farming. The study has confirmed that sediment loads are very high, and has estimated their magnitude in each sub-watershed. The key results of the study are the estimation of sedimentation levels in the watershed and the identification of erosion hotspots. The Lake Cocibolca watershed is a globally unique cradle of biodiversity with major importance not only to the global and local environment, but also to the 750,000 people living within its boundaries. Several fish species are endemic to the lake, and the watershed's location within the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor has made it a meeting ground for fish, bird and mammal species from North and South America. Apart from its importance for fishing and recreation industries...

China - Meeting the Challenges of Offshore and Large-Scale Wind Power : Strategic Guidance

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
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In view of the escalating global problems associated with the environment, energy, and natural resources, especially the increasing sign of global climate change, wind power is receiving more and more high-level attention on a global scale, and it has reached a rapid rate of development as a result of the combined efforts of various countries. The world's installed capacity of wind power has already surpassed 100 GW, and wind power has become an essential part of the world's energy structure. This publication comprises three main parts: i) part A contains the key messages emerging from the research and analytical work undertaken by Garrad Hassan and Partners Limited, the team of Chinese experts led by the national energy administration, and staff and consultants of the World Bank; ii) part B comprises the Garrad Hassan and Partners Limited study, 'implementation guidance for offshore and large-scale onshore wind power development in China,' and its annexes; and iii) part C focuses on the workshop on offshore and intertidal wind power development in China...

Automatização da Traçabilidade das Linhas de Carters na Renault Cacia

Pinho, Flávia Andreia Soares
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
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Flávia Andreia Soares Pinho v Resumo No âmbito da tese de Mestrado em Engenharia e Gestão Industrial da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologias da Universidade de Coimbra, desenvolveu-se um projeto de traçabilidade na área da produção. Este trabalho teve origem no estudo de um modelo de traçabilidade de uma linha de produção de carters, mecanismo e embraiagem, de uma empresa do ramo automóvel, Renault Cacia, situada em Aveiro. Observando-se a concorrência entre as indústrias de componentes para automóveis pela conquista dos mercados nacional e internacional, percebeu-se que a traçabilidade é um item de qualidade que propicia um diferencial competitivo. Surgiu portanto a necessidade de avaliar os métodos de traçabilidade de peças existentes e encontrar o método ideal para a empresa em questão. Este estudo culminou na escolha do método de traçabilidade mais apropriado, tendo em conta o processo de fabrico, com menores custos e maior facilidade de aplicação, de maneira a propiciar ganho de produtividade e de qualidade, além de atender as exigências dos clientes.; Abstract Under the Master's thesis in Industrial Engineering and Management, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, was developed a traceability project in the production area. This work originated in the study of a traceability model on a production line of housings...

Cell-based therapies of liver diseases: age-related challenges

Yarygin, Konstantin N; Lupatov, Alexei Y; Kholodenko, Irina V
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2015 EN
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The scope of this review is to revise recent advances of the cell-based therapies of liver diseases with an emphasis on cell donor’s and patient’s age. Regenerative medicine with cell-based technologies as its integral part is focused on the structural and functional restoration of tissues impaired by sickness or aging. Unlike drug-based medicine directed primarily at alleviation of symptoms, regenerative medicine offers a more holistic approach to disease and senescence management aimed to achieve restoration of homeostasis. Hepatocyte transplantation and organ engineering are very probable forthcoming options of liver disease treatment in people of different ages and vigorous research and technological innovations in this area are in progress. Accordingly, availability of sufficient amounts of functional human hepatocytes is crucial. Direct isolation of autologous hepatocytes from liver biopsy is problematic due to related discomfort and difficulties with further expansion of cells, particularly those derived from aging people. Allogeneic primary human hepatocytes meeting quality standards are also in short supply. Alternatively, autologous hepatocytes can be produced by reprogramming of differentiated cells through the stage of induced pluripotent stem cells. In addition...