Página 1 dos resultados de 20 itens digitais encontrados em 0.027 segundos

Novas formas de encarceramento?: os jovens e o centro de ressocialização

Vedovello, Camila de Lima
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 236 f. : il. color.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Ciências Sociais - FFC; A prisão enquanto principal forma de punição aparece nas sociedades num período recente. Ela surge como a forma de punição por excelência a partir do século XIX com a sociedade industrial. No Brasil e no Estado de São Paulo, é com o advento da República e as idéias de progresso advindas com ela que se começa a pensar a prisão com uma maior acuidade; pois existia um forte pressuposto de que o desenvolvimento estava acoplado ao controle da criminalidade por meio da punição prisional. Nos últimos anos, o Governo do Estado de São Paulo vem implantando uma política de descentralização e de ampliação do número das unidades prisionais, acompanhando a política de mais encarceramento implementada em diversos países do ocidente. Uma das formas de descentralização ocorreu através da implantação dos chamados Centros de Ressocialização (CR), sendo que cada unidade abriga poucos detentos, com baixo grau de periculosidade. Nesse sentido, o trabalho aqui exposto aborda os jovens encarcerados em uma das unidades do CR no interior do Estado de São Paulo, onde entrevistamos doze detentos - com idades entre 18 e 21 anos -...

Os dilemas da sociedade punitiva: reflexões sobre os debates em torno da sociologia da punição

Barros, Rodolfo Arruda Leite de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 182 f. : il.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.87%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Pós-graduação em Ciências Sociais - FFC; A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo investigar os principais desdobramentos ocorridos na área da punição, no período que vai de 1975 até 2001, tendo como base as análises recentes elaboradas a partir das experiências penais dos EUA, Inglaterra, França e Brasil. O período analisado tem sido apontado como um momento de mudanças estruturais intensas, que afetaram todas as esferas da vida social e que, por sua vez, geraram transformações dramáticas no funcionamento dos sistemas punitivos das sociedades contemporâneas. Os destaques indicam que há um aumento generalizado no número de pessoas encarceradas no mundo e de que os conteúdos e as formas punitivas de controle das populações têm se tornado cada vez mais intensos. Diante disto, há um consenso de que, ao contrário de funcionar como uma medida capaz de conter ou restabelecer a fragmentação crescente sob a qual estão submetidas as sociedades, a punição tem se transformado numa dimensão extremamente problemática da dinâmica social, por conta de inúmeros problemas ligados ao seu funcionamento, como a sua violência arraigada e sua incidência seletiva. Com base nestas ocorrências...

Doing Time: A Qualitative Study of Long-Term Incarceration and the Impact of Mental Illness

Yang, Suzanne; Kadouri, Alane; Révah-Lévy, Anne; Mulvey, Edward P.; Falissard, Bruno
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.79%
Once convicted, the perpetrator of serious crime embarks upon a new journey: the challenge of adjusting to long-term imprisonment. Prisoners’ views of incarceration and the meaning of this experience may affect their later adjustment to life in the community. On the basis of brief narrative responses collected during an epidemiological survey of the psychological health of prisoners in France, this study examined the impact of incarceration on psychological state in a group of 59 inmates serving long sentences. Qualitative content analysis and computer-assisted linguistic analysis (using ALCESTE software) were performed on the textual data of open responses to three standard questions. Using a combination of these two approaches, seven categories of the subjective experience of prisoners in the sample were identified: the Outside World, Others, Punishment, Time, Affects and Impulses, Self-Concept, and Speech. Further qualitative analyses were then performed to compare the responses of Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) subjects and subjects with no psychiatric disorder. These analyses revealed contrasting attitudes towards incarceration. SMI subjects spoke in more hostile and persecutory terms about their experience in prison, attributing suffering to external circumstances...

Assessing Trends in Women’s Violence via Data Triangulation: Arrests, Convictions, Incarcerations, & Victim Reports

Schwartz, Jennifer; Steffensmeier, Darrell J.; Feldmeyer, Ben
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.85%
Constructionist theories suggest the national rise in female violence arrests may be policy-generated because arrest statistics are produced by violent behavior and changing official responses (e.g., net-widening enforcement policies). Normative theories attribute the rise to female behavior changes (e.g., in response to increased freedoms or hardships). We examine whether any narrowing of the arrest gender gap is borne out across offense types of varying measurement reliability, in victimization data, and across two post-arrest criminal justice stages. Advanced time-series analyses over 1980–2003 support the constructionist position – first, all sources show little or no increase in women’s rates for the more reliably measured offenses of homicide and robbery, and for rape; second, the assault gender gap narrows for arrests, but holds stable in victimization data; third, the assault gender gap narrows moderately for convictions, but is stable for imprisonment, indicating spill-over effects of more expansive arrest policies. Several factors have produced greater female representation in “criminal assault” arrests including (i) proactive policing targeting and formally responding to minor violence and in private contexts, (ii) interventionist developmental epistemologies that blur distinctions among violence types and circumstances...

As fontes do imaginário judicial: motivação das decisões nos crimes de roubo no Rio Grande do Sul

Rodrigues, Roberto da Rocha
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
PORTUGUêS
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.79%
No presente trabalho, vinculado à linha de pesquisa Política Criminal, Estado e Limitação do Poder Punitivo, que está inserida na área de concentração Violência do Mestrado em Ciências Criminais da Faculdade de Direito da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, analisou-se, a partir de pesquisa de campo eminentemente qualitativa, a motivação das decisões judiciais nos crimes de roubo no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Buscou-se, pois reprodução parcial de pesquisa já realizada no Estado de São Paulo articulada entre o Instituto de Defesa do Direito de Defesa (IDDD) e o Instituto Brasileiro de Ciências Criminais (IBCCRIM). A hipótese de ambos os trabalhos centrou-se na perspectiva de que os magistrados utilizavam-se de categorias cristalizadas, ahistóricas e atemporais como forma de ‘legitimar’ o recrudescimento qualitativo (regime mais severo) da pena a ser cumprida, tais como personalidade voltada para o crime, defesa da sociedade e gravidade do delito. Percebeu-se que a (pré)compreensão de parcela da magistratura encontra-se ancorada em matriz teórica epistemologicamente defasada que obtém, entretanto, amplo respaldo no senso comum (teórico), a saber o paradigma etiológico da criminologia.Longe de estar soterrado pela criminologia da reação social na prática jurídica diária...

Adolescentes privados de liberdade: a dialética dos direitos conquistados e violados

Schmidt, Fabiana
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul; Porto Alegre
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
PORTUGUêS
Relevância na Pesquisa
16.11%
Esta dissertação tem por objetivo analisar as interfaces entre privação de liberdade e a efetivação dos direitos aos adolescentes no Brasil. Enfoca para tanto, o processo histórico de formação da sociedade brasileira, organizada a partir de profundas desigualdades sociais; discorre também sobre os marcos legais da Constituição Federal de 1988 e do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente, ECA, que, com sua concepção de proteção integral, rompe com o paradigma, da situação irregular, postulado pelo antigo Código de Menores. O estudo utiliza dados empíricos oriundos de dois grupos focais realizados com adolescentes privados de liberdade e com assistentes sociais e de duas entrevistas com representantes da gestão da política. A investigação foca-se na verificação da existência de uma grande dicotomia e ambivalência, por parte dos jovens, no entendimento dos objetivos da privação de liberdade, questão corroborada pela experiência profissional da autora, no trabalho desenvolvido como assistente social, com adolescentes privados de liberdade. Para alguns, esta é considerada dívida a ser paga, enquanto para outros, o cerceamento da liberdade é considerado ineficaz, não se apresentando como resposta para resolução de problemas que o Estado e a sociedade tanto esperam. A pesquisa constatou intensa força do Estado na criminalização da juventude pobre que...

Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism : Honduras

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.79%
This Report provides a summary of the level of compliance with the Financial Action Task Force, and provides recommendations to improve compliance within the prevailing context of Honduras. The views expressed in this document are those of the assessment team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Government of Honduras or the Boards of the World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF). Honduras has set up a number of the fundamental components of an anti-money laundering (AML) regime, through various legislative and regulatory instruments and an institutional framework which includes law enforcement, prosecution, and supervisory bodies. While progress has been made, key changes are needed to laws and regulations in order for Honduras to have more effective money laundering and financing of terrorism regime. There is a lack of strategic direction and coordination among the participants. A focal point and coordination body needs to be established, involving senior representatives of all the entities involved in anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing to ensure the most effective and efficient collaboration of the initiative...

Justice Versus Peace in Northern Kenya

Chopra, Tanja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.96%
The conflicting relationship between peace and justice is frequently debated in the field of transitional justice. The obligation to prosecute serious crimes can contradict the measures necessary to reestablish peace among society. The predicament gives rise to a similar, though less obvious, challenge in many developing countries, where the formal justice system can be at odds with conflict management initiatives. Often, due to their inaccessibility or incompatibility with local socio-cultural norms, official justice institutions in developing countries do not fully penetrate the whole of society. In response, conflict management and peace building initiatives have proven to be more flexible and responsive to socio-political realities. While such initiatives may be more efficient in reestablishing the peace between communities in conflict, they may contradict the official law. Current policy efforts and practices in the arid lands of Kenya illustrate this dilemma. Official justice institutions have proven too weak or ill-suited to prevent or resolve conflicts between local communities. To address the prevailing tensions...

Afghanistan Public Sector Pension Scheme : From Crisis Management to Comprehensive Reform Strategy

Sluchynsky, Oleksiy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.96%
After years of dealing with pension policy in crisis management mode, the Government of Afghanistan has begun the process of formulating a national pension policy based on a long-term vision. Until very recently the Government had been focused on short-term policy actions to alleviate growing pressure on the budget. While these measures were necessary, pension policy must take a long term view. Recently, the Government has developed a comprehensive reform package and initiated the process of legal drafting. A reformed system must have clear objectives, be fiscally sustainable, and address needs of various population groups. The final choices will need to be made as to mandate and design and administrative arrangements of the reformed system. The challenge is to ensure that the measures taken in the next few years do not make it more difficult to pursue certain preferred policies later. This paper shows that, according to the financial projections, there is now a window of opportunity for implementing a reform of the system.

Drivers of Corruption : A Brief Review

Søreide, Tina
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.79%
Corruption is motivated by the possibility of securing something of value for oneself and one s allies. The desire to secure benefits is a human trait and generally positive for development; various forms of rewards drive humans to get up in the morning, do a good job, and act responsibly. The discussion now turns to the opportunity to secure more benefits than are entitled to within the existing rules of the game ; specifically, the opportunity to grab at the expense of society. A decision maker has the authority to influence an outcome that matters to the briber. For steering a decision in the briber s direction, the decision maker is compensated with a bribe. The steered decision and the bribe now become assets that usually exceed what at least one of the players would have obtained without the corrupt act. The opportunity to seize assets through some form of power misuse differs across sectors, organizations, and decision-making situations. This chapter describes the circumstances in which the risk of corruption is particularly high in other words...

Dollars needed, change preferred: reform through the Australian National Mental Health Strategy

Hobbs, Christina
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.97%
In 1992, following a decade of negative publicity and a series of public inquiries into mental health services, the Australian Federal, State and Territory Governments adopted a National Mental Health Policy. This policy, through a series of five year National Mental Health Plans (NMHPlans), became known as the National Mental Health Strategy (NMHS). The aims of the National Strategy were, and still are, to develop a framework of mental health care services which promotes mental health; prevents mental illness where possible; reduces the burden of mental illness on sufferers, carers and the general community; and treats persons with a mental illness in a way which satisfies the United Nation' s Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental fllness and the Improvement of Mental Health Care. Upon release, this policy was widely acclaimed and considered an international benchmark. Now, more than a decade later, a recent review by the Canadian Senate, several evaluations of the Strategy, and a widespread review of the mental health sector show this opinion is still supported. However, in the case of mental health care in Australia, it is apparent that world class policy does not necessarily equate to world class outcomes. Despite increased investment...

Justice for Forests : Improving Criminal Justice Efforts to Combat Illegal Logging

Goncalves, Marilyne Pereira; Panjer, Melissa; Greenberg, Theodore S.; Magrath, William B.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
Every two seconds, across the world, an area of forest the size of a football field is clear-cut by illegal loggers. In some countries, up to 90 percent of all the logging taking place is illegal. Estimates suggest that this criminal activity generates approximately US$10-15 billion annually worldwide funds that are unregulated, untaxed, and often remain in the hands of organized criminal gangs. Thus far, domestic and international efforts to curb forest crimes have focused on preventative actions, but they have had little or no significant impact. While prevention is an essential part of enforcement efforts to tackle illegal logging, it has not halted the rapid disappearance of the world's old-growth trees. New ideas and strategies are needed to preserve what is left of forests. This paper suggests that current practice be combined with a more targeted, punitive approach, through more effective use of the criminal justice system. It argues that the criminal justice system should form an integral part of any balanced and organized strategy for fighting forest crime. This strategy should include initiatives to enhance the efficiency of criminal justice in combating illegal logging that is...

Bolivia : Report on Observance of Standards and Codes--FATF Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and Combating the Financing of Terrorism

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.79%
This report is on the observance of standards and codes (ROSC) for the "Financial Action Task Force (FATF) 40 Recommendations for Anti-Money Laundering and 8 Special Recommendations Combating the Financing of Terrorism." Bolivia's system to prevent and suppress money laundering fulfills most of the FATF 40 recommendations and applies to the insurance, stock market, and financial sectors. However, the system does not include other activities that are susceptible to money laundering, such as currency exchange houses or money transfer agencies. This is an aspect that the authorities hope to rectify in the medium term. The institutional regulatory, supervisory, and financial intelligence responsibilities for combating money laundering are concentrated in the FIU. However, the FIU is not able to carry out on-site supervision of the financial system, and the sectoral superintendence's do not supervise compliance with anti-money laundering standards either. Moreover, there is no high-ranking authority promoting an integrated anti-money laundering policy. Instead...

Defining Heroes : Key Lessons from the Creation of Veterans Policy in Timor-Leste

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
This study seeks to examine and reflect on the process, results and lessons of the efforts to recognize and assist veterans of the resistance in Timor-Leste. The aim is to document those aspects that may have value for other post-conflict settings where nascent institutions are attempting to wrestle with similar issues. The paper proceeds in four sections. Section two provides background and contextual information. Four themes are covered: the development of veterans' policy in post-conflict settings; the history of the Timorese resistance movement; military formation and demobilization under United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET); and, the predicament of veterans at the reestablishment of independence (2002). Section three documents the creation of veterans' policy in Timor-Leste. In rough chronological order it focuses on seven phases: the establishment of the veterans' commissions; the registration of veterans; public consultations; legislation development; recognition measures...

Building a Clean Machine : Anti-Corruption Coalitions and Sustainable Reform

Johnston, Michael; Kpundeh, Sahr J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.79%
Many societies have limited corruption through the broad-based mobilization of a diverse range of interests willing and able to defend themselves by making meaningful demands for accountability of, and limits on, official power, and for an end to illicit advantages enjoyed by others. Historically such a process has taken place gradually, as political development has proceeded and the base of participation broadens. But today's high-corruption societies cannot wait for several generations to see such developments take place. The authors argue that social action coalitions, linking public and private actors, are a way to mobilize these sorts of participation and advocacy. Such coalitions are neither a new idea nor a guarantee of successful reforms. In many instances they win out by default as an anti-corruption strategy. But they contend that if sustained by careful planning and a diverse set of incentives, they can reinforce political will and enhance the strength of civil society. Coalition-building efforts are underway in many societies. But too often they have focused only on anti-corruption tactics and pursuing their own growth...

Income Inequality and Violent Crime : Evidence from Mexico's Drug War

Enamorado, Ted; López-Calva, Luis-Felipe; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos; Winkler, Hernán
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.91%
The relationship between income inequality and crime has attracted the interest of many researchers, but little convincing evidence exists on the causal effect of inequality on crime in developing countries. This paper estimates this effect in a unique context: Mexico's Drug War. The analysis takes advantage of a unique data set containing inequality and crime statistics for more than 2,000 Mexican municipalities covering a period of 20 years. Using an instrumental variable for inequality that tackles problems of reverse causality and omitted variable bias, this paper finds that an increment of one point in the Gini coefficient translates into an increase of more than 10 drug-related homicides per 100,000 inhabitants between 2006 and 2010. There are no significant effects before 2005. The fact that the effect was found during Mexico's Drug War and not before is likely because the cost of crime decreased with the proliferation of gangs (facilitating access to knowledge and logistics, lowering the marginal cost of criminal behavior)...

Exercício da sexualidade por adolescentes em ambientes de privação de liberdade; The practice of sexuality by adolescents deprived of freedom

MATTAR, Laura Davis
Fonte: Fundação Carlos Chagas Publicador: Fundação Carlos Chagas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.91%
Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa cujo principal objetivo foi conhecer como se dá o exercício da sexualidade por parte de adolescentes privados de liberdade. Os dados foram coletados em três estados do nordeste brasileiro, que adotaram a política pública de oferecer visitas 'íntimas' aos jovens em conflito com a lei. Os resultados apresentam o perfil dos adolescentes, a vida sexual e os cuidados com a saúde antes da internação, o exercício da sexualidade no interior da instituição e, por fim, a visita íntima do ponto de vista dos entrevistados. Com base nesses dados e nos direitos dos adolescentes à autonomia; à participação; à igualdade e não discriminação, à integridade corporal e à saúde, essa política pública foi avaliada. Recomendações para aperfeiçoá-la foram tecidas, de modo a melhor atender aos direitos sexuais de jovens privados de liberdade.; This article presents the results of a research whose main goal was to know how imprisoned adolescents express their sexuality. The data were collected in three Brazilian northeast states that had adopted the public policy of offering 'intimate' visits to youngsters in conflict with the law. The results present the adolescents' profile...

Develpment of crime, social change, mass media, crime policy, sanctioning practice and thier impact on prison population rates

Cid Moliné, Josep; Larrauri, Elena
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
26%
Spain has suffered a big increase of imprisonment between 1980 and 2006, passing from an average prison population of 17,000 prisoners in 1980 to 63,000 in 2006, meaning a growth of 266% in average prison population in 26 years. In order to explore the reasons for this increase in prison population, this paper proposes that is useful to distinguish two main periods: a) 1980-1994 (increase in prison population, followed by stability between 1995 and 2000, and b) 2001-2006 (a second increase in prison population). During these two periods, the growth of incarceration rates is higher in the first period (12% average increase per year) than in the second (6% average increase per year). More recent trends seem to announce an even more pronounced escalation of imprisonment in the foreseeable future. Authors proposes that the two trends that in Spain contribute to the enlargement of the prison incarceration rates, the larger time served by prisoners and the criminalization of new phenomena, will continue in the future.; A Espanha sofreu um grande aumento das taxas de encarceramento entre 1980 e 2006, passando de uma população carcerária média de 17.000 presos em 1980 para 63.000 em 2006, significando um crescimento de 266% na população carcerária média em 26 anos. A fim de explorar as razões para este aumento da população prisional...

Representations of convicts in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century French culture

Falgas-Ravry, C?cilia
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of French; Trinity College Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of French; Trinity College
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.79%
From the 1820s, for?ats were widely portrayed in French culture across a variety of fictional and non-fictional genres. This thesis analyses this ?convict tradition?, and relates it to the emergence of industrial literature in France, with its resolutely reader-centred approach. It argues that convicts acquired a central cultural importance in the nineteenth century because they embodied a form of transgressive individualism which fascinated bourgeois readers. Convicts functioned as screens onto which readers could project their own forbidden desires. The study analyses canonical novels by Sand, Balzac, Hugo and Zola alongside a large corpus of non-fiction, including biographies, penological or philanthropic texts, physiologies and travel literature. The circulation of stereotypes and stylistic tropes between these different genres shows the constant interaction between mainstream and elite writing, and the influence of literary representations on the perception of criminals, which shaped political decisions and penal policy. The first chapter of the study suggests that convicts gave a face to nineteenth-century concerns about the proliferation of the criminal classes, thereby allowing readers to explore these fears. At the same time...

Imprisonment and women's health: concerns about gender sensitivity, human rights and public health

van den Bergh,Brenda J; Gatherer,Alex; Fraser,Andrew; Moller,Lars
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.96%
The health of prisoners is among the poorest of any population group and the apparent inequalities pose both a challenge and an opportunity for country health systems.The high rates of imprisonment in many countries, the resulting overcrowding, characteristics of prison populations and the disproportionate prevalence of health problems in prison should make prison health a matter of public health importance. Women prisoners constitute a minority within all prison systems and their special health needs are frequently neglected. The urgent need to review current services is clear from research, expert opinion and experience from countries worldwide. Current provision of health care to imprisoned women fails to meet their needs and is, in too many cases, far short of what is required by human rights and international recommendations. The evidence includes a lack of gender sensitivity in policies and practices in prisons, violations of women's human rights and failure to accept that imprisoned women have more and different health-care needs compared with male prisoners, often related to reproductive health issues, mental health problems, drug dependencies and histories of violence and abuse. Additional needs stem from their frequent status as a mother and usually the primary carer for her children. National governments...