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A novel biomagnetic approach to study caecocolonic motility in humans

Romeiro, F. G.; Cora, L. A.; De Andreis, U.; Americo, M. F.; Oliveira, R. B.; Baffa, O.; Miranda, J. R. A.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1078-1083
ENG
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36.68%
Motility patterns play a major role in human colonic functions; however, its physiological significance is poorly understood. Several studies have been introducing the Alternating Current Biosusceptometry (ACB) as a valuable tool in gastroenterology and pharmaceutical research. Using gold standard techniques, great effort has been made to validate ACB as a method for measuring gastrointestinal motility in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate caecocolonic motility and its response to a meal in healthy volunteers. The results showed a dominant frequency of 3.17 +/- 0.13 cycles per minute (mean +/- SD) that remained unchanged even after a standardized meal (P > 0.01). The colonic response to a meal was recorded as a considerable increase in amplitude, reflected by motility index (P < 0.01) and was observed for all the volunteers. The caecocolonic motility could be assessed by the ACB providing new insights into physiological patterns of motility. Moreover, the method is non-invasive, radiation-free, cost-effective and independent of bowel preparation.

Comparison of hemodynamic, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal motility effects and recovery characteristics of anesthesia with isoflurane and halothane in horses undergoing arthroscopic surgery

Durongphongtorn, Sumit; McDonnell, Wayne N.; Kerr, Carolyn L.; Teixeira Neto, Francisco J.; Mirakhur, Kuldip K.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 32-42
ENG
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36.65%
Objective - To compare hemodynamic, clinicopathologic, and gastrointestinal motility effects and recovery characteristics of halothane and isoflurane in horses undergoing arthroscopic surgery. Animals - 8 healthy adult horses. Procedure - Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane or halothane (crossover study). At 6 intervals during anesthesia and surgery, cardiopulmonary variables and related derived values were recorded. Recovery from anesthesia was assessed; gastrointestinal tract motility was subjectively monitored for 72 hours after anesthesia. Horses were administered chromium, and fecal chromium concentration was used to assess intestinal transit time. Venous blood samples were collected for clinicopathologic analyses before and 2, 24, and 48 hours after anesthesia. Results - Compared with halothane-anesthetized horses, cardiac index, oxygen delivery, and heart rate were higher and systemic vascular resistance was lower in isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Mean arterial blood pressure and the dobutamine dose required to maintain blood pressure were similar for both treatments. Duration and quality of recovery from anesthesia did not differ between treatments, although the recovery periods were somewhat shorter with isoflurane. After isoflurane anesthesia...

Efficacy of sperm motility after processing and incubation to predict pregnancy after intrauterine insemination in normospermic individuals

Araujo, Ligia F. P. de; Araujo Filho, Edilberto de; Facio, Cassio L.; Bossoni, Marcia C. O.; Machado-Paula, Ligiane A.; Corrente, Jose E.; Cavagna, Mario; Matheus, Paulo C. S.; Pontes, Anagloria
Fonte: Biomed Central Ltd. Publicador: Biomed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 7
ENG
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36.77%
Background: Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is widely used to treat infertility, and its adequate indication is important to obtain good pregnancy rates. To assess which couples could benefit from IUI, this study aimed to evaluate whether sperm motility using a discontinuous gradient of different densities and incubation in CO2 in normospermic individuals is able to predict pregnancy.Methods: A total of 175 couples underwent 175 IUI cycles. The inclusion criteria for women were as follows: 35 years old or younger (age range: from 27 to 35 years) with normal fallopian tubes; endometriosis grades I-II; unexplained infertility; nonhyperandrogenic ovulatory dysfunction. Men with normal seminal parameters were also included. All patients underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human hMG or r-FSH. When one or (at most) three follicles measuring 18 to 20 mm were observed, hCG (5000 UI) or r-hCG (250 mcg) was administered and IUI performed 36-40 h after hCG. Sperm processing was performed using a discontinuous concentration gradient. A 20 microliters aliquot was incubated for 24 h at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 following a total progressive motility analysis. The Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, as well as a ROC curve were used to determine the cutoff value for motility.Results: Of the 175 couples...

Impact of corticotropin-releasing hormone on gastrointestinal motility and adrenocorticotropic hormone in normal controls and patients with irritable bowel syndrome

Fukudo, S; Nomura, T; Hongo, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 EN
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Background—Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a key role in modulating intestinal motility in stressed animals. 
Aims—To evaluate the effect of CRH on intestinal motility in humans and to determine whether patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have an exaggerated response to CRH. 
Subjects—Ten IBS patients diagnosed by Rome criteria and 10 healthy controls. 
Methods—CRH (2 µg/kg) was intravenously administered during duodenal and colonic manometry and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was measured by radioimmunoassay. 
Results—CRH induced motility of the descending colon in both groups (p<0.001) and induced greater motility indexes in IBS patients than in controls (p<0.05). CRH produced duodenal phase III motor activity in 80% of the subjects and duodenal dysmotility in 40% of IBS patients. Abdominal symptoms evoked by CRH in IBS patients lasted significantly longer than those in controls (p<0.05). CRH induced significant increases in plasma ACTH levels in both groups (p<0.001) and produced significantly higher plasma ACTH levels in IBS patients than in controls (p<0.001). 
Conclusion—Human intestinal motility is probably modulated by exogenous CRH. The brain-gut in IBS patients may have an exaggerated response to CRH. 



How to Interpret a Functional or Motility Test - Colon Transit Study

Kim, Eun Ran; Rhee, Poong-Lyul
Fonte: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Publicador: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.61%
Measurement of colon transit time is the most basic and primary tool in evaluating disorders of colonic motility. In particular, it is helpful in pathologic diagnosis and for planning management in patients with constipation. Several techniques for measuring colon transit time currently exist. The standard measurement of colon transit time has been performed using radioopaque marker test. The radioopaque marker test is the most widely used method; it is simple to perform as well as being cost effective. But, this technique produces radiation exposure. Radionuclide scintigraphy and wireless motility capsules are other techniques used to measure colon transit time. In radionuclide scintigraphy, the transit of radioisotope is viewed by gamma camera; this approach has an advantage in that it uses minimal radiation and it allows a physiological assessment of gastrointestinal transit. Wireless motility capsules have been validated most recently, but this technique is not useful in Korea. This review presents the techniques used to measure colon transit time and the interpretations provided in different colon transit studies.

Technique of Functional and Motility Test: How to Perform Antroduodenal Manometry

Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Gonlachanvit, Sutep
Fonte: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Publicador: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Antroduodenal manometry is one of the methods to evaluate stomach and duodenal motility. This test is a valuable diagnostic tool for gastrointestinal motility disorders especially small intestinal pseudo-obstruction which is difficult to make definite diagnosis by clinical manifestations or radiologic findings. Manometric findings that have no evidence of mechanical obstruction and suggestive of pseudo-obstruction with neuropathy or myopathy can avoid unnecessary surgery and the treatment can be directly targeted. Moreover, among patients who have clinically suspected small intestinal pseudo-obstruction but with normal manometric findings, the alternative diagnosis including psychiatric disorder or other organic disease should be considered. The application of this test to the patients with functional gastrointestinal symptoms especially to find the association of motor abnormalities to the symptom has less impressive yield. Antroduodenal manometry is now readily available only in some tertiary care centers. The aim of this review is to describe the antroduodenal manometry technique, interpretation and clinical utility.

How to Assess Regional and Whole Gut Transit Time With Wireless Motility Capsule

Lee, Yeong Yeh; Erdogan, Askin; Rao, Satish S C
Fonte: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Publicador: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 EN
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Assessment of transit through the gastrointestinal tract provides useful information regarding gut physiology and patho-physiology. Although several methods are available, each has distinct advantages and limitations. Recently, an ingestible wireless motility capsule (WMC), similar to capsule video endoscopy, has become available that offers a less-invasive, standardized, radiation-free and office-based test. The capsule has 3 sensors for measurement of pH, pressure and temperature, and collectively the information provided by these sensors is used to measure gastric emptying time, small bowel transit time, colonic transit time and whole gut transit time. Current approved indications for the test include the evaluation of gastric emptying in gastroparesis, colonic transit in constipation and evaluation of generalised dysmotility. Rare capsule retention and malfunction are known limitations and some patients may experience difficulty with swallowing the capsule. The use of WMC has been validated for the assessment of gastrointestinal transit. The normal range for transit time includes the following: gastric emptying (2–5 hours), small bowel transit (2–6 hours), colonic transit (10–59 hours) and whole gut transit (10–73 hours). Besides avoiding the use of multiple endoscopic...

Ultrastructure and motility of spermatozoa in the male reproductive tract of perameloid marsupials

Taggart, D.; Leigh, C.; Breed, W.
Fonte: CSIRO Publicador: CSIRO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 EN
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36.68%
The number, distribution, maturation, motility and ultrastructure of spermatozoa from both northern (Isoodon macrourus) and southern (Isoodon obesulus) brown bandicoots were examined. One epididymidis per animal was fixed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the contralateral side was used for the determination of sperm number, distribution and motility. Sperm form was similar between the two species. Approximately 56 x 10(6) testicular sperm and 100 x 10(6) epididymal sperm per side were present in I. macrourus, about 60% of which were in the caudal region. Initiation of sperm nuclear rotation and loss of the cytoplasmic droplet was first observed in distal caput or proximal corpus segments along with slow progressive motility. In these sperm, dislocation and anterior movement of the sperm neck from the implantation fossa and the modification of the distal margins of the sperm acrosome were evident. Motility of cauda epididymidal spermatozoa was rapid and coordinated, movement was restricted to one plane, and lateral head displacement was marked. As media viscosity increased, sperm velocity decreased, as did the amplitude of the tail beat, its frequency, and lateral head displacement but, in viscous mineral oil and mixtures of media and prostatic exudate...

Effect of cooling and cryopreservation on sperm motility and morphology of several species of marsupial

Taggart, D.; Leigh, C.; Steele, V.; Breed, W.; Temple-Smith, P.; Phelan, J.
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 EN
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36.72%
The effects of long-term cooling and freezing on sperm motility are described for six marsupial species: the fat-tailed dunnart, koala, brushtail possum, long-footed potoroo, northern brown bandicoot and ring-tailed possum. The effects of up to eight days of cooling at 4 degrees C on the motility of dunnart spermatozoa and the effect of cryopreservation on spermatozoa of the other species were determined. The cryoprotectant used was a Tris-citrate-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol diluent. The percentage and rating of sperm motility, and sperm structure, as determined by light microscopy, were investigated. Sperm motility in the fat-tailed dunnart was retained for up to six days when cooled to 4 degrees C, suggesting that sperm from this species have some degree of tolerance to cold shock. After this time, however, the percentage of motile spermatozoa and their motility rating declined. In all species except the fat-tailed dunnart, reinitiation of motility following cryopreservation occurred across a range of glycerol concentrations (4-17%). Cryoprotectant containing 6% and/or 8% glycerol resulted in little change of motility rating or of the percentage of live sperm after thawing, although there was some decline in the percentage of motile sperm. The unusual structural and motility characteristics of dunnart spermatozoa may account for the lack of success of sperm cryopreservation in this species.; D. A. Taggart...

Real-time resolution MRI for the assessment of gastric motility: pre- and postpharmacological stimuli

Ajaj, W.; Lauenstein, T.; Papanikolaou, N.; Holtmann, G.; Goehde, S.; Ruehm, S.; Debatin, J.
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Inc Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 EN
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Purpose: To determine the practicality of MRI using a new real-time sequence for the assessment of gastric motion, and quantify the effects of motility-modifying substances. Materials and Methods: Six healthy volunteers ingested 400 mL of a high-calorie liquid nutrient. Two-dimensional real-time TrueFISP sequences were acquired for up to 30 minutes following the ingestion. The acquisition plane was chosen parallel to the axis of the gastric antrum. The examination was performed on three separate days with and without i.v. administration of 10 mg metoclopramide or 20 mg scopolamine. A motility index was calculated for each real-time data set. Results: Delineation of the gastric lumen proved easy and robust. The intravenous application of motility-modifying agents resulted in significant changes in the motility index. The administration of metoclopramide resulted in an average increase of the index by a factor of 1.5, whereas the application of scopolamine led to a decrease of the index by a factor of 3.0. Conclusion: TrueFISP MRI performed well in depicting the gastric lumen and assessing gastric motility. Furthermore, we were able to evaluate and quantify the effect of motility-modifying agents. The noninvasive nature of MRI makes this imaging modality an attractive alternative to conventional invasive diagnostic tools for gastric motility disorders and monitoring of therapy.; Waleed Ajaj...

Factors involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, hormone release, symptoms and energy intake in health and patients with functional dyspepsia.

Pilichiewicz, Amelia
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
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36.79%
This thesis presents studies relating to effects of different macronutrients, predominantly fat and carbohydrate, on gastrointestinal motility, hormone release/suppression, appetite and energy intake in healthy subjects, and on symptom generation in patients with functional dyspepsia. The three broad areas that have been investigated in these studies are: (i) the effect of load, and duration, of small intestinal nutrient exposure on gastric motility, gastrointestinal hormone release/suppression, appetite and energy intake in healthy subjects, (ii) the dietary factors that may contribute to symptom generation in patients with functional dyspepsia, through analysis of diet diaries and acute nutrient challenges, and (iii) the effects of the herbal medication, Iberogast®, on gastric motility in healthy subjects. The ingestion of nutrients, triggers a number of gastrointestinal responses, including the modulation of antropyloroduodenal motility, gastrointestinal hormone release/suppression, and the suppression of appetite and energy intake, resulting in a slowing of gastric emptying to an average rate of 1 - 3 kcal/min, which is required for efficient nutrient digestion and absorption. Additionally, the rate at which glucose enters the small intestine influences postprandial glycaemia and incretin responses. These responses have been demonstrated in animals to be dependent on the length...

5-HT₃ and 5-HT₄ receptors contribute to the anti-motility effects of Garcinia buchananii bark extract in the guinea-pig distal colon; 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors contribute to the anti-motility effects of Garcinia buchananii bark extract in the guinea-pig distal colon

Boakye, P.; Stenkamp-Strahm, C.; Bhattarai, Y.; Heckman, M.; Brierley, S.; Pasilis, S.; Balemba, O.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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36.76%
Background: Garcinia buchananii bark extract is an anti-motility diarrhea remedy. We investigated whether G. buchananii bark extract has components that reduce gastrointestinal peristaltic activity via 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. Methods:  Aqueous G. buchananii extract was separated into fractions using preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC), and major chemical components were identified using standard tests. The anti-motility effects of the extract and its fractions (PTLC1-5) were studied through pellet propulsion assays using isolated guinea-pig distal colons. Key Results:  Anti-motility (PTLC1 & PTLC5) and pro-motility (PTLC2) fractions were isolated from the extract. Flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, and phenols were identified in the extract and PTLC1&5. The potency of the extract applied via the mucosal surface was reduced by 5-HT, 5-HT3 receptor agonist RS-56812, 5-HT4 receptor agonists cisapride and CJ-033466, 5-HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron, and 5-HT4 receptor antagonist GR-113808. The anti-motility effects of the aqueous extract and PTLC1&5 when applied serosally were reversed by RS-56812, cisapride, and CJ-033466. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, granisetron and ondansetron, reduced the effects of the extract to an extent and completely reversed the anti-motility effects of PTLC1&5. GR-113808 inhibited the actions of the extract during the initial 10 min...

Parathyroid hormone induces bone cell motility and loss of mature osteocyte phenotype through L-calcium channel dependent and independent mechanisms

Prideaux, M.; Dallas, S.L.; Zhao, N.; Johnsrud, E.D.; Veno, P.A.; Guo, D.; Mishina, Y.; Harris, S.E.; Bonewald, L.F.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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36.68%
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R), which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1) promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA)...

Effects of intraduodenal infusions of L-phenylalanine and L-glutamine on antropyloroduodenal motility and plasma cholecystokinin in healthy men

Steinert, R.E.; Landrock, M.F.; Horowitz, M.; Feinle-Bisset, C.
Fonte: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Publicador: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 EN
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46.56%
BACKGROUND/AIMS Dietary proteins have potent eating-inhibitory and glucose-lowering effects, which may be mediated via effects of amino acids on gastrointestinal hormone and motor function, although little information is available. We have now evaluated the effects of L-phenylalanine (L-Phe) and L-glutamine (L-Gln) on antropyloroduodenal motility and plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations. METHODS Two double-blind, 3-way cross-over studies were performed, each including 10 healthy, normal-weight men. We determined the antropyloroduodenal motor and plasma CCK responses to 90-minute intraduodenal infusions of L-Phe (study A) or L-Gln (study B), each at 0.15 kcal/min (total 13.5 kcal), or 0.45 kcal/min (total 40.5 kcal), or saline (control), in randomized fashion. RESULTS Intraduodenal L-Phe at 0.45 kcal/min, but not at 0.15 kcal/min, suppressed antral (P < 0.01), and stimulated phasic (P < 0.01), but not tonic, pyloric, or duodenal pressures, while L-Phe at both 0.15 kcal/min and 0.45 kcal/min stimulated plasma CCK. In contrast, L-Gln had no effect on antral, duodenal or pyloric pressures, or plasma CCK. CONCLUSIONS Intraduodenal infusions of L-Phe and L-Gln, in doses of 0.15 kcal/min and 0.45 kcal/min for 90 minutes, have different effects on antropyloroduodenal motility and CCK in normal-weight men. The modulation of antral and pyloric pressures and CCK may contribute to the eating-inhibitory effects of oral L-Phe...

Gastrointestinal motility and glycaemic control in diabetes

Chaikomin, Reawika
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2369685 bytes; 150167 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 EN
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36.72%
Gastric emptying, and small intestinal glucose exposure and absorption, are potentially important determinants of postprandial blood glucose homeostasis and energy intake. The studies presented in this thesis were designed to provide novel insights into the interrelationships of upper gastrointestinal function with glycaemia and appetite in both health and type 2 diabetes. The issues which were addressed relate in particular to : ( i ) the physiology, regulation and measurement of gastric and small intestinal motility, ( ii ) the relationships between small intestinal glucose exposure, incretin hormone release, antropyloroduodenal motility and appetite, and ( iii ) the impact of gastric and small intestinal motility on glycaemia. The study reported in chapter 4 evaluated the effect of variations in small intestinal glucose delivery on blood glucose, plasma insulin, and incretin hormone ( GLP - 1 and GIP ) concentrations in healthy subjects. While initially rapid, and subsequently slower, duodenal glucose delivery potentiated incretin and insulin responses when compared to constant delivery of an identical glucose load, the overall glycaemic excursion was not improved. These observations add to the rationale for the use of dietary and pharmacological strategies designed to reduce postprandial glycaemic excursions in health and type 2 diabetes by slowing gastric emptying...

WHAT IS THE REAL IMPAIRMENT ON ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE?

FALCÃO,Angela; NASI,Ary; BRANDÃO,Jeovana; SALLUM,Rubens; CECCONELLO,Ivan
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.68%
Context Impairment of esophageal motility is a common finding in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as reduced lower esophageal sphincter (LES) basal pressure. A very low LES pressure might facilitate the occurrence of more gastroesophageal reflux whereas abnormal esophageal peristalsis may contribute to impaired esophageal clearance after reflux. Objective Evaluate the esophageal motor function of the lower esophageal sphincter and esophageal body in the various forms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods The manometrics records of 268 patients, who had evaluation of the esophageal motility as part of the diagnostic gastroesophageal reflux disease were split into four groups, as follows: 33 patients who had no esophagitis; 92 patients who had erosive esophagitis; 101 patients who had short Barrett's esophagus and 42 patients who had long Barrett's esophagus. Results The group who had long Barrett's esophagus showed smaller mean LES pressure and higher percentage of marked LES hypotonia; in the distal segment of the esophageal body the this group showed higher percentage of marked hypocontractility of the distal segment (<30 mm Hg); this same group showed higher percentage of esophageal motility disorders. Conclusions The most intense esophageal motility disorders and lower pressure of lower esophageal sphincter were noted in the group with long Barrett's esophagus. Those with reflux esophagitis and short Barrett's esophagus had esophageal motility impairment...

Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Lee, Oh Young
Fonte: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility Publicador: Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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36.68%
Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotility in Asian IBS patients were reviewed. MEDLINE search work was performed including following terms, 'IBS,' 'motility,' 'transit time,' 'esophageal motility,' 'gastric motility,' 'small intestinal motility,' 'colonic motility,' 'anorectal function,' and 'gallbladder motility' and over 100 articles were categorized under 'esophagus,' 'stomach,' 'small intestine,' 'colon,' 'anorectum,' 'gallbladder,' 'transit,' 'motor pattern,' and 'effect of stressors.' Delayed gastric emptying, slow tansit in constipation predominant IBS patients, rapid transit in diarrhea predominant IBS patients, accelerated motility responses to various stressors such as meals, mental stress, or corticotrophin releasing hormones, and altered rectal compliance and altered rectal accomodation were reported in many Asian studies regarding IBS. Many conflicting results were found among these studies and there are still controversies to conclude these as unique features of Asian IBS patients. Multinational and multicenter studies are needed to be performed vigorously in order to elaborate characteristics as well as differences of altered motililty in Asian patients with IBS.

Motility defects in Campylobacter jejuni defined gene deletion mutants caused by second-site mutations; Spontaneous mutations in Campylobacter jejuni strain M1: A cautionary tale; Second-site mutation causing motility defects

de Vries, Stefan P. W.; Gupta, Srishti; Baig, Abiyad; L'Heureux, Joanna; Pont, Elsa; Wolanska, Dominika P.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Grant, Andrew J.
Fonte: Society for General Microbiology Publicador: Society for General Microbiology
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Society for General Microbiology via http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.000184; Genetic variation due to mutation and phase-variation has a considerable impact on the commensal and pathogenic behaviours of Campylobacter jejuni. In this study, we provide an example of how second-site mutations can interfere with gene function analysis in C. jejuni. Deletion of the flagellin B gene (flaB) in C. jejuni M1 resulted in mutant clones with inconsistent motility phenotypes. From the flaB mutant clones picked for further analysis, two were motile, one showed intermediate motility, and two displayed severely attenuated motility. To determine the molecular basis of this differential motility, a genome re-sequencing approach was used. Second-site mutations were identified in the severely attenuated and intermediate motility flaB mutant clones: a TA-dinucleotide deletion in fliW and an A deletion in flgD, respectively. Restoration of wild-type fliW, using a newly developed genetic complementation system, confirmed that the second-site fliW mutation caused the motility defect as opposed to the primary deletion of flaB. This study highlights the importance of i) screening multiple defined gene deletion mutant clones...

Role of the released forms of L1-CAM in breast cancer cell motility

Chilukuri, Kalyani
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.78%
Deni S. Galileo; L1-CAM (L1) is a neural cell adhesion protein which plays a major role in neural development. Recently, L1 is found to be abnormally expressed in several cancers and has been shown to be a biomarker indicating poor outcome and bad prognosis of the cancer. L1 is a transmembrane protein which is abnormally shed in cancer cells to release the cleaved ectodomain. The L1 ectodomain stimulates cell motility and migratory ability of ovarian, colon and other cancerous cells. L1 is also released by the cancer cells in the form of exosomes. Expression of L1 was found in few breast cancer cell lines and was also associated with aggressive nature of the breast cancer disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of L1 in breast cancer are not known. Breast cancer metastasis to the brain leads to very quick death. The extracellular environment in the brain contains L1 protein and the dissemination and metastasis of breast cancer cells in the brain could depend on the L1 expressed by the breast cancer cells. In order to understand the role of L1, I have characterized the presence of L1 in three breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and MDA-MB- 468. The amount of L1 expressed by the cell lines was correlated with their known metastatic potential. Having found L1 in breast cancer cells...

Plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 co-ordinates calcium and nitric oxide signaling in regulating murine sperm motility and fertility

Olli, Kristine E.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.7%
Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A.; Reduced sperm motility or asthenozoospermia is the primary cause of male infertility. In mice, asthenozoospermia leading to infertility results from a deletion of Pmca4 , which encodes the highly conserved Plasma Membrane Calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA4), the major calcium efflux pump in murine sperm. However, to date the mechanism underlying the loss of PMCA4, which results in the motility defects, is unknown. In somatic cells PMCA4, in addition to its role in calcium efflux, is known to modulate nitric oxide (NO) signaling by negatively regulating the production of NO via nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in endothelial (eNOS) and neuronal (nNOS) cells. Both eNOS and nNOS are activated by calcium. In the absence of PMCA4 there are elevated levels of intracellular calcium and consequently increased levels of NO, leading to increased amounts of the highly reactive peroxynitrite, which reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Since the sperm membrane is enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is highly susceptible to attack from peroxynitrite with resulting lipid peroxidation and ultimately a decrease in sperm motility. Therefore, in exploring the potential mechanism for the loss of fertility in Pmca4 null mice, the goal of this study was to determine if eNOS and nNOS are interacting partners in sperm...