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Fluorescent indication that nitric oxide formation in NTS neurons is modulated by glutamate and GABA

PAJOLLA, Gisela P.; ACCORSI-MENDONCA, Daniela; RODRIGUES, Gerson J.; BENDHACK, Lusiane M.; MACHADO, Benedito H.; LUNARDI, Claure N.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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27.5%
Nitric oxide (NO) in NTS plays an important role in regulating autonomic function to the cardiovascular system. Using the fluorescent dye DAF-2 DA, we evaluated the NO concentration in NTS. Brainstem slices of rats were loaded with DAF-2 DA, washed, fixed in paraformaldehyde and examined under fluorescent light. In different experimental groups, NTS slices were pre-incubated with 1 mM L-NAME (a non-selective NOS inhibitor), 1 MM D-NAME (an inactive enantiomere of L-NAME), 1 mM kynurenic acid (a nonselective ionotropic receptors antagonist) or 20 mu M bicuculline (a selective GABA(A) receptors antagonist) before and during DAF-2 DA loading. Images were acquired using a confocal microscope and the intensity of fluorescence was quantified in three antero-posterior NTS regions. In addition, slices previously loaded with DAF-2 DA were incubated with NeuN or GFAP antibody. A semi-quantitative analysis of the fluorescence intensity showed that the basal NO concentration was similar in all antero-posterior aspects of the NTS (rostral intermediate, 15.5 +/- 0.8 AU: caudal intermediate, 13.2 +/- 1.4 AU; caudal commissural, 13.8 +/- 1.4 AU, n = 10). In addition, the inhibition of NOS and the antagonism of glutamatergic receptors decreased the NO fluorescence in the NTS. On the other hand...

Fos expression in the NTS in response to peripheral chemoreflex activation in awake rats

CRUZ, Josiane de Campos; BONAGAMBA, Leni G. H.; STERN, Javier E.; MACHADO, Benedito H.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.52%
Chemoreflex afferent fibers terminate in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), but the specific location of the NTS neurons excited by peripheral chemoreflex activation remains to be characterized. Here, the topographic distribution of chemoreflex sensitive cells at the commissural NTS was evaluated. To reach this goal, Fos-immunoreactive neurons (Fos-ir) were accounted in rostro-caudal levels of the intermediate and caudal commissural NTS, after intermittent chemoreflex activation with intravenous injection of potassium cyanide [KCN (80 mu g/kg) or saline (0.9%, vehicle), one injection every 3 min during 30 min]. In response to intermittent intravenous injections of KCN, a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir neurons was observed specifically in the lateral intermediate commissural NTS [(LI)NTS (82 +/- 9 vs. 174 +/- 16, cell number mean per section)] and lateral caudal commissural NTS [(LI)NTS (71 +/- 9 vs. 199 +/- 18, cell number mean per section)]. To evaluate the influence of baroreceptor-mediated inputs following the increase in blood pressure during intermittent chemoreflex activation, we performed an intermittent activation of the arterial baroreflex by intravenous injection of phenylephrine [1.5 mu g/kg iv (one injection every 3 min during 30 min)]. This procedure induced no change in Fos-ir in (LI)NTS (64 +/- 6 vs. 62 +/- 12...

Important GABAergic mechanism within the NTS and the control of sympathetic baroreflex in SHR

MOREIRA, Thiago S.; TAKAKURA, Ana C.; COLOMBARI, Eduardo
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.36%
Inhibitory neurotransmission has an important role in the processing of sensory afferent signals in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), particularly in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated neurotransmission within the NTS produces an inhibition of the baroreflex response of splanchnic sympathetic nerve discharge (sSND). In urethane-anesthetized, artificially ventilated and vagotomized male SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats we compared baroreflex-response curves evoked after bilateral injections into the NTS of the GABA-A antagonist bicuculline (25 pmol/50 nl) or the GABA-B antagonist CGP 35348 (5 nmol/50 nl). Baseline MAP in SHR was higher than the WKY rats (SHR: 153+/-5, vs. WKY: 112+/-6 mm Hg, p<0.05). Bilateral injection of bicuculline or CGP 35348 into the NTS induced a transient (5 min) reduction in MAP (Delta = -26+/-4 and -41+/-6 mm Hg, respectively vs. saline Delta = +4+/-3 mm Hg, p<0.05) and sSND (Delta = -21+/-13 and -78+/-7%, respectively vs. saline: Delta = +6+/-4% p<0.05). Analysis of the baroreceptor curve revealed a decrease in the lower plateau (43+/-11 and 15+/-5%, respectively vs. saline: 78+/-6%, p<0.05) and an increase in the sympathetic gain of baroreflex (6.3+/-0.3...

Mecanismos nitrérgicos envolvidos na neurotransmissão dos componentes autonômicos e respiratório do quimiorreflexo no NTS caudal de ratos não-anestesiados; Nitrergic mechanisms involved in the neurotransmission of autonomic and respiratory components of chemoreflex in the caudal NTS of awake rats

Granjeiro, Érica Maria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/06/2009 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.65%
O núcleo do trato solitário é uma área integrativa do sistema nervoso central (CNS) envolvida no controle autonômico e respiratório. Estudos da literatura sugerem que o óxido nítrico (NO) exerce um importante papel na modulação dos reflexos cardiovasculares e ventilatórios no NTS. Além disso, evidências da literatura indicam uma possível interação entre o NO e o ATP no SNC. Fundamentados nessas evidências, no presente estudo, avaliamos a possível participação do NO na modulação dos parâmetros cardiorespiratórios basais e no processamento das respostas cardiovasculares e respiratórias à ativação do quimiorreflexo no NTS caudal de ratos não-anestesiados. Além disso, o possível papel do NO produzido pela óxido nítrico sintase neuronal (nNOS) nas respostas cardiovasculares e respiratórias à microinjeção unilateral de ATP no NTS caudal também foi avaliado. Para tanto, os animais foram submetidos ao implante de cânulas guia em direção ao NTS caudal e à canulação da artéria e veia femoral. Os parâmetros ventilatórios foram avaliados pelo método de pletismografia de corpo inteiro. A análise dos resultados monstrou que as microinjeções bilaterais do L-NAME, um inibidor nãoseletivo da NOS, no NTS caudal...

Participação da via NTS-PGI-LC-hipocampo (núcleo do trato solitário- núcleo paragigantocelular-Locus coeruleus-hipocampo) na consolidação da memória de reconhecimento de objetos

Carpes, Pâmela Billig Mello
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
Existem crescentes evidências sobre a contribuição da liberação de noradrenalina (NA) central na consolidação das memórias. Teoricamente, o Núcleo do Trato Solitário (NTS) recebe informações e diversos estímulos periféricos, que são então projetados ao Núcleo Paragigantocelular (PGi). Este, por sua vez, utiliza neurotransmissores, predominantemente excitatórios, para influenciar a ativação do Locus Coeruleus (LC). Então, o LC envia projeções noradrenérgicas ao hipocampo e à amígdala, influenciando os processos mnemônicos. Aqui nós demonstramos que a inibição pelo muscimol do NTS, PGi ou LC até 3 horas após o treino na tarefa de reconhecimento de objetos (RO) impede a consolidação da memória medida 24 h após o treino. Adicionalmente, a infusão de timolol, um antagonista de receptores β-adrenérgicos, na região CA1 do hipocampo também impede a consolidação deste tipo de memória. A infusão de NA na região CA1 do hipocampo não altera a retenção da memória, mas, reverte o prejuízo causado pela inibição do NTS, PGi ou LC. A infusão de NMDA no LC após a inibição do NTS ou PGi também reverte essa amnésia. Concomitantemente, verificamos que a inibição NTS, PGi ou LC bloqueia o aumento da expressão do fator neurotrófico derivado do cérebro (BDNF...

Cardiovascular responses to microinjection of L-glutamate into the NTS in AV3V-lesioned rats

Vieira, A. A.; Colombari, E.; De Luca, L. A.; Colombari, DSD; Menani, Jose Vanderlei
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 106-112
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.41%
The excitatory amino acid L-glutamate injected into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in unanesthetized rats similar to peripheral chemoreceptor activation increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces heart rate. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute (I day) and chronic (15 days) electrolytic lesions of the preoptic-periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V region) on the pressor and bradycardic responses induced by injections of L-glutamate into the NTS or peripheral chemoreceptor activation in unanesthetized rats. Male Holtzman rats with sham or electrolytic AV3V lesions and a stainless steel cannula implanted into the NTS were used. Differently from the pressor responses (28 +/- 3 mm Hg) produced by injections into the NTS of sham-lesioned rats, L-glutamate (5 nmol/ 100 nl) injected into the NTS reduced MAP (-26 +/- 8 mm Hg) or produced no effect (2 7 turn Hg) in acute and chronic AV3V-lesioned rats, respectively. The bradycardia to L-glutamate into the NTS and the cardiovascular responses to chemoreflex activation with intravenous potassium cyanide or to baroreflex activation with intravenous phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside were not modified by AV3V lesions. The results show that the integrity of the AV3V region is essential for the pressor responses to L-glutamate into the NTS but not for the pressor responses to chemoreflex activation...

Nitric oxide modulates the cardiovascular effects elicited by acetylcholine in the NTS of awake rats

da Silva, Liana Gouveia; Dias, Ana Carolina Rodrigues; Furlan, Elaina; Colombari, Eduardo
Fonte: Amer Physiological Soc Publicador: Amer Physiological Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: R1774-R1781
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.44%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); da Silva LG, Rodrigues Dias AC, Furlan E, Colombari E. Nitric oxide modulates the cardiovascular effects elicited by acetylcholine in the NTS of awake rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295: R1774-R1781, 2008. First published September 24, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00559.2007.-Microinjection of acetylcholine chloride (ACh) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of awake rats caused a transient and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia. Because it is known that cardiovascular reflexes are affected by nitric oxide (NO) produced in the NTS, we investigated whether these ACh-induced responses depend on NO in the NTS. Responses to ACh (500 pmol in 100 nl) were strongly reduced by ipsilateral microinjection of the NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 nmol in 100 nl) in the NTS: mean arterial pressure (MAP) fell by 50 +/- 5 mmHg before L-NAME to 9 +/- 4 mmHg, 10 min after L-NAME, and HR fell by 100 +/- 26 bpm before L-NAME to 20 +/- 10 bpm, 10 min after L-NAME (both P < 0.05). Microinjection of the selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM; 13.3 nmol in 100 nl)...

O óxido nítrico (NO) no controle neural da pressão arterial: Modulação da transmissão glutamatérgica no NTS

Dias, Ana Carolina R.; Da Silva, Liana G.; Colombari, Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência Formato: 51-64
POR
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37.5%
The neuromodulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO) on glutamatergic transmission within the NTS related to cardiovascular regulation has been widely investigated. Activation of glutamatergic receptors in the NTS stimulates the production and release of NO and other nitrosyl substances with neurotransmitter/neuromodulator properties. The presence of NOS, including the protein nNOS and its mRNA in vagal afferent terminals in the NTS and nodose ganglion cells suggest that NO can act on glutamatergic transmission. We previously reported that iontophoresis of L-NAME on NTS neurons receiving vagal afferent inputs significantly decreased the number of action potentials evoked by iontophoretic application of AMPA. In addition, iontophoresis of the NO donor papaNONOate enhanced spontaneous discharge and the number of action potentials elicited by AMPA, suggesting that NO could be facilitating AMPA-mediated neuronal transmission within the NTS. Furthermore, the changes in renal sympathetic discharge during activation of baroreceptors and cardiopulmonary receptors involve activation of AMPA and NMDA receptors in the NTS and these responses are attenuated by microinjection of L-NAME in the NTS of conscious and anesthetized rats. Cardiovascular responses elicited by application of NO in the NTS are closely similar to those obtained after activation of vagal afferent inputs...

Glutamatergic inputs to the CVLM independent of the NTS promote tonic inhibition of sympathetic vasomotor tone in rats

Mandel, Daniel A.; Schreihofer, Ann M.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.44%
GABAergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) are driven by baroreceptor inputs relayed via the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and they inhibit neurons in rostral ventrolateral medulla to reduce sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial pressure (AP). After arterial baroreceptor denervation or lesions of the NTS, inhibition of the CVLM continues to increase AP, suggesting additional inputs also tonically activate the CVLM. This study examined whether the NTS contributes to baroreceptor-independent drive to the CVLM and whether glutamate promotes baroreceptor- and NTS-independent activation of the CVLM to tonically reduce SNA. In addition, we evaluated whether altering central respiratory drive, a baroreceptor-independent regulator of CVLM neurons, influences glutamatergic inputs to the CVLM. Splanchnic SNA and AP were measured in chloralose-anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed rats. The infusion of nitroprusside decreased AP below threshold for baroreceptor afferent firing (<50 mmHg) and increased SNA to 209 ± 22% (P < 0.05), but the subsequent inhibition of the NTS by microinjection of the GABAA agonist muscimol did not further increase SNA. In contrast, after inhibition of the NTS, blockade of glutamatergic inputs to CVLM by microinjection of kynurenate increased SNA (274 ± 54%; P < 0.05; n = 7). In vagotomized rats with baroreceptors unloaded...

Pro-opiomelanocortin Gene Transfer to the NTS but not ARC Ameliorates Chronic Diet-Induced Obesity

Zhang, Y.; Rodrigues, E.; Gao, Y.X.; King, M.; Cheng, K.Y.; Erdös, B.; Tümer, N.; Carter, C.; Scarpace, P.J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.41%
Short-term pharmacological melanocortin activation deters diet-induced obesity (DIO) effectively in rodents. However, whether central pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transfer targeted to the hypothalamus or hindbrain nucleus of the solitary track (NTS) can combat chronic dietary obesity has not been investigated. Four-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high fat diet for five months, and then injected with either the POMC or control vector into the hypothalamus or NTS, and body weight and food intake recorded for 68 days. Insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism and adrenal indicators of central sympathetic activation were measured, and voluntary wheel running (WR) assessed. Whereas the NTS POMC-treatment decreased cumulative food consumption and caused sustained weight reduction over 68 days, the hypothalamic POMC-treatment did not alter cumulative food intake and produced weight loss only in the first 25 days. At death, only the NTS-POMC rats had a significant decrease in fat mass. They also displayed enhanced glucose tolerance, lowered fasting insulin and increased QUICK value, and elevated adrenal indicators of central sympathetic activation. Moreover, the NTS-POMC animals exhibited a near 20% increase in distance ran relative to the respective controls...

Hypoxia-excited neurons in NTS send axonal projections to Kölliker-Fuse/parabrachial complex in dorsolateral pons

Song, Gang; Xu, Hui; Wang, Hui; MacDonald, Shawna M.; Poon, Chi-Sang
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.41%
Hypoxic respiratory and cardiovascular responses in mammals are mediated by peripheral chemoreceptor afferents which are relayed centrally via the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) in dorsomedial medulla to other cardiorespiratory-related brainstem regions such as ventrolateral medulla (VLM). Here, we test the hypothesis that peripheral chemoafferents could also be relayed directly to the Kölliker-Fuse/parabrachial complex in dorsolateral pons, an area traditionally thought to subserve pneumotaxic and cardiovascular regulation. Experiments were performed on adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Brainstem neurons with axons projecting to the dorsolateral pons were retrogradely labeled by microinjection with choleras toxin subunit B (CTB). Neurons involved in peripheral chemoreflex were identified by hypoxia-induced cFos expression. We found that double-labeled neurons (i.e., immunopositive to both CTB and cFos) were localized mostly in the commissural and medial subnuclei of NTS and to a lesser extent in the ventrolateral NTS subnucleus, VLM and ventrolateral pontine A5 region. Extracellular recordings from the commissural and medial NTS subnuclei revealed that some hypoxia-excited NTS neurons could be antidromically activated by electrical stimulations at the dorsolateral pons. These findings demonstrate that hypoxia-activated afferent inputs are relayed to the Kölliker-Fuse/parabrachial complex directly via the commissural and medial NTS and indirectly via the ventrolateral NTS subnucleus...

Glial cells modulate the synaptic transmission of NTS neurons sending projections to ventral medulla of Wistar rats

Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela; Zoccal, Daniel B; Bonagamba, Leni G H; Machado, Benedito H
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
There is evidence that sympathoexcitatory and respiratory responses to chemoreflex activation involve ventrolateral medulla-projecting nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons (NTS-VLM neurons) and also that ATP modulates this neurotransmission. Here, we evaluated whether or not astrocytes is the source of endogenous ATP modulating the synaptic transmission in NTS-VLM neurons. Synaptic activities of putative astrocytes or NTS-VLM neurons were recorded using whole cell patch clamp. Tractus solitarius (TS) stimulation induced TS-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (TS-eEPSCs) in NTS-VLM neurons as well in NTS putative astrocytes, which were also identified by previous labeling. Fluoracetate (FAC), an inhibitor of glial metabolism, reduced TS-eEPSCs amplitude (−85.6 ± 16 vs. −39 ± 7.1 pA, n = 12) and sEPSCs frequency (2.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.8 ± 0.46 Hz, n = 10) in recorded NTS-VLM neurons, indicating a gliomodulation of glutamatergic currents. To verify the involvement of endogenous ATP a purinergic antagonist was used, which reduced the TS-eEPSCs amplitude (−207 ± 50 vs. −149 ± 50 pA, n = 6), the sEPSCs frequency (1.19 ± 0.2 vs. 0.62 ± 0.11 Hz, n = 6), and increased the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) values (∼20%) in NTS-VLM neurons. Simultaneous perfusion of Pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′...

The effect of combined glutamate receptor blockade in the NTS on the hypoxic ventilatory response in awake rats differs from the effect of individual glutamate receptor blockade

Pamenter, Matthew E.; Nguyen, Jetson; Carr, John A.; Powell, Frank L.
Fonte: Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Publicador: Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.41%
Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) increases the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and causes persistent hyperventilation when normoxia is restored, which is consistent with the occurrence of synaptic plasticity in acclimatized animals. Recently, we demonstrated that antagonism of individual glutamate receptor types (GluRs) within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) modifies this plasticity and VAH (J. Physiol. 592(8):1839–1856); however, the effects of combined GluR antagonism remain unknown in awake rats. To evaluate this, we exposed rats to room air or chronic sustained hypobaric hypoxia (CSH, PiO2 = 70 Torr) for 7–9 days. On the experimental day, we microinjected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF: sham) and then a “cocktail” of the GluR antagonists MK‐801 and DNQX into the NTS. The location of injection sites in the NTS was confirmed by glutamate injections on a day before the experiment and with histology following the experiment. Ventilation was measured in awake, unrestrained rats breathing normoxia or acute hypoxia (10% O2) in 15‐min intervals using barometric pressure plethysmography. In control (CON) rats, acute hypoxia increased ventilation; NTS microinjections of GluR antagonists, but not ACSF...

Neuronale Aktivierung im Nucleus Tractus Solitarius nach intrajejunaler und systemischer Lipopolysaccharidgabe im Dünndarm der Ratte; Neuronal activation in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) following intrajejunal and systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the rat

Gakis, Georgios
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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37.44%
Einleitung: Systemisches LPS sensibilisiert mesenterische afferente Nervenfasern im Intestinum der Ratte, wobei die Cycloxigenase aktivierende und NO hemmende Wirkung besitzt. (Gastroenterology 2003; 124: M1298). Intestinale Entzündungsvorgänge können über eine Mastzellaktivierung Fos-positive Neurone des Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS) im Hirnstamm aktivieren (Neuroscience Letters 2000; 289: 45-48). Wir stellten die Hypothese auf, dass afferente Signale nach intrajejunaler und systemischer Lipopolysaccharidgabe (LPS) in den NTS weitergeleitet werden und diese neuronale Aktivierung im Hirnstamm pharmakologisch beeinflussbar sei. Methoden: Die Experimente wurden an männlichen Wistar-Ratten (300-400 g) durchgeführt. Hierbei wurde vier Tage nach operativer Anlage eines Jejunalkatheters E.coli-LPS entweder lokal über den Katheter (10 mg ml-1, Volumen: 2 ml, Dauer: 3h) oder systemisch als Bolus durch intraperitoneale Injektion (1 mg kg-1) appliziert. Zur Untersuchung der pharmakologischen Beeinflussbarkeit der neuronalen Aktivierung im Hirnstamm wurde in Subgruppen vor systemischer LPS-Gabe der Cyclooxigenasehemmer Naproxen (10 mg kg-1) oder der iNOS-Inhibitor Aminoguanidin (15 mg kg-1) intraperitoneal appliziert. Drei Stunden nach Abschluss der LPS-Gabe erfolgte die Gabe einer Pentobarbitalüberdosierung und die Blutprobengewinnung zur Bestimmung der Serum-LPS Konzentration mittels LAL-Chromogenic Endpoint Assay. Nachfolgend Perfusion des Tieres mit NaCl- und Formalinlösung sowie Entnahme des Gehirns zur immunohistochemischen Untersuchung. Die neuronale Aktivierung im NTS wurde mittels c-Fos-Immunohistochemie in den Höhen 13.3 mm...

Documentación de la Norma Técnica Sectorial NTS - TS004 en la caja de compensación familiar de Risaralda - Comfamiliar Risaralda

Giraldo Castrillón, Nathalia
Fonte: Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira; Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales Publicador: Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira; Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: PDF
ES
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36.98%
El apoyo a la documentación de la Norma Técnica Sectorial NTS-TS 004 en la Caja de Compensación Familiar de Risaralda-Comfamiliar Risaralda-tuvo como resultado la elaboración de un Manual de Sostenibilidad para establecimientos Gastronómicos, con el fin de que la organización implemente prácticas sostenibles y a su vez dar cumplimiento a los requisitos de la norma. Inicialmente se definió el alcance de la práctica, por tanto el manual de sostenibilidad fue documentado para el restaurante Zasonao ubicado en el Centro Recreacional y Vacacional Comfamiliar Galicia, primeramente se elaboró un diagnóstico del estado que tenía Comfamiliar Risaralda en cuanto al cumplimiento de los requisitos de la norma, para lo cual se realizaron entrevistas con el personal de cocina y personal administrativo de Comfamiliar con el fin de identificar el grado de cumplimiento de cada uno de los requisitos de la norma.

Exposure to Allergen Causes Changes in NTS Neural Activities after Intratracheal Capsaicin Application, in Endocannabinoid Levels and in the Glia Morphology of NTS

Spaziano, Giuseppe; Luongo, Livio; Guida, Francesca; Petrosino, Stefania; Matteis, Maria; Palazzo, Enza; Sullo, Nikol; de Novellis, Vito; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Rossi, Francesco; Maione, Sabatino; D'Agostino, Bruno
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.44%
Allergen exposure may induce changes in the brainstem secondary neurons, with neural sensitization of the nucleus solitary tract (NTS), which in turn can be considered one of the causes of the airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. We evaluated neurofunctional, morphological, and biochemical changes in the NTS of naive or sensitized rats. To evaluate the cell firing activity of NTS, in vivo electrophysiological experiments were performed before and after capsaicin challenge in sensitized or naive rats. Immunohistochemical studies, endocannabinoid, and palmitoylethanolamide quantification in the NTS were also performed. This study provides evidence that allergen sensitization in the NTS induced: (1) increase in the neural firing response to intratracheal capsaicin application, (2) increase of endocannabinoid anandamide and palmitoylethanolamide, a reduction of 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels in the NTS, (3) glial cell activation, and (4) prevention by a Group III metabotropic glutamate receptor activation of neural firing response to intratracheal application of capsaicin in both naïve and sensitized rats. Therefore, normalization of ovalbumin-induced NTS neural sensitization could open up the prospect of new treatments based on the recovery of specific brain nuclei function and for extensive studies on acute or long-term efficacy of selective mGlu ligand...

Activation of NTS A1 adenosine receptors inhibits regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreflex

Ichinose, Tomoko K.; Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S.; Scislo, Tadeusz J.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.44%
Previously we have shown that adenosine operating via the A1 receptor subtype may inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the baroreflex arc within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and differentially increase renal (RSNA), preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA>RSNA≥LSNA). Since the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex and the arterial baroreflex are mediated via similar medullary pathways, and glutamate is a primary transmitter in both pathways, it is likely that adenosine operating via A1 receptors in the NTS may differentially inhibit regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors. Therefore, in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 37) we compared regional sympathoinhibition evoked by the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (activated with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide, PBG, 1–8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS A1 adenosine receptors [microinjections of N6-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), 0.033–330 pmol/50 nl]. Activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors evoked differential, dose-dependent sympathoinhibition (RSNA>ASNA>LSNA), and decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These differential sympathetic responses were uniformly attenuated in dose-dependent manner by microinjections of CPA into the NTS. Volume control (n = 11) and blockade of adenosine receptor subtypes in the NTS via 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT...

Activation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors differentially resets baroreflex control of renal vs. adrenal sympathetic nerve activity

Ichinose, Tomoko K.; O'Leary, Donal S.; Scislo, Tadeusz J.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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27.41%
The role of nucleus of solitary tract (NTS) A2a adenosine receptors in baroreflex mechanisms is controversial. Stimulation of these receptors releases glutamate within the NTS and elicits baroreflex-like decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), whereas inhibition of these receptors attenuates HR baroreflex responses. In contrast, stimulation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors increases preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (pre-ASNA), and the depressor and sympathoinhibitory responses are not markedly affected by sinoaortic denervation and blockade of NTS glutamatergic transmission. To elucidate the role of NTS A2a adenosine receptors in baroreflex function, we compared full baroreflex stimulus-response curves for HR, RSNA, and pre-ASNA (intravenous nitroprusside/phenylephrine) before and after bilateral NTS microinjections of selective adenosine A2a receptor agonist (CGS-21680; 2.0, 20 pmol/50 nl), selective A2a receptor antagonist (ZM-241385; 40 pmol/100 nl), and nonselective A1 + A2a receptor antagonist (8-SPT; 1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/α-chloralose anesthetized rats. Activation of A2a receptors decreased the range, upper plateau, and gain of baroreflex-response curves for RSNA...

O ÓXIDO NÍTRICO (NO) NO CONTROLE NEURAL DA PRESSÃO ARTERIAL: MODULAÇÃO DA TRANSMISSÃO GLUTAMATÉRGICA NO NTS; NITRIC OXIDE (NO) IN THE NEURAL CONTROL OF BLOOD PRESSURE: MODULATION OF GLUTAMATERGIC TRANSMISSION WITHIN THE NTS

Dias, Ana Carolina R.; Silva, Liana G.; Colombari, Eduardo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2006 POR
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O efeito neuromodulatório do óxido nítrico (NO) sobre a transmissão glutamatérgica no NTS relacionado ao controle cardiovascular tem sido bastante investigado. A ativação de receptores glutamatérgicos no NTS estimula a produção e liberação de NO e outras substâncias nitrosotióis de propriedades neurotransmissoras/neuromoduladoras. A presença da enzima NOS, incluindo a proteína NOS neuronal (nNOS) e seu mRNA nos terminais das aferências vagais no NTS, além de células do gânglio nodoso sugerem que o NO possa atuar na transmissão glutamatérgica. Nossos estudos mostraram que a aplicação iontoforética do inibidor da NOS (LNAME) em neurônios do NTS que respondem à estimulação das aferências vagais diminuiu significantemente o número de potenciais de ação causados pela aplicação iontoforética de AMPA. Em contrapartida, a iontoforese do doador de NO (papaNONOate) aumentou significantemente os disparos espontâneos e o número de potenciais de ação causados pela aplicação iontoforética de AMPA, sugerindo uma facilitação pelo NO da transmissão neuronal mediada pelos receptores AMPA no NTS. As alterações da atividade nervosa simpática renal causadas pela ativação dos barorreceptores e dos receptores cardiopulmonares envolvem a estimulação dos receptores AMPA e NMDA no NTS...

DIFERENTES ABORDAGENS EXPERIMENTAIS NO ESTUDO DA MODULAÇÃO DA ATIVIDADE SIMPÁTICA NO SISTEMA NERVOSO CENTRAL DE RATOS; DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES TO STUDY THE SYMPATHETIC MODULATION IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF RATS

Machado, Benedito H.; Cruz, Josiane C.; Pajolla, Gisela P.; Zoccal, Daniel B.; Braga, Valdir A; Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/03/2006 POR
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Essa revisão tem como objetivo apresentar a experiência do nosso laboratório, acumulada ao longo dos últimos anos no estudo da neurotransmissão do componente simpatoexcitatório do quimiorreflexo no núcleo do trato solitário (NTS) de ratos. Essa abordagem experimental tem sido utilizada como um modelo para o melhor entendimento dos mecanismos neuroquímicos envolvidos na geração e modulação da atividade simpática, a qual tem importantes repercussões para o sistema cardiovascular tanto em condições fisiológicas quanto em condições fisiopatológicas como a hipertensão arterial. O foco específico dessa revisão está centrado na neurotransmissão do componente simpato-excitatório do quimiorreflexo no núcleo do trato solitário (NTS) e apresentamos vários métodos e abordagens experimentais que estão sendo utilizados com vistas ao melhor entendimento desse complexo sistema de neurotransmissão. Com essa combinação de métodos, que vão desde um neurônio do NTS até o rato acordado e com livre movimentação, queremos ilustrar as múltiplas possibilidades de abordagens experimentais contemporâneas, as quais estão nos proporcionando as condições materiais para estender os horizontes dessa importante área do conhecimento.; The main purpose of the present review is to present the experience of our laboratory on the last few years on studies related to the neurotransmission of the sympatho- xcitatory component of the chemoreflex in the nucleus tractus solitary (NTS) of rats. The experimental approach of the chemoreflex activation has been used as a model for the understanding of the neurochemical mechanisms involved in the generation and modulation of the sympathetic activity...