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Avaliação global dos modos energéticos de transporte do gás natural inclusive como energia secundária; Global Evaluation of Energy Ways of Natural Gás Transport, as Well as Secondary Energy

Rigolin, Pascoal Henrique da Costa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/06/2007 PT
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66.35%
O objetivo do trabalho é fazer a avaliação global de alguns dos modos energéticos de transporte do gás natural (gasodutos, GNL e GNC), inclusive como energia secundária (eletricidade e GTL). Para a escolha do melhor modo de transporte, além dos custos de cada projeto, serão considerados outros três fatores, que são: impactos ambientais, impactos sociais e riscos políticos. Para isto foi escolhida uma ferramenta de análise conhecida como Avaliação de Custos Completos (ACC), sendo que esta considera os quatro fatores citados anteriormente como de mesma importância na avaliação para um planejamento que vise a sustentabilidade. Para melhor visualização e entendimento do trabalho, foi feito um estudo de caso para o transporte de energia (gás natural e/ou eletricidade) para atender mercados consumidores na região de fronteira entre o Brasil e a Bolívia. Fundamentalmente o estudo do transporte foi feito em solo boliviano, correspondente entre os campos produtores de gás, localizados em Margarita, até a região de fronteira próxima a Corumbá no Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), e também próxima a uma região com grandes jazidas de minério de ferro conhecida como El Mutún. Metodologicamente dentro das quatro dimensões consideradas...

O relatório ambiental preliminar como instrumento de avaliação da viabilidade ambiental de sistemas de distribuição de gás; The preliminary environmental report as instrument of evaluation of the environmental suitability of natural gas pipelines

Lopes, Thiago Araújo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2008 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.12%
A avaliação de impactos ambientais (AIA) se tornou uma ferramenta amplamente utilizada para análise da viabilidade ambiental de novos empreendimentos e conseqüente subsídio à tomada de decisão nos procedimentos de licenciamento ambiental. Neste sentido, a Secretaria do Meio Ambiente do Estado de São Paulo editou a Resolução SMA nº 42/94, instituindo o relatório ambiental preliminar (RAP) como instrumento de licenciamento ambiental simplificado. Este instrumento foi criado com a intenção de agilizar a tramitação do licenciamento das atividades modificadoras do meio ambiente, incluindo algumas das previstas no artigo 2º da Resolução CONAMA nº 01/86 e, ao mesmo tempo, garantir que os objetivos de prevenção e preservação ambiental sejam assegurados. Como forma de analisar a utilização deste instrumento no licenciamento ambiental de sistemas de distribuição de gás no Estado de São Paulo foram elaboradas três diferentes listas de checagem cujos indicadores buscam, respectivamente, aferir quanto ao atendimento dos requisitos legais, identificar a ocorrência de falhas na elaboração de estudos de avaliação de impacto ambiental e analisar a conformidade de estudos de impacto ambiental com as melhores práticas nacionais e internacionais de AIA. Estes indicadores foram aplicados aos RAPs de sistemas de distribuição de gás elaborados nos anos de 2006 e 2007...

Concentração espacial da indústria: evidências sobre o papel da disponibilidade de gás natural; Spatial Industry Concentration: evidence on the role of natural gas availability

Perlotti, Edgar Antonio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/03/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.52%
A utilização de gás natural tem ganhado espaço na matriz energética brasileira, principalmente dentro do setor industrial. Para um conjunto de segmentos e processos industriais, a utilização de gás natural como energético ou matéria prima envolve significativos ganhos do ponto de visto ambiental, técnico e econômico. A hipótese motivadora deste trabalho está relacionada ao potencial papel de indutor do desenvolvimento regional que a disponibilidade de gás natural possui. Uma vez que a presença de gasodutos exibe um evidente padrão de concentração espacial bem definido, seria natural esperar que as indústrias que levassem em conta a disponibilidade deste energético em sua decisão de localização se tornassem mais concentradas, acompanhando o traçado dos principais gasodutos. Foram definidas duas principais vias de análise: (i) a avaliação do nível de concentração geográfica (ou espacial) da indústria, verificando-se a existência de padrões distintos para a média da indústria e um grupo de setores definidos como heavy users de gás natural (cerâmica, têxtil e química), e (ii) a avaliação e mapeamento das correlações espaciais entre o emprego industrial (proxy da atividade industrial) e a presença de gasodutos. Para o Brasil...

Considerations about equations for steady state flow in natural gas pipelines

Coelho,Paulo M.; Pinho,Carlos
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas - ABCM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.28%
In this work a discussion on the particularities of the pressure drop equations being used in the design of natural gas pipelines will be carried out. Several versions are presented according to the different flow regimes under consideration and through the presentation of these equations the basic physical support for each one is discussed as well as their feasibility.

Regulação do livre acesso no transporte de gás natural à luz da ordem econômica da Constituição de 1988; Open access regulation to natural gas pipelines according to Brazilian constitutional economic order

Silva, Anderson Souza da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.44%
In the middle of modern social changes produced by globalization and capitalism, several markets have changed. States have left the direct coordination of these markets (chiefly public utility sector in the form of monopolies), introducing regulation in order to promote competition. These changes have affected natural gas industry by promoting competition as a key factor to the development and the increase of firms in this market. The regulatory reform of natural gas industry ocurred in EUA and Europe Union and it has produced its first results. In Brazilian context, Constitutional Amendment nbr. 09 and Federal Law nbr. 9.478/97 ( Petroleum Law ) opened the natural gas market to a broad range of private economic agents and they finished the monopoly over the industry before managed by Petrobras. The new regulatory framework of Brazilian natural gas industry has designed competition as a central element to the new form of managment of business and contractual relationships of this industry. Among the regulatory instruments, open access regulation in natural gas pipelines is directed to promote competition. The questions arised about its implementation in Brazilian context are studied in the present work, in which it is discussed the constitutional rules and principles are to be applied to the open access regulation within the theme of statal regulation of economy present in constitutional economic order; ; No movimento de mudanças sociais capitaneados pelo capitalismo global e pelo discurso neoliberal...

Avaliação e modelagem da absorção de H2S do gás natural em coluna de leito estagnado; Evaluation and modeling of the H2S absorption process from natural gas in a fixed- bed column

Silva Filho, Luiz Ferreira da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química; Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Tecnologias Regionais
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.37%
Natural gas, although basically composed by light hydrocarbons, also presents contaminant gases in its composition, such as CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2S (hydrogen sulfide). The H2S, which commonly occurs in oil and gas exploration and production activities, causes damages in oil and natural gas pipelines. Consequently, the removal of hydrogen sulfide gas will result in an important reduction in operating costs. Also, it is essential to consider the better quality of the oil to be processed in the refinery, thus resulting in benefits in economic, environmental and social areas. All this facts demonstrate the need for the development and improvement in hydrogen sulfide scavengers. Currently, the oil industry uses several processes for hydrogen sulfide removal from natural gas. However, these processes produce amine derivatives which can cause damage in distillation towers, can cause clogging of pipelines by formation of insoluble precipitates, and also produce residues with great environmental impact. Therefore, it is of great importance the obtaining of a stable system, in inorganic or organic reaction media, able to remove hydrogen sulfide without formation of by-products that can affect the quality and cost of natural gas processing...

Gas Reform in Ukraine : Monopolies, Markets, and Corruption

Lovei, Laszlo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
Reform of the natural gas industry in Ukraine started a year later than reform of the power industry. Because gas reform had no blueprint, its direction has remained ambiguous. That ambiguity is the result of a conflict between those who advocate vertically integrated, opaque, monopolistic structures and those who want a transparent, competitive gas market governed by stable rules. This conflict will likely continue for several years, making the ultimate outcome difficult to predict. More by accident than by design, the reform produced a number of innovative features that might be of interest for other countries planning to restructure and privatize their gas industries.

International Gas Trade : The Bolivia-Brazil Gas Pipeline

Law, Peter L.; de Franco, Nelson
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline, which will transport natural gas more than 3,000 kilometers, will cost US$2.1 billion to construct. Despite the substantial benefits for both Bolivia and Brazil and the involvement of reputable private partners, the perceived risks and complexities of this large project made financing it a major challenge. The pipeline will link supply in one country to a potential market is another. Neither of these countries has a tradition of independent regulation or economic pricing of fuels. And the pipeline will be the first major gas infrastructure project involving the private sector in Brazil, where the natural gas market is underdeveloped and the gas distribution infrastructure still very limited. This Note explains the historical factors that shaped the project, how the financing package came together, and the role the pipeline will play in liberalizing the Brazilian hydrocarbon sector.

Competition in the Natural Gas Industry : The Emergence of Spot, Financial, and Pipeline Capacity Markets

Juris, Andrej
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.33%
Countries in Asia, Europe, and North and South America are introducing reforms to boost efficiency and attract new private investment in their natural gas industries. The trend has been to unbundle along vertical and horizontal lines and to open wholesale gas markets to new entrants. These new entrants stimulate competition and the development of new markets--in gas supply, in financial gas contracts, and in pipeline capacity. Such has been the success of these new markets--especially in the United States and the United Kingdom-- that it has prompted a search for other potential markets in the industry. This Note, part of the broad effort to aid reformers by disseminating knowledge from early reforms, describes the underlying structural and trading arrangements in the gas and pipeline markets. Two companion Notes examine these markets in the United Kingdom and the United States.

Natural Gas Markets in the U.K. : Competition, Industry Structure, and Market Power of the Incumbent

Juris, Andrej
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
The deregulation of the U.K. natural gas industry has facilitated new entry and competition in almost all segments of the industry except pipeline transportation. The new regulatory framework, developed largely by the Office of Gas Regulation (Ofgas), has allowed market forces to stimulate a variety of specialized services and market transactions to meet customer needs. But the entire process has been difficult because of a flaw in the initial industry structure: the government privatized British Gas as a vertically integrated company. The U. K. experience shows that leaving gas supply integrated with pipeline transportation and tying up gas in long-term contracts impede competition. This Note reviews the U.K. reform and the development of new spot, on-system, and "Flexibility Mechanism" markets.

Breathing Clean : Considering the Switch to Natural Gas Buses

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.38%
In response to emerging epidemiological evidence of the toxicity of diesel vehicular emissions, there is growing interest in substituting conventional diesel with much cleaner natural gas in cities where ambient concentrations of particulate matter are markedly higher than what is internationally considered acceptable. This paper compares the performance of natural gas and conventional diesel buses, and outlines the barriers to the adoption of natural gas buses in developing countries. In the absence of emissions standards that effectively require natural gas, natural gas-fueled buses are unlikely to be adopted because they are more expensive to operate relative to diesel buses. The social case for replacing diesel with natural gas a fuel for buses rests on environmental grounds. If a local government decides that the reduction in air pollution associated with the substitution of conventional diesel with natural gas for use in buses is worth the cost, then it needs to adopt policies to encourage the switch to natural gas. These might include emissions standards for buses...

Export Restraints on Russian Natural Gas and Raw Timber : What Are the Economic Impacts?

Tarr, David G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.24%
Export restraints by the Russian Federation on natural gas and timber have been the source of major controversy between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The analysis of this paper suggests that the export restraints in natural gas very substantially benefit Russia. On the other hand, in raw timber the analysis suggests that a substantial reduction of Russian export taxes would increase Russian welfare. The paper explains that Gazprom has failed to invest adequately, resulting in little development of new gas supplies. The result has been progressively increasing use by Gazprom of Central Asian gas supplies, at progressively higher prices for Russia. The increased prices of gas for Russian consumers have shown that it is crucial for Russia to allow new entrants and to introduce competition in the Russian domestic market. Without export restraints, however, competition among multiple gas suppliers from Russia would erode or eliminate the monopoly profits of the Russian Federation on gas exports. Thus...

Investment in Natural Gas Pipelines in the Southern Cone of Latin America

Jadresic, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.43%
Increasing demand for clean energy sources is expanding investment in natural gas infrastructure around the world. Many international projects involve pipelines connecting energy markets in two or more countries. A key feature of investment taking place in Latin America is the convergence of gas and electricity markets. Many projects are being developed to supply gas to new power generation plants needed to meet electricity demand. Construction of a pipeline over the Andes mountains to supply gas from Argentina to energy markets in central Chile was an idea long unfulfilled for political, economic, and technical reasons. Great changes have now taken place in a very short time. The author discusses both the achievements and the challenges to be faced by pipeline developers and Chiles energy sector. He details the benefits of the cooperative effort to consumers in terms of lower energy prices, higher environmental standards, and a more reliable energy system. The experience in Latin Americas southern cone shows how technological innovation...

AN ANALYSIS OF THE MOTION OF PIGS THROUGH NATURAL GAS PIPELINES

Sullivan, Jean
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.11%
The dynamics of propelling a pig through a natural gas pipeline, using the gas being transported, are analyzed. The gas flow is assumed to be isothermal, quasi-steady, and one-dimensional. The pig is modeled as a cylinder. For the cases considered, the pig may either obstruct the pipe and allow no gas to flow past it, or may permit gas to flow through a concentric hole in the pig, through an annulus formed by the pig and the inside of the pipe, or through both. The governing equations which describe the motion of the pig and the flow of gas in the pipe are developed. These equations form a system of nonlinear differential equations which must be solved numerically. Time derivatives are replaced by backward differences, and at each time step a system of nonlinear algebraic equations is solved. A FORTRAN program is included which solves for the important gas flow parameters and the position, velocity, and acceleration of the pig as it moves through the line. ii iii Such a quantitative analysis provides a basis for pig design which could be applied to regulate pig velocities or to increase gas flow rates while the pig is in the line.

Power and energy : geopolitical aspects of the transnational natural gas pipelines from the Caspian Sea basin to Europe

Benke, Ildiko.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xiv, 57 p. : ill.
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.28%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This study examines the geopolitical rivalry over control of the Caspian Sea basin natural gas resources and the transportation routes among four world powers--Russia, the European Union, the United States, and China. The author assesses the risks posed by instability in the Caspian Sea states to the realization of proposed natural gas pipeline projects in the region. Russia's role and strategy as a key player in the Caspian Sea region is analyzed, with a focus on its natural gas reserves and pipeline transportation system, which it is using not only for economic reasons but for political purpose to regain its lost status on the international scene. The study also evaluates the impact of individual states' conflicts of interest on the choice of natural gas transportation routes to Europe.; Hungarian Republic author (civilian)

AN ENERGY BRIDGE TOO FAR? UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS INNOVATIONS AND EURASIA'S ENERGY BRIDGE

Dahl, Wayne J., Jr.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.16%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Energy security has become a key watchword in defining the contemporary security landscape. Although the 1973 Oil Crisis is likely the most significant energy dispute in modern history, energy conflicts continue to impact nations and citizens around the world. Several energy disputes with Russia in the first decade of the twenty-first century serve as poignant examples of contemporary energy insecurity. The 2006 Russia-Ukraine gas disagreement halted the delivery of 100 million cubic meters of gas to Europe; in 2007, the Russian-Belarus energy clash direly affected Germanys economy. Subsequently, Ukraine siphoned gas from its pipeline to Europe in an attempt to hold European households hostage during a row with Russia over gas prices in 2009. However, unconventional natural gas innovations, such as shale gas and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), are dynamically altering the energy security relationships between Russia, the former Soviet republics, and Europe. This thesis will utilize a comparative study of the contemporary natural gas pipeline market and current unconventional gas market to analyze the ramifications both markets have on European and Eurasian energy security, future prospects for expansions...

Private Participation in the Transmission and Distribution of Natural Gas : Recent Trends

Izaguirre, Ada Karina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.38%
This paper examines the increasing participation of the private sector in the transmission and distribution of natural gas in developing countries during the 1990s, resulting mainly from the growing demand for new gas transport facilities coinciding with a growing consensus in favor of private participation in infrastructure. This note, drawing on the bank's PPI (Private Participation in Infrastructure) Project database, provides an overview of the patterns and trends in the projects in the twenty six developing countries which introduced private participation in natural gas between 1990 and 1997. It concludes with the thought that growth in privately funded and operated export projects promise s to bring the economic and environmental benefits of natural gas to a larger number of countries.

Peru's Downstream Natural Gas Sector : A Preliminary Assessment

Reinstein, David; Benítez, Daniel A. Benítez; Johnson, Todd M.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This study assesses the natural gas market in Peru. In the process of evaluating the downstream market, the study identifies opportunities for meeting the Government s aspirational goals with respect to energy and natural gas development, including the efficient use of natural gas in the power and other sectors, strengthening and coordinating national energy planning for the gas sector, infrastructure development and prospects for decentralization of the natural gas market in Peru, and the potential of natural gas pricing reforms for the promotion of hydroelectricity and other renewable energy sources. This report is divided into five chapters. Chapter I describes the context in which this study was prepared. Chapter II presents a history of the natural gas sector and the Government of Peru s policy objectives to increase the use of natural gas in the domestic economy. Chapter III presents potential new markets for natural gas within the present context of the natural gas industry and the Peruvian economy. Chapter IV describes findings...

Peru : Extending the Use of Natural Gas to Inland Provinces

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.35%
The project's goal is to configure realistically the potential business units that are likely to be awarded in concessions to private operators. These conditions are comprised of: (i) the socioeconomic reality of regions and current and potential energy use; (ii) the current legislation governing natural gas, (iii) the framework of institutions at the national, regional, and district levels; (iv) the base infrastructure already in place and in operation in Camisea (upstream-midstream) upon which the project's trunklines will be extended; (v) the characteristics of the areas crossed by the potential route of Camisea Trunk Transport pipeline (CTT) with respect to the extended pipelines and the relevant environmental restrictions; (vi) the project's supply costs compared to the economic benefits contributed; (vii) the financial requirements of the business units, and the engineering and design of a combination of reasonable revenues and rates which will attract responsible users and investors to the regional supply systems.

Development of Competitive Natural Gas Markets in the United States

Juris, Andrej
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Viewpoint; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.5%
The United States has the world's largest natural gas market. Fifteen years of deregulation have delivered significant gains to consumers in the form of lower prices and more services. The experience shows that liberalizing wholesale gas prices and the bulk supply of natural gas frees market forces in segments where competition is feasible. But regulators must focus on improving the regulation of pipeline transportation and minimizing its distortive effect on competitive gas markets. Introducing flexibility into pricing and other conditions of transportaion contracts such as delivery locations or the balancing of gas shipments and standardizing pipeline operations promote more efficient use of pipelines and benefit all industry participants. The U.S. experience also shows the important role of gas marketers and spot markets in increasing the efficiency of gas transactions and prices. Deregulation of the U.S. gas industry is far from complete, however. The most important task, and the biggest challenge for regulators...