Polymer (XAD7HP)/Ti4+ nanocomposites were prepared through the swelling of polymer in titanium (IV) ethoxide as a titanium dioxide precursor. The nanocomposite beads exhibit relatively high porosity different than the porosity of the initial polymer. Thermal treatment of composite particles up to 200 °C in vacuum causes the change of their internal structure. At higher temperature, the components of composite become more tightly packed. Calcination at 600 °C and total removal of polymer produce spherically shaped TiO2 condensed phase as determined by XRD. Thermally treated composites show the substantial change of pore dimensions within micro- and mesopores. The presence of micropores and their transformation during thermal processing was studied successfully by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The results derived from PALS experiment were compared with those obtaining from low-temperature nitrogen adsorption data.
A hybrid nanocomposite material has been obtained by in situ formation of an inorganic network in the presence of a preformed organic polymer. Chitosan biopolymer and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), which is the most common silica precursor, were used for the sol-gel reaction. The obtained composite chitosan-silica material has been characterized by physicochemical methods such as differential thermal analyses (DTA); carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) elemental analysis; nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM); and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine possible interactions between silica and chitosan macromolecules. Adsorption of microquantities of V(V), Mo(VI), and Cr(VI) oxoanions from the aqueous solutions by the obtained composite has been studied in comparison with the chitosan beads, previously crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. The adsorption capacity and kinetic sorption characteristics of the composite material were estimated.
The evolution of the polymer structure during nanocomposite formation and
annealing of silica-latex nanocomposites is studied using contrast-variation
small angle neutron scattering. The experimental system is made of silica
nanoparticles (Rsi \approx 8 nm) and a mixture of purpose-synthesized
hydrogenated and deuterated nanolatex (Rlatex \approx 12.5 nm). The progressive
disappearance of the latex beads by chain interdiffusion and release in the
nanocomposites is analyzed quantitatively with a model for the scattered
intensity of hairy latex beads and an RPA description of the free chains. In
silica-free matrices and nanocomposites of low silica content (7%v), the
annealing procedure over weeks at up to Tg + 85 K results in a molecular
dispersion of chains, the radius of gyration of which is reported. At higher
silica content (20%v), chain interdiffusion seems to be slowed down on
time-scales of weeks, reaching a molecular dispersion only at the strongest
annealing. Chain radii of gyration are found to be unaffected by the presence
of the silica filler.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may induce metastases when detached from the primary tumor. The numbers of these cells in blood offers a valuable prognostic indication. Magnetoresistive sensing is an attractive option for CTC counting. In this technique, cells are labeled with nancomposite polymer beads that provide the magnetic signal. Bead properties such as size and magnetic content must be optimized in order to be used as a detection tool in a magnetoresistive platform. Another important component of the platform is the magnet required for proper sensing. Both components are addressed in this work. Nanocomposite polymer beads were produced by nano-emulsion and membrane emulsification. Formulations of the oil phase comprising a mixture of aromatic monomers and iron oxide were employed. The effect of emulsifier (surfactant) concentration on bead size was studied. Formulations of polydimethilsiloxane (PDMS) with different viscosities were also prepared with nano-emulsion method resulting in colloidal beads. Polycaprolactone (PCL) beads were also synthetized by the membrane emulsification method. The beads were characterized by different techiques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally...