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Effects of bilateral adrenalectomy on systemic kainate-induced activation of the nucleus of the solitary tract. Regulation of blood pressure and local neurotransmitters

FERRARI, Merari F. R.; FIOR-CHADI, Debora R.; CHADI, Gerson
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.48%
Glutamatergic transmission through metabotropic and ionotropic receptors, including kainate receptors, plays an important role in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) functions. Glutamate system may interact with several other neurotransmitter systems which might also be influenced by steroid hormones. In the present study we analyzed the ability of systemic kainate to stimulate rat NTS neurons, which was evaluated by c-Fos as a marker of neuronal activation, and also to change the levels of NTS neurotransmitters such as GABA, NPY, CGRP, GAL, NT and NO by means of quantitative immunohistichemistry combined with image analysis. The analysis was also performed in adrenalectomized and kainate stimulated rats in order to evaluate a possible role of adrenal hormones on NTS neurotransmission. Male Wistar rats (3 month-old) were used in the present study. A group of 15 rats was submitted either to bilateral adrenalectomy or sham operation. Forty-eight hours after the surgeries, adrenalectomized rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of kainate (12 mg/kg) and the sham-operated rats were injected either with saline or kainate and sacrificed 8 hours later. The same experimental design was applied in a group of rats in order to register the arterial blood pressure. Systemic kainate decreased the basal values of mean arterial blood pressure (35%) and heart rate (22%) of sham-operated rats...

Evolução temporal dos efeitos do treinamento aeróbio sobre o conteúdo de ácido g-aminobutírico e glutamato em áreas de controle autonômico de ratos normotensos e hipertensos.; Temporal evolution of the effects of aerobic training on the content of g-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in areas of autonomic control of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

Ruggeri, Adriana
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/02/2012 PT
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26.37%
A hipertensão arterial cursa com hiperativação de neurônios glutamatérgicos (excitatórios) e depressão de neurônios gabaérgicos (inibitórios) em áreas centrais autonômicas. Avaliamos em ratos SHR e WKY os efeitos temporais do treinamento aeróbio (T) sobre a expressão/funcionalidade das vias gabaérgicas e glutamatérgicas no núcleo paraventricular do hipotálamo (PVN), núcleo do trato solitário (NTS) e bulbo ventrolateral rostral (RVLM), correlacionando-as a dados hemodinâmicos. SHRs apresentavam elevada PAM e FC e níveis elevados de RNAm de GAD67 no NTS. T promoveu bradicardia de repouso (T2 SHR e T8 WKY) e redução da PAM nos SHR (T8). O aumento de GAD em SHR e WKY induzido pelo T correlacionava-se com a redução da FC basal. T determinou aumento da razão inibição/excitação nos WKY e não a alterou nos SHR. Alterações nas expressões gênicas foram confirmadas por alterações similares na expressão protéica. Assim, o aumento da inibição gabaérgica essencialmente no PVN de WKY e SHR treinados é um fator determinante para a instalação da bradicardia de repouso.; Hypertension is accompanied by hyperactivity of glutamatergic (excitatory) and depression of gabaergic (inhibitory) neurons in autonomic areas driving cardiovascular control. Evaluated in SHR and WKY rats the time effects of T on cardiovascular parameters and on the expression/activity of gabaergic and glutamatergic pathways in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...

Organization of 5S rDNA in species of the fish Leporinus: two different genomic locations are characterized by distinct nontranscribed spacers

Martins, C.; Galetti, P. M.
Fonte: Natl Research Council Canada Publicador: Natl Research Council Canada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 903-910
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.48%
To address understanding the organization of the 5S rRNA multigene family in the fish genome, the nucleotide sequence and organization array of 5S rDNA were investigated in the genus Leporinus, a representative freshwater fish group of South American fauna. PCR, subgenomic library screening, genomic blotting, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and DNA sequencing were employed in this study. Two arrays of 5S rDNA were identified for all species investigated, one consisting of monomeric repeat units of around 200 bp and another one with monomers of 900 bp. These 5S rDNA arrays were characterized by distinct NTS sequences (designated NTS-I and NTS-II for the 200- and 900-bp monomers, respectively); however, their coding sequences were nearly identical. The 5S rRNA genes were clustered in two chromosome loci, a major one corresponding to the NTS-I sites and a minor one corresponding to the NTS-II sites. The NTS-I sequence was variable among Leporinus spp., whereas the NTS-II was conserved among them and even in the related genus Schizodon. The distinct 5S rDNA arrays might characterize two 5S rRNA gene subfamilies that have been evolving independently in the genome.

Estudo da organização do gene ribossomal 5S em populações de Engystomops da Amazônia (Anura, Leiuperidae); The study of the organization of the 5S ribosomal gene in populations of Amazonian Engystomops (Anura, Leiuperidae)

Débora Silva Rodrigues
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
O gênero Engystomops apresenta ampla distribuição geográfica e constitui um interessante grupo de anuros para estudos cariotípicos. As populações de Engystomops encontradas na Amazônia têm sua identificação taxonômica ainda controversa. Análises genéticas e citogenéticas apoiam hipóteses que sugerem a existência de um complexo de espécies crípticas e especiação incipiente. Muitas vezes a variação citogenética observada entre diferentes populações estudadas dificultou o reconhecimento de homeologias cromossômicas entre os cariótipos. Uma caracterização cromossômica mais detalhada poderia auxiliar no possível reconhecimento de homeologias cromossômicas e, dessa forma, contribuir para o estudo dos processos envolvidos na divergência desses anuros. Já que o gene do DNAr 5S tem sido importante marcador genético e citogenético para estudos evolutivos e para a identificação e comparação de espécies em diversos grupos, no presente trabalho o DNAr 5S de Engystomops freibergi e de exemplares de Engystomops petersi de duas localidades Equatorianas (Puyo e Yasuní) foi estudado. Em todos os casos, dois tipos de DNAr 5S, facilmente diferenciados pelo tamanho e composição da sequência do seu espaçador não transcrito...

In situ transcription and splicing in the Balbiani ring 3 gene

Wetterberg, Ingela; Zhao, Jian; Masich, Sergej; Wieslander, Lars; Skoglund, Ulf
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
The Balbiani ring 3 (BR3) gene contains 38 introns, and more than half of them are co-transcriptionally excised. We have determined the in situ structure of the active BR3 gene by electron tomography. Each of the 20–25 nascent transcripts on the gene is present together with splicing factors and the RNA polymerase II in a nascent transcript and splicing complex, here called the NTS complex. The results indicate that extensive changes in overall shape, substructure and molecular mass take place repeatedly within an NTS complex as it moves along the gene. The volume and calculated mass of the NTS complexes show that, maximally, one complete spliceosome is assembled on the multi-intron transcript at any given time point. The structural data show that the spliceosome is not a structurally well-defined unit in situ and that the C-terminal domain of the elongating RNA polymerase II cannot carry spliceosomal components for all introns in the BR3 transcript. Our data indicate that spliceosomal factors are continuously added to and released from the NTS complexes during transcription elongation.

Missense mutation in the alternative splice region of the PAX6 gene in eye anomalies.

Azuma, N; Yamaguchi, Y; Handa, H; Hayakawa, M; Kanai, A; Yamada, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.44%
The PAX6 gene is involved in ocular morphogenesis, and PAX6 mutations have been detected in various types of ocular anomalies, including aniridia, Peters anomaly, corneal dystrophy, congenital cataract, and foveal hypoplasia. The gene encodes a transcriptional regulator that recognizes target genes through its paired-type DNA-binding domain. The paired domain is composed of two distinct DNA-binding subdomains, the N-terminal subdomain (NTS) and the C-terminal subdomain (CTS), which bind respective consensus DNA sequences. The human PAX6 gene produces two alternative splice isoforms that have the distinct structure of the paired domain. The insertion, into the NTS, of 14 additional amino acids encoded by exon 5a abolishes the DNA-binding activity of the NTS and unmasks the DNA-binding ability of the CTS. Thus, exon 5a appears to function as a molecular switch that specifies target genes. We ascertained a novel missense mutation in four pedigrees with Peters anomaly, congenital cataract, Axenfeldt anomaly, and/or foveal hypoplasia, which, to our knowledge, is the first mutation identified in the splice-variant region. A T-->A transition at the 20th nucleotide position of exon 5a results in a Val-->Asp (GTC-->GAC) substitution at the 7th codon of the alternative splice region. Functional analyses demonstrated that the V54D mutation slightly increased NTS binding and decreased CTS transactivation activity to almost half.

19S Late mRNAs of Simian Virus 40 Have an Internal Ribosome Entry Site Upstream of the Virion Structural Protein 3 Coding Sequence

Yu, Yongjun; Alwine, James C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
The late mRNAs of simian virus 40 (SV40) are polycistronic. The 19S mRNAs encode primarily the virion structural proteins VP2 and VP3. The VP2 and VP3 coding sequences are located in the same reading frame, and the VP3 AUG is an internal AUG for VP2. We tested whether an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) might be located upstream of the VP3 AUG that would facilitate its utilization, especially late in infection when cap-dependent translation is reduced (19). Using dicistronic reporter systems for IRES detection, we detected IRES activity within SV40 nucleotides (nts) 565 to 916, the region between the VP2 and VP3 AUGs. Nuclease protection analysis and primer extension analysis indicate no aberrant transcription or splicing that could account for false prediction of an IRES. Deletion analysis of the region indicates the presence of two functional IRESs, one within nts 661 to 830 and the other within nts 771 to 915. These two regions, each containing one IRES, have essentially the same IRES activity as the entire region spanning nts 616 to 915, which contains both IRESs. This suggests that potential secondary structures in the overlapping regions spanning nts 661 to 830 and nts 771 to 915 may be in dynamic equilibrium, such that there is only one functional IRES at any one time. These data strongly suggest that an IRES can be utilized for VP3 translation from the SV40 19S late mRNAs.

Interactions between neurotensin and GnRH neurons in the positive feedback control of GnRH/LH secretion in the mouse

Dungan Lemko, Heather M.; Naderi, Roxana; Adjan, Valeriya; Jennes, Lothar H.; Navarro, Victor M.; Clifton, Donald K.; Steiner, Robert A.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.37%
In female mammals, increased ovarian estradiol (E2) secretion triggers GnRH release from neurons in the basal forebrain, which drives LH secretion from the pituitary and subsequently induces ovulation. However, the neural circuits that activate this preovulatory GnRH/LH surge remain unidentified. Neurotensin is expressed in neurons of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a region thought to be critical for generating the preovulatory GnRH/LH surge. E2 induces neurotensin (Nts) gene expression in this region, and blockade of neurotensin signaling reduces the LH surge in the rat. We postulated that neurotensin signaling plays a similar role in generating the E2-induced GnRH/LH surge in mice. We used in situ hybridization (ISH) to determine whether E2 induces Nts expression in the mouse and found evidence to support this proposition. Next, we determined that the neurotensin receptor (Ntsr2) is present in many GnRH-expressing neurons. Since the kisspeptin gene (Kiss1) is expressed in the AVPV and is responsive to E2, we predicted that some neurons in this region express both Kiss1 and Nts; however, by double-label ISH, we observed no coexpression of the two mRNAs. We also postulated that Nts mRNA expression would increase in parallel with the E2-induced LH surge and that the central (icv) administration of neurotensin would stimulate LH secretion and activation of GnRH neurons but found no evidence to support either of these hypotheses. Together...

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus as a Gene Transfer Vector in the Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarii

Lin, L. H.; Langasek, J. E.; Talman, L. S.; Taktakishvili, O. M.; Talman, W. T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.62%
Gene transfer has been used to examine the role of putative neurotransmitters in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Most such studies used adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer although adenovirus vector transfects both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Successful transfection in the NTS has also been reported with lentivirus as the vector. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a lentivirus, may preferentially transfect neurons and could be a powerful tool to delineate physiological effects produced by altered synthesis of transmitters in neurons. However, it has not been studied in NTS. Therefore, we sought to determine whether FIV transfects rat NTS cells and to define the type of cell transfected. We found that injection of FIV encoding LacZ gene (FIVLacZ) into the NTS led to transfection of numerous NTS cells. Injection of FIVLacZ did not alter immunoreactivity (IR) for neuronal nitric oxide synthase, which we have shown resides in NTS neurons. A majority (91.7 ± 3.9%) of transfected cells contained IR for neuronal nuclear antigen, a neuronal marker; 2.1 ± 3.8% of transfected cells contained IR for glial fibrillary acidic protein, a glial marker. No transfected neurons or fibers were observed in the nodose ganglion, which sends afferents to the NTS. We conclude that FIV almost exclusively transfects neurons in the rat NTS from which it is not retrogradely transported. The cell-type specificity of FIV in the NTS may provide a molecular method to study local physiological functions mediated by potential neurotransmitters in the NTS.

Pro-opiomelanocortin Gene Transfer to the NTS but not ARC Ameliorates Chronic Diet-Induced Obesity

Zhang, Y.; Rodrigues, E.; Gao, Y.X.; King, M.; Cheng, K.Y.; Erdös, B.; Tümer, N.; Carter, C.; Scarpace, P.J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.55%
Short-term pharmacological melanocortin activation deters diet-induced obesity (DIO) effectively in rodents. However, whether central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transfer targeted to the hypothalamus or hindbrain nucleus of the solitary track (NTS) can combat chronic dietary obesity has not been investigated. Four-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet for five months, and then injected with either the POMC or control vector into the hypothalamus or NTS, and body weight and food intake recorded for 68 days. Insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism and adrenal indicators of central sympathetic activation were measured, and voluntary wheel running (WR) assessed. Whereas the NTS POMC-treatment decreased cumulative food consumption and caused sustained weight reduction over 68 days, the hypothalamic POMC-treatment did not alter cumulative food intake and produced weight loss only in the first 25 days. At death, only the NTS-POMC rats had a significant decrease in fat mass. They also displayed enhanced glucose tolerance, lowered fasting insulin and increased QUICK value, and elevated adrenal indicators of central sympathetic activation. Moreover, the NTS-POMC animals exhibited a near 20% increase in distance ran relative to the respective controls...

Targeting Neurons of Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarii with the Gene Transfer Vector Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 to Up-Regulate Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

Lin, Li-Hsien; Dragon, Deidre Nitschke; Jin, Jingwen; Talman, William T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.61%
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has distinct advantages over other viral vectors in delivering genes of interest to the brain. AAV mainly transfects neurons, produces no toxicity or inflammatory responses, and yields long-term transgene expression. In this study, we first tested the hypothesis that AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) selectively transfects neurons but not glial cells in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) by examining expression of the reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), in the rat NTS after unilateral microinjection of AAV2eGFP into NTS. Expression of eGFP was observed in 1–2 cells in the NTS 1 day after injection. The number of transduced cells and the intensity of eGFP fluorescence increased from day 1 to day 28 and decreased on day 60. The majority (92.9 ± 7.0%) of eGFP expressing NTS cells contained immunoreactivity for the neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5, but not that for the glial marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein. We observed eGFP expressing neurons and fibers in the nodose ganglia (NG) both ipsilateral and contralateral to the injection. In addition, eGFP expressing fibers were present in both ipsilateral and contralateral nucleus ambiguus (NA), caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Having established that AAV2 was able to transduce a gene into NTS neurons...

Gene transfer of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in the nucleus tractus solitarius improves baroreceptor heart rate reflex in spontaneously hypertensive rats

Yamazato, Masanobu; Ferreira, Anderson J; Yamazato, Yoriko; Diez-Freire, Carlos; Yuan, Lihui; Gillies, Robert; Raizada, Mohan K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.54%
The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is an important modulator of the baroreceptor heart rate reflex. This study tested the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression is decreased in the NTS of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and that its gene transfer in this nucleus would lead to beneficial effects on baroreflex function since this enzyme is key in the regulation of the vasoprotective axis of the RAS. ACE2 protein levels and its activity were significantly decreased in the NTS of SHRs compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats. Rats instrumented with radio-telemetry transducers received NTS microinjection of either Lenti-ACE2 (Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer of ACE2) or lenti-GFP (green fluorescent protein). The ACE2 gene transfer into the NTS resulted in long-term overexpression of ACE2. This was associated with a 60% increase in heart rate baroreflex sensitivity in the lenti-ACE2 injected SHRs compared with the lenti-GFP injected control SHRs (0.27 ± 0.02 ms/mmHg in lenti-GFP rats vs. 0.44 ± 0.07 ms/mmHg in lenti-ACE2 rats). These observations demonstrate that ACE2 gene transfer overcomes its intrinsic decrease in the NTS of SHRs and improves baroreceptor heart rate reflex.

Virulence Gene Profiling and Pathogenicity Characterization of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Accounted for Invasive Disease in Humans

Suez, Jotham; Porwollik, Steffen; Dagan, Amir; Marzel, Alex; Schorr, Yosef Ilan; Desai, Prerak T.; Agmon, Vered; McClelland, Michael; Rahav, Galia; Gal-Mor, Ohad
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.41%
Human infection with non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars (NTS) infrequently causes invasive systemic disease and bacteremia. To understand better the nature of invasive NTS (iNTS), we studied the gene content and the pathogenicity of bacteremic strains from twelve serovars (Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Choleraesuis, Dublin, Virchow, Newport, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:- and Hadar). Comparative genomic hybridization using a Salmonella enterica microarray revealed a core of 3233 genes present in all of the iNTS strains, which include the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1–5, 9, 13, 14; five fimbrial operons (bcf, csg, stb, sth, sti); three colonization factors (misL, bapA, sinH); and the invasion gene, pagN. In the iNTS variable genome, we identified 16 novel genomic islets; various NTS virulence factors; and six typhoid-associated virulence genes (tcfA, cdtB, hlyE, taiA, STY1413, STY1360), displaying a wider distribution among NTS than was previously known. Characterization of the bacteremic strains in C3H/HeN mice showed clear differences in disease manifestation. Previously unreported characterization of serovars Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Bredeney and Virchow in the mouse model showed low ability to elicit systemic disease...

Suicide HSVtk Gene Delivery by Neurotensin-Polyplex Nanoparticles via the Bloodstream and GCV Treatment Specifically Inhibit the Growth of Human MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Tumors Xenografted in Athymic Mice

Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia; Martínez-Fong, Daniel
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.57%
The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis...

Maternal Separation Enhances Conditioned Fear and Decreases the mRNA Levels of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Gene with Hypermethylation of This Gene in the Rat Amygdala

Toda, Hiroyuki; Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kato, Akiko; Takamura, Naoki; Song, Ning; Nibuya, Masashi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Kusumi, Ichiro
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.49%
Stress during postnatal development is associated with an increased risk for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse later in life, almost as if mental illness is able to be programed by early life stressors. Recent studies suggest that such “programmed” effects can be caused by epigenetic regulation. With respect to conditioned fear, previous studies have indicated that early life stress influences its development in adulthood, whereas no potential role of epigenetic regulation has been reported. Neurotensin (NTS) is an endogenous neuropeptide that has receptors densely located in the amygdala and hippocampus. Recently, NTS systems have constituted an emerging target for the treatment of anxiety. The aim of the present work is to clarify whether the NTS system is involved in the disturbance of conditioned fear in rats stressed by maternal separation (MS). The results showed that MS enhanced freezing behaviors in fear-conditioned stress and reduced the gene expression of NTS receptor (NTSR) 1 but not of NTS or NTSR2 in the amygdalas of adult rats. The microinjection of a NTSR1 antagonist into the amygdala increased the percentage of freezing in conditioned fear, whereas the microinjection of NTSR1 agonist decreased freezing. These results suggest that NTSR1 in the amygdala may play a role in the effects of MS on conditioned fear stress in adult rats. Moreover...

Comparison of the global gene expression profiles in the bovine endometrium between summer and autumn

SAKUMOTO, Ryosuke; HAYASHI, Ken-Go; SAITO, Shiori; KANAHARA, Hiroko; KIZAKI, Keiichiro; IGA, Kosuke
Fonte: The Society for Reproduction and Development Publicador: The Society for Reproduction and Development
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.46%
Heat stress compromises fertility during summer in dairy and beef cows by causing nutritional, physiological and reproductive damages. To examine the difference in endometrial conditions in cows between summer and autumn, gene expression profiles were compared using a 15 K bovine oligo DNA microarray. The trial was conducted in the summer (early in September) and autumn (mid-November) seasons of two consecutive years (2013–2014) in Morioka, Japan. Endometrial samples were collected from the cows using a biopsy technique. The expressions of 268 genes were significantly higher in the endometrium collected in summer than those collected in autumn, whereas the expressions of 369 genes were lower (P<0.05 or lower). Messenger RNA expressions of glycoprotein 2 (GP2), neurotensin (NTS),E-cadherin (CDH1) and heat shock 105kDa/110kDa protein 1 (HSPH1) were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Transcripts of GP2 and NTS were more abundant in the endometrium from summer than in the endometrium from autumn (P < 0.05). In contrast, the mRNA expressions of CDH1 were lower (P < 0.05) and those of HSPH1 tended to be low (P = 0.09) in the endometrium from summer. Immunohistochemical staining showed that GP2, NTS and HSPH1 were expressed in the endometrial epithelial or glandular epithelial cells. The serum concentrations of NTS collected from the cows in summer were higher than those collected from cows in autumn (P < 0.05). Collectively...

Chemical coding and central projections of gastric vagal afferent neurons

Young, R.; Isaacs, N.; Blackshaw, L.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.45%
Vagal afferents that innervate gastric muscle or mucosa transmit distinct sensory information from their endings to the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). While these afferent subtypes are functionally distinct, no neurochemical correlate has been described and it is unknown whether they terminate in different central locations. This study aimed to identify gastric vagal afferent subtypes in the nodose ganglion (NG) of ferrets, their terminal areas in NTS and neurochemistry for isolectin-B4 (IB4) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Vagal afferents were traced from gastric muscle or mucosa and IB4 and CGRP labelling assessed in NG and NTS. 7 +/- 1% and 6 +/- 1% of NG neurons were traced from gastric muscle or mucosa respectively; these were more likely to label for CGRP or for both CGRP and IB4 than other NG neurons (P < 0.01). Muscular afferents were also less likely than others to label with IB4 (P < 0.001). Less than 1% of NG neurons were traced from both muscle and mucosa. Central terminals of both afferent subtypes occurred in the subnucleus gelatinosus of the NTS, but did not overlap completely. This region also labelled for CGRP and IB4. We conclude that while vagal afferents from gastric muscle and mucosa differ little in their chemical coding for CGRP and IB4...

Impact de l'haploinsuffisance du gène Sim1 sur le développement et la fonction du noyau paraventriculaire de l'hypothalamus

Duplan, Sabine Michaelle
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.24%
L’obésité provient d’un déséquilibre de l’homéostasie énergétique, c’est-à-dire une augmentation des apports caloriques et/ou une diminution des dépenses énergétiques. Plusieurs données, autant anatomiques que physiologiques, démontrent que l’hypothalamus est un régulateur critique de l’appétit et des dépenses énergétiques. En particulier, le noyau paraventriculaire (noyau PV) de l’hypothalamus intègre plusieurs signaux provenant du système nerveux central (SNC) et/ou de la périphérie, afin de contrôler l’homéostasie énergétique via des projections axonales sur les neurones pré-ganglionnaires du système autonome situé dans le troc cérébral et la moelle épinière. Plusieurs facteurs de transcription, impliqués dans le développement du noyau PV, ont été identifiés. Le facteur de transcription SIM1, qui est produit par virtuellement tous les neurones du noyau PV, est requis pour le développement du noyau PV. En effet, lors d’une étude antérieure, nous avons montré que le noyau PV ne se développe pas chez les souris homozygotes pour un allèle nul de Sim1. Ces souris meurent à la naissance, probablement à cause des anomalies du noyau PV. Par contre, les souris hétérozygotes survivent...

The effect of deafness duration on neurotrophin gene therapy for spiral ganglion neuron protection

Wise, Andrew K.; Tu, Tian; Atkinson, Patrick J.; Flynn, Brianna O.; Sgro, Beatrice E.; Hume, Cliff; O'Leary, Stephen J.; Shepherd, Robert K.; Richardson, Rachael T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.54%
A cochlear implant can restore hearing function by electrically exciting spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in the deaf cochlea. However, following deafness SGNs undergo progressive degeneration ultimately leading to their death. One significant cause of SGN degeneration is the loss of neurotrophic support that is normally provided by cells within the organ of Corti (OC). The administration of exogenous neurotrophins (NTs) can protect SGNs from degeneration but the effects are short-lived once the source of NTs has been exhausted. NT gene therapy, whereby cells within the cochlea are transfected with genes enabling them to produce NTs, is one strategy for providing a cellular source of NTs that may provide long-term support for SGNs. As the SGNs normally innervate sensory cells within the OC, targeting residual OC cells for gene therapy in the deaf cochlea may provide a source of NTs for SGN protection and targeted regrowth of their peripheral fibers. However, the continual degeneration of the OC over extended periods of deafness may deplete the cellular targets for NT gene therapy and hence limit the effectiveness of this method in preventing SGN loss. This study examined the effects of deafness duration on the efficacy of NT gene therapy in preventing SGN loss in guinea pigs that were systemically deafened with aminoglycosides. Adenoviral vectors containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) with or without genes for Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin-3 (NT3) were injected into the scala media (SM) compartment of cochleae that had been deafened for one...

Optimizing NTS-Polyplex as a Tool for Gene Transfer to Cultured Dopamine Neurons

Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Trudeau, Louis-Eric
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/12/2012 EN
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The study of signal transduction in dopamine (DA)-containing neurons as well as the development of new therapeutic approaches for Parkinson's disease requires the selective expression of transgenes in such neurons. Here we describe optimization of the use of the NTS-polyplex, a gene carrier system taking advantage of neurotensin receptor internalization, to transfect mouse DA neurons in primary culture. The plasmids DsRed2 (4.7 kbp) and VGLUT2-Venus (11 kbp) were used to compare the ability of this carrier system to transfect plasmids of different sizes. We examined the impact of age of the neurons (1, 3, 5 and 8 days after seeding), of culture media used during the transfection (Neurobasal with B27 vs. conditioned medium) and of three molar ratios of plasmid DNA to carrier. While the NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both plasmids in a control N1E-115 cell line, only the pDsRed2 plasmid could be transfected in primary cultured DA neurons. We achieved 20% transfection efficiency of pDsRed2 in DA neurons, with 80% cell viability. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of neurotensin receptors and to be selective for DA neurons. The presence of conditioned medium for transfection was found to be required to insure cell viability. Highest transfection efficiency was achieved in the most mature neurons. In contrast...