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Implantação do novo protocolo de dosimetria da AIEA no LCI/IPEN/CNEN; Implementation of the new IAEA code of practice at LCI/IPEN/CNEN

Siqueira, Patricia Mára de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2006 PT
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A fim de implementar o novo código de prática da Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica (AIEA) no Brasil, o Laboratório de Calibração de Instrumentos (LCI/IPEN) está realizando calibrações em termos de kerma no ar e em termos de dose absorvida na água, em feixes de 60Co. As razões ND,w/NK obtidas são comparadas com valores da literatura, obtendo-se concordância satisfatória. As diferenças entre os valores das razões CK (ND,w/NK) obtidas no presente trabalho e os valores da literatura são devidas a vários fatores. Estes fatores podem ser as variações entre as câmaras, que devem ser objeto de diferenças nas incertezas estimadas pelos PSDLs, e as diferenças nos padrões utilizados por cada Instituto de Metrologia Nacional (NMI) ou Laboratório de Dosimetria. No entanto, se forem conhecidas as razões entre cada NMI e o BIPM, para os padrões de kerma no ar e de dose absorvida na água, é possível a normalização das razões CK medidas para as razões equivalentes ao BIPM. Todos os resultados de razões CK obtidos foram convertidos para as razões equivalentes ao BIPM para facilitar a comparação. Neste trabalho é discutida a utilização da razão CK como parâmetro de controle de qualidade na verificação de resultados das calibrações rotineiras. Para avaliação dos procedimentos de calibração adotados no LCI...

Horizontal Variation of Bacterioplankton in the Baltic Sea

Heinänen, Anne; Kuparinen, Jorma
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1991 EN
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Variations in the thymidine incorporation rate, bacterial abundance, and mean cell volumes in the surface water (0.5 m) of the Baltic Sea in spring and summer were compared in studies with different spatial scales (570 nautical miles [nmi] [ca. 1056 km], 220 nmi [ca. 407 km], 24 nmi [ca. 44 km], 12 nmi [ca. 22 km], and 200 m). The objective of the comparison was to investigate whether a single sample taken at one sampling point is representative enough for researchers to make generalizations about a larger water area. Bacterioplankton variation was connected more to seasonal characteristics than to the spatial scale of sampling. Variation was greater and more random in spring than in summer. The state variables (bacterial abundance and mean cell volume) varied less than the rate variable (thymidine incorporation). The results suggest that the sampling design for bacterioplankton studies in northern temperate seas should be planned primarily according to the season and that more stress should be put on rate variable measurements than on those of state variables.

Virulent Coxiella burnetii does not activate human dendritic cells: Role of lipopolysaccharide as a shielding molecule

Shannon, Jeffrey G.; Howe, Dale; Heinzen, Robert A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiological agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever. Acute human Q fever is characterized by flu-like symptoms that, in some cases, can result in a persistent infection that may reactivate months or years after initial exposure. Mechanisms by which this obligate parasite evades clearance by the host immune response during persistent infection are unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction of C. burnetii with dendritic cells (DC), critical components of both innate and adaptive immunity. Human DC were infected with two isogenic C. burnetii strains that differ in LPS length. Infection by the Nine Mile phase I (NMI) strain, which is fully virulent and produces full-length LPS, did not result in DC maturation. In contrast, infection by the avirulent Nine Mile phase II strain, producing a severely truncated LPS, resulted in toll-like receptor 4-independent DC maturation and ≈10-fold more IL-12 and TNF production. NMI did not actively inhibit DC maturation as NMI-infected DC subsequently matured if treated with Escherichia coli LPS or Nine Mile phase II. Furthermore, removal of LPS from NMI dramatically increased its ability to stimulate DC. We propose a model whereby LPS of virulent C. burnetii masks toll-like receptor ligands from innate immune recognition by DC...

Genetic Diversity of the Q Fever Agent, Coxiella burnetii, Assessed by Microarray-Based Whole-Genome Comparisons†

Beare, Paul A.; Samuel, James E.; Howe, Dale; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Porcella, Stephen F.; Heinzen, Robert A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 EN
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Coxiella burnetii, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, causes human Q fever and is considered a potential agent of bioterrorism. Distinct genomic groups of C. burnetii are revealed by restriction fragment-length polymorphisms (RFLP). Here we comprehensively define the genetic diversity of C. burnetii by hybridizing the genomes of 20 RFLP-grouped and four ungrouped isolates from disparate sources to a high-density custom Affymetrix GeneChip containing all open reading frames (ORFs) of the Nine Mile phase I (NMI) reference isolate. We confirmed the relatedness of RFLP-grouped isolates and showed that two ungrouped isolates represent distinct genomic groups. Isolates contained up to 20 genomic polymorphisms consisting of 1 to 18 ORFs each. These were mostly complete ORF deletions, although partial deletions, point mutations, and insertions were also identified. A total of 139 chromosomal and plasmid ORFs were polymorphic among all C. burnetii isolates, representing ca. 7% of the NMI coding capacity. Approximately 67% of all deleted ORFs were hypothetical, while 9% were annotated in NMI as nonfunctional (e.g., frameshifted). The remaining deleted ORFs were associated with diverse cellular functions. The only deletions associated with isogenic NMI variants of attenuated virulence were previously described large deletions containing genes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis...

An emerin ‘proteome’: purification of distinct emerin-containing complexes from HeLa cells suggests molecular basis for diverse roles including gene regulation, mRNA splicing, signaling, mechano-sensing and nuclear architecture

Holaska, James M.; Wilson, Katherine L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Using recombinant bead-conjugated emerin we affinity-purified seven proteins from HeLa cell nuclear lysates that bind emerin either directly or indirectly. These proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as nuclear αII-spectrin, non-muscle myosin heavy chain alpha, Lmo7 (a predicted transcription regulator; reported separately), nuclear myosin I, β-actin (reported separately), calponin 3 and SIKE. We now report emerin binds nuclear myosin I (NMI, a molecular motor) directly in vitro. Furthermore, bead-conjugated emerin bound nuclear αII-spectrin and NMI equally well with or without ATP (which stimulates motor activity), whereas ATP decreased actin binding by 65%. Thus αII-spectrin and NMI interact stably with emerin. To investigate the physiological relevance of these interactions, we used antibodies against emerin to affinity-purify emerin-associated protein complexes from HeLa cells, then further purified by ion exchange chromatography to resolve by net charge, and size exclusion chromatography yielding six distinct emerin-containing fractions (0.5 to 1.6 MDa). Western blotting suggested each complex had distinct components involved in nuclear architecture (e.g., NMI, αII-spectrin, lamins) or gene or chromatin regulation (BAF...

Distinct clinical characteristics of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex patients with no mutation identified

Camposano, Susana; Greenberg, Erica; Kwiatkowski, David; Thiele, Elizabeth A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a multi-system disorder that is highly variable in its clinical presentation. Current molecular diagnostic methods permit identification of mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 in 75–85% of TSC patients. Here we examine the clinical characteristics of those TSC patients who have no mutation identified (NMI). A retrospective review of our patient population that had comprehensive testing for mutations in TSC1/TSC2 identified 23/157 (15 %) that were NMI. NMI patients had a lower incidence of brain findings on imaging studies, neurological features, and renal findings than those with TSC2 mutations. In contrast, NMI patients had a lower incidence of seizures than TSC patients with TSC1 mutations, but had a higher incidence of both renal angiomyolipomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. This distinct constellation of findings suggest that NMI patients may have a unique molecular pathogenesis, different from that seen in TSC patients with the usual mutations in TSC1 and TSC2. We suggest that the mechanisms of disease in these patients include both mosaicism for a TSC2 mutation, and unusual non-coding region mutations in TSC2.

Ancient animal ancestry for nuclear myosin

Hofmann, Wilma A.; Richards, Thomas A.; de Lanerolle, Primal
Fonte: Company of Biologists Publicador: Company of Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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The identification of nuclear myosin I (NMI) has raised the possibility that myosin might have had an early functional role in the eukaryotic nucleus. To investigate this possibility, we examined the molecular evolution of the vertebrate myosin-I proteins. We found that myosin I has undergone at least five duplication events in the common ancestor of the vertebrates (vertebrate-specific duplications), leading to nine myosin-I vertebrate gene families, followed by two additional myosin-I duplication events in the lineage leading to modern fish. This expansion suggests a large-scale adaptive radiation in myosin-I function in an early phase of vertebrate evolution. The branching order of the evolutionary tree suggests that the functional role of NMI predates this expansion. More specifically, in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, we found a myosin-I protein that localizes to the nucleus, but that branches on phylogenetic trees before the duplication that led to vertebrate myosin IC and myosin IH. This relationship suggests that the common ancestor of these three proteins encoded a nuclear isoform and that the localization of myosin I to the nucleus predates the origin of the vertebrates. Thus, a functional role for NMI appears to have been present at an early stage of animal evolution prior to the rise of both myosin IC and the vertebrates...

Coxiella burnetii Phase I and II Variants Replicate with Similar Kinetics in Degradative Phagolysosome-Like Compartments of Human Macrophages ▿ †

Howe, Dale; Shannon, Jeffrey G.; Winfree, Seth; Dorward, David W.; Heinzen, Robert A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Coxiella burnetii infects mononuclear phagocytes, where it directs biogenesis of a vacuolar niche termed the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Owing to its lumenal pH (∼5) and fusion with endolysosomal vesicles, the PV is considered phagolysosome-like. However, the degradative properties of the mature PV are unknown, and there are conflicting reports on the maturation state and growth permissiveness of PV harboring virulent phase I or avirulent phase II C. burnetii variants in human mononuclear phagocytes. Here, we employed infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) and THP-1 cells as host cells to directly compare the PV maturation kinetics and pathogen growth in cells infected with the Nine Mile phase I variant (NMI) or phase II variant (NMII) of C. burnetii. In both cell types, phase variants replicated with similar kinetics, achieving roughly 2 to 3 log units of growth before they reached stationary phase. HMDMs infected by either phase variant secreted similar amounts of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. In infected THP-1 cells, equal percentages of NMI and NMII PVs decorate with the early endosomal marker Rab5, the late endosomal/lysosomal markers Rab7 and CD63, and the lysosomal marker cathepsin D at early (8 h) and late (72 h) time points postinfection (p.i.). Mature PVs (2 to 4 days p.i.) harboring NMI or NMII contained proteolytically active cathepsins and quickly degraded Escherichia coli. These data suggest that C. burnetii does not actively inhibit phagolysosome function as a survival mechanism. Instead...

Biosensors for Brain Trauma and Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry: Enoxaparin Simultaneously Reduces Stroke-Induced Dopamine and Blood Flow while Enhancing Serotonin and Blood Flow in Motor Neurons of Brain, In Vivo

Broderick, Patricia A.; Kolodny, Edwin H.
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/12/2010 EN
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Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) based on adsorptive electrochemistry, combined with Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is presented herein to investigate the brain neurochemistry affected by enoxaparin (Lovenox®), an antiplatelet/antithrombotic medication for stroke victims. NMI with miniature biosensors enables neurotransmitter and neuropeptide (NT) imaging; each NT is imaged with a response time in milliseconds. A semiderivative electronic reduction circuit images several NT’s selectively and separately within a response time of minutes. Spatial resolution of NMI biosensors is in the range of nanomicrons and electrochemically-induced current ranges are in pico- and nano-amperes. Simultaneously with NMI, the LDF technology presented herein operates on line by illuminating the living brain, in this example, in dorso-striatal neuroanatomic substrates via a laser sensor with low power laser light containing optical fiber light guides. NMI biotechnology with BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors has a distinct advantage over conventional electrochemical methodologies both in novelty of biosensor formulations and on-line imaging capabilities in the biosensor field. NMI with unique biocompatible biosensors precisely images NT in the body, blood and brain of animals and humans using characteristic experimentally derived half-wave potentials driven by oxidative electron transfer. Enoxaparin is a first line clinical treatment prescribed to halt the progression of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In the present studies...

On Design and Implementation of Neural-Machine Interface for Artificial Legs

Zhang, Xiaorong; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Fan; Ren, Jin; Sun, Yan (Lindsay); Yang, Qing; Huang, He
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/09/2011 EN
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The quality of life of leg amputees can be improved dramatically by using a cyber physical system (CPS) that controls artificial legs based on neural signals representing amputees’ intended movements. The key to the CPS is the neural-machine interface (NMI) that senses electromyographic (EMG) signals to make control decisions. This paper presents a design and implementation of a novel NMI using an embedded computer system to collect neural signals from a physical system - a leg amputee, provide adequate computational capability to interpret such signals, and make decisions to identify user’s intent for prostheses control in real time. A new deciphering algorithm, composed of an EMG pattern classifier and a post-processing scheme, was developed to identify the user’s intended lower limb movements. To deal with environmental uncertainty, a trust management mechanism was designed to handle unexpected sensor failures and signal disturbances. Integrating the neural deciphering algorithm with the trust management mechanism resulted in a highly accurate and reliable software system for neural control of artificial legs. The software was then embedded in a newly designed hardware platform based on an embedded microcontroller and a graphic processing unit (GPU) to form a complete NMI for real time testing. Real time experiments on a leg amputee subject and an able-bodied subject have been carried out to test the control accuracy of the new NMI. Our extensive experiments have shown promising results on both subjects...

NMI mediates transcription-independent ARF regulation in response to cellular stresses

Li, Zengpeng; Hou, Jingjing; Sun, Li; Wen, Taoyong; Wang, Liqin; Zhao, Xinmeng; Xie, Qingqing; Zhang, Si Qing
Fonte: The American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: The American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2012 EN
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ETOC: NMI is a novel ARF-interacting protein identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen. NMI inhibits ULF-induced ubiquitin degradation of ARF protein. It mediates transcription-independent ARF regulation and is required for the stabilization and up-regulation of ARF in response to cellular stresses.

Improving the Performance of a Neural-Machine Interface for Artificial Legs Using Prior Knowledge of Walking Environment

Huang, He; Dou, Zhi; Zhang, Fan; Nunnery, Michael J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
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A previously developed neural-machine interface (NMI) based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion has showed promise for recognizing user locomotion modes; however, errors of NMI during mode transitions were observed, which may challenge its real application. This study aimed to investigate whether or not the prior knowledge of walking environment could further improve the NMI performance. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)-based classifiers were designed to identify user intent based on electromyographic (EMG) signals from residual muscles of leg amputees and ground reaction force (GRF) measured from the prosthetic leg. The prior knowledge of the terrain in front of the user adjusted the prior possibility in the discriminant function. Therefore, the boundaries of LDA were adaptive to the prior knowledge of the walking environment. This algorithm was evaluated on a dataset collected from one patient with a transfemoral (TF) amputation. The preliminary results showed that the NMI with adaptive prior possibilities outperformed the NMI without using the prior knowledge; it produced 98.7% accuracy for identifying tested locomotion modes, accurately predicted all the task transitions with 261–390 ms prediction time, and generated stable decision during task transitions. These results indicate the potential of using prior knowledge about walking environment to further improve the NMI for prosthetic legs.

Two Phase Non-Rigid Multi-Modal Image Registration Using Weber Local Descriptor-Based Similarity Metrics and Normalized Mutual Information

Yang, Feng; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Yi; Hu, Jiani
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/06/2013 EN
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Non-rigid multi-modal image registration plays an important role in medical image processing and analysis. Existing image registration methods based on similarity metrics such as mutual information (MI) and sum of squared differences (SSD) cannot achieve either high registration accuracy or high registration efficiency. To address this problem, we propose a novel two phase non-rigid multi-modal image registration method by combining Weber local descriptor (WLD) based similarity metrics with the normalized mutual information (NMI) using the diffeomorphic free-form deformation (FFD) model. The first phase aims at recovering the large deformation component using the WLD based non-local SSD (wldNSSD) or weighted structural similarity (wldWSSIM). Based on the output of the former phase, the second phase is focused on getting accurate transformation parameters related to the small deformation using the NMI. Extensive experiments on T1, T2 and PD weighted MR images demonstrate that the proposed wldNSSD-NMI or wldWSSIM-NMI method outperforms the registration methods based on the NMI, the conditional mutual information (CMI), the SSD on entropy images (ESSD) and the ESSD-NMI in terms of registration accuracy and computation efficiency.

A Cell Of Origin gene signature indicates human bladder cancer has distinct cellular progenitors

Dancik, Garrett M.; Owens, Charles R.; Iczkowski, Kenneth A.; Theodorescu, Dan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 EN
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There are two distinct forms of urothelial (bladder) cancer: muscle-invasive (MI) and non-muscle invasive (NMI) disease. Since it is currently believed that bladder cancer arises by transformation of urothelial cells of the basal layer, bladder cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been isolated based on expression markers found in such cells. However, these CSCs have only been identified in MI tumors raising the intriguing hypothesis that NMI tumor progenitors do not arise from the basal compartment. To test this hypothesis, we carried out genomewide expression profiling of laser capture microdissected basal and umbrella cells, the two most histologically distinct cell types in normal urothelium and developed a Cell Of Origin (COO) gene signature that distinguishes these. The COO signature was a better predictor of stage and survival than other bladder, generic or breast CSC signatures and bladder cell differentiation markers in multiple patient cohorts. To assess whether NMI and MI tumors arise from a distinct (DPC) or common (CPC) progenitor cell, we developed a novel statistical framework that predicts COO score as a function of known genetic alterations (TP53, HRAS, KDM6Aand FGFR3) that drive either MI or NMI bladder cancer and compared this to the observed COO score of the tumor. Analysis of 874 patients in 5 cohorts established the DPC model as the best fit to the available data. This observation supports distinct progenitor cells in NMI and MI tumors and provides a paradigm shift in our understanding of bladder cancer biology that has significant diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

N-Myc Interactor Inhibits Prototype Foamy Virus by Sequestering Viral Tas Protein in the Cytoplasm

Hu, Xiaomei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Ruikang; Geng, Yunqi; Qiao, Wentao; Tan, Juan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2014 EN
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Foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses that establish lifelong persistent infection without evident pathology. However, the roles of cellular factors in FV latency are poorly understood. This study revealed that N-Myc interactor (Nmi) could inhibit the replication of prototype foamy virus (PFV). Overexpression of Nmi reduced PFV replication, whereas its depletion by small interfering RNA increased PFV replication. The Nmi-mediated impairment of PFV replication resulted from the diminished transactivation by PFV Tas of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) and an internal promoter (IP). Nmi was determined to interact with Tas and abrogate its function by sequestration in the cytoplasm. In addition, human and bovine Nmi proteins were found to inhibit the replication of bovine foamy virus (BFV) and PFV. Together, these results indicate that Nmi inhibits both human and bovine FVs by interfering with the transactivation function of Tas and may have a role in the host defense against FV infection.

Loss of N-Myc interactor promotes epithelial-mesenchymal-transition by activation of TGF-β/SMAD signaling

Devine, Daniel J.; Rostas, Jack W.; Metge, Brandon J.; Das, Shamik; Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Tucker, J. Allan; Grizzle, William E.; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Shevde, Lalita A.; Samant, Rajeev S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) is one of the critical cellular programs that facilitate the progression of breast cancer to an invasive disease. We have observed that the expression of N-myc interactor (NMI) decreases significantly during progression of breast cancer, specifically in invasive and metastatic stages. Recapitulation of this loss in breast cell lines with epithelial morphology [MCF10A (non-tumorigenic) and T47D (tumorigenic)] by silencing NMI expression causes mesenchymal-like morphological changes in 3-D growth, accompanied by up-regulation of SLUG and ZEB2 and increased invasive properties. Conversely, we found that restoring NMI expression attenuated mesenchymal attributes of metastatic breast cancer cells accompanied by distinctly circumscribed 3-D growth with basement membrane deposition and decreased invasion. Further investigations into the downstream signaling modulated by NMI revealed that NMI expression negatively regulates SMAD signaling, which is a key regulator of cellular plasticity. We demonstrate that NMI blocks TGF-β/SMAD signaling via up-regulation of SMAD7, a negative feedback regulator of the pathway. We also provide evidence that NMI activates STAT signaling which negatively modulates TGF-β/SMAD signaling. Taken together...

New and contemporary markers of prognosis in nonmuscle invasive urothelial cancer

Ather, M Hammad; Nazim, Syed M
Fonte: The Korean Urological Association Publicador: The Korean Urological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Nonmuscle invasive (NMI) urothelial cancer (UC) is associated with varied biological potential. It is characterized by frequent recurrence and progression, which thus worsens the oncological outcome. Nearly three-quarters of NMI UCs recur within 5 years, whereas half can progress during follow-up. Progression is particularly seen in T1 and carcinoma in situ (CIS). Undoubtedly, NMI UC is one of the most expensive cancers to manage. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) risk calculator is a commonly used tool for assessing the recurrence and progression potential of a newly diagnosed cancer. The parameters used in the assessment are tumor size and number, pathological stage and grade of the cancer, presence of CIS, and prior recurrence rate. The main advantages of the EORTC tool are its ease of use and the lack of need to run expensive molecular tests. However, reproducibility of pathologic stage and grade is modest, which is a concern to clinicians. Molecular markers have potential for predicting the clinical outcome of NMI UC, given that clinico-pathologic variables are not sufficient for prediction of prognosis in an individual. Significant work has been done in the past 2 decades in understanding the molecular biology of bladder cancer; however...

One Size Does NOT Fit All: Personalized Incentives in Military Compensation

Coughlan, Peter J.; Gates, William R.; Myung, Noah
Fonte: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California : Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
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A critical element in implementing a compensation scheme including non-monetary incentives (NMIs) is recognizing that preferences vary widely across service members. There are at least three sources of variability: variability across population classes (e.g., preferences vary across Services, professional communities, rank/pay grade, etc.); variability across individuals within a population class (e.g., preferences vary across people in similar circumstances); and variability across NMI packages for a particular individual (e.g., values for an individual NMI may depend on the package of NMIs offered). Surveys across different military communities, ranks, and years of service, show the difficulty of identifying any NMI that has significant value for even 50% of the active duty force. At the same time, approximately 80% of the surveyed service members expressed a significant positive value for at least one NMI. As a result, one-size-fits-all incentive packages will not be nearly as effective as more individually tailored incentive packages. This paper discusses variability in service member NMI preferences and outlines an approach to implementing personalized NMI packages in military compensation through a sealed-bid reverse auction...

Proteinarray Technology

Joos, Thomas; Schrenk, M.; Stoll, Dieter; Templin, M.
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Sonstiges; info:eu-repo/semantics/other
DE_DE
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Bereits in den achtziger Jahren entwickelte Roger Ekins Konzepte über den Einsatz von parallelisierten Microspot-Immunoassays für die Immundiagnostik (Ekins et al., 1989; 1999). Seine theoretischen Betrachtungen und experimentellen Arbeiten zeigten, daß parallelisierte Microspot-Immunoassays als Alternative zu klassischen ELISA-Tests sensitiv und selektiv durchgeführt werden können. Der weltweite Durchbruch der Biochip-Technologie erfolgte jedoch erst in den neunziger Jahren mit der stürmischen Entwicklung der DNA-Chiptechnologie (Nature Genetics Supplement, 'The Chipping Forcast', 1999). Die dafür konzipierten Geräte wie Arrayer und Biochip-Reader erlauben heute die Herstellung von Mikroarrays mit Tausenden von Meßpunkten und den empfindlichen, ortsaufgelösten Nachweis gebundener Zielmoleküle. In der Autoimmundiagnostik bietet die Mikroarraytechnologie enorme Vorteile, da mit geringen Mengen an Patientenserum und geringem Arbeitsaufwand in einem Experimentalle wesentlichen diagnostischen Parameter erfaßt werden können. Unser Ziel am NMI war die Etablierung eines Mikroarray ELISAs mit dem unterschiedliche Autoantigene nicht nur qualitativsondern auch quantitativ zu erfassen sein sollten. Durch Verdünnung, das heißt Verringerung der pro Flächeneinheit immobilisierten Antigene war mit einem einzigen Mikroarray-Experiment ohne aufwändige Serumverdünnung eine Titerbestimmung möglich (Joos et al....

Evaluating accuracy of community detection using the relative normalized mutual information

Zhang, Pan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) has been widely used to evaluate the accuracy of community detection algorithms. However in this article we show that the NMI is seriously affected by systematic errors due to finite size of networks, and may give a wrong estimate of performance of algorithms in some cases. We give a simple theory to the finite-size effect of NMI and test our theory numerically. Then we propose a new metric for the accuracy of community detection, namely the relative Normalized Mutual Information (rNMI), which considers statistical significance of the NMI by comparing it with the expected NMI of random partitions. Our numerical experiments show that the rNMI overcomes the finite-size effect of the NMI.; Comment: comments are welcome