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O princípio da ordem pública no direito internacional privado : história, revisão crítica e perspectivas

Schaedler, Nestor Augusto
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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16.18%
Na maioria dos sistemas de direito civil há um princípio que obsta o emprego do direito estrangeiro e o reconhecimento e execução de sentenças estrangeiras, que é o da ordem pública. No Direito Internacional Privado, a doutrina da ordem pública engloba um corpo de princípios que remete aos valores sociais, morais e econômicos de uma sociedade e que a mantém coesa. Esses valores variam de uma cultura para outra e também são mutáveis no tempo. Este estudo pretende investigar a história do instituto desde a Antiguidade, através da Idade Média, passando pela Era Moderna, até os dias de hoje. Analisa a origem e a consolidação do princípio no Brasil. Aborda-se diversos aspectos polêmicos de sua definição e de sua aplicação, pois é muitas vezes mal entendido e leva a frequentes armadilhas. São examinadas diversas aplicações da ordem pública em vários ramos do Direito Internacional Privado e algumas diferenças nos diversos sistemas jurídicos nacionais. Na última parte faz-se um exame das perspectivas, pois a pós-modernidade traz oportunidades ímpares para o princípio, na medida em que os direitos humanos subiram à ribalta. O respeito à diversidade cultural e ao universalismo são agora as ênfases. Nesse cenário...

Filosofia e colonização, uma relação que ultrapassa o jogo dos reconhecimentos

Silva, Francisco Denísio Muniz da
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
PT_BR
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Dissertação (mestrado)—Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Humanidades, Departamento de Filosofia, Programa de Pós-Gradução, 2007.; Contemplando a globalização como a versão mais atual da colonização, nosso desafio, em primeiro lugar, consiste em superar velhas práticas de discriminação e de isolamento, de evitar que se repita com os pobres e excluídos do sistema o tratamento dispensado a seres considerados incompletos e irresponsáveis por suas ações. Este trabalho pretende relacionar o presente às desigualdades associadas às diferenças coloniais, nesse momento em que o acordado nos termos de uma moral universal pragmática desempenha o mesmo papel de uma vontade geral que desde a Modernidade priorizou a doutrina liberal sobre as diferenças. Ao acusarem determinada mentalidade de ter usurpado o lugar da razão na Europa moderna, os que se ocupam das causas, e menos dos efeitos, do contradiscurso da Modernidade sinalizam de muitas maneiras: uma delas seria indicando esse contradiscurso como desvio; outra mostrando indiretamente que será difícil reconhecer que conceitos fundadores de toda a história da filosofia forneceram a justificativa manifesta para o projeto do colonialismo. Apesar das divergências entre saber e reconhecer que o colonialismo cumpriu o papel de filosofia da Modernidade...

Michael Walzer : a teoria da guerra justa e o terrorismo

Costa, Maria de Fátima Machado da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 12/12/2005 POR
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26.91%
Dissertação mestrado em Filosofia; Esta dissertação tem como principal objectivo analisar as problemáticas morais subjacentes à guerra e ao terrorismo, a partir da perspectiva de Michael Walzer. A teoria da guerra justa de Walzer relaciona-se com a defesa de uma dualidade moral que integra um universalismo moral minimalista e um particularismo moral maximalista. A concepção de moralidade mínima walzeriana manifesta-se na teoria da guerra justa por meio da protecção universal dos direitos, nomeadamente, dos direitos à vida e à liberdade e do direito à autodeterminação política. A defesa do particularismo moral conduz à condenação das guerras agressivas e da ingerência na organização política de outro Estado, que se traduz na tese da integridade comunitária, na valorização da soberania e no princípio da não-intervenção. Confrontamos a perspectiva deontologista da guerra de Walzer com as éticas utilitaristas e com as teorias que rejeitam o carácter moral da guerra, tais como o realismo político e o pacifismo, para, em seguida, problematizar as relações da doutrina das emergências supremas com o realismo e o utilitarismo. As principais questões morais suscitadas pela guerra são analisadas à luz da tensão entre universalismo e particularismo subjacentes às três divisões da teoria da guerra justa: a teoria do jus ad bellum...

Retórica de corte no Primeiro Humanismo em Portugal

Soares, Nair Nazaré Castro
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Departamento de Letras Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Departamento de Letras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 POR
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O processo formativo do Homem e a sua educação integral privilegiam a componente retórica, indispensável à capacidade oratória, à arte da palavra. A nova era, a que a corte de Avis serviu de pórtico, manifesta um enorme interesse pela formação dos cidadãos, à semelhança do famoso "humanismo cívico" florentino. A abertura ao movimento humanista e aos novos métodos pedagógicos não se fez sem uma certa resistência da instituição universitária. Foi sobretudo na corte, e dentro do mecenatismo régio ao ensino dos nobres, que, tanto em Portugal como na Espanha, a modernidade no ensino das humaniores litterae se impôs definitivamente. A oratória civil, a força civilizadora da palavra, a afirmação do poder real, a acção humana, o ideal cortesanesco e a gesta lusa, as armas e as letras imprimem um cunho de identidade nacional a esta época áurea das cortes europeias. The moral and integral education of Man privileges rhetoric, essential to oratory, the art of word. The era inaugurated by the dynasty of Avis shows a great interest in the education of citizens, inspired by the Florentine "civic humanism". The openness to the Humanistic Movement and to new pedagogical methods faces some resistance from universities. It was especially in the court...

Pais e valores: um estudo no pré-escolar

Garcia, Maria João Pereira
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2009 POR
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Tese de mestrado, Educação (Formação Pessoal e Social), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2009; Têm-se verificado inúmeras alterações na sociedade nos últimos anos. Também a instituição familiar sofreu alterações significativas. Esse trabalho centra-se num subsistema familiar de extrema importância: os pais. Assim, o presente estudo tem como principal objectivo compreender quais os valores que os progenitores dizem privilegiar e como dizem promover a formação desses valores nos filhos. Optando por um paradigma interpretativo de natureza qualitativa, o estudo envolveu três mães de filhos em idade pré-escolar (três, quatro e cinco anos) e desenrolou-se em vários momentos ou fases distintas. Primeiramente, foi pedido a estas mães que registassem alguns momentos de vivência em família onde estivessem envolvidos valores, a que chamámos de Registos Escritos de Vivências Familiares; seguidamente, foram realizadas entrevistas semidirectivas a cada uma das mães participantes deste estudo. Aplicou-se, ainda, um questionário sobre quais os valores que os pais gostariam que os filhos manifestassem quando adultos (Suizzo, 2004), a todos os pais das crianças de pré-escolar, isto é, das salas de três...

Human values and opposition towards immigration in Europe

Ramos, Alice, 1963-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Sociais (Sociologia Geral), Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Ciências Sociais, 2011; Three main objectives underlie this thesis: 1) understand opposition towards immigration in Europe; 2) test the hypothesis that human values contribute to the understanding of opposition towards immigration over and above other social factors; 3) undertake this analysis from a multilevel perspective. From these three objectives we derived two main hypotheses: a) at the individual level, values have an impact on opposition towards immigration over and above other important factors; b) the effect of values is maintained over and above other important factors, also when socio-structural factors are included in the statistical models. In other words, we contrast values with other theoretical models (economic self-interest and social capital) and include values at the individual level in multilevel models; two strategies that we have not seen developed in the literature produced to date. Data from the three first Rounds of the European Social Survey (2002- 2004-2006) was used to test both hypotheses; multilevel analysis was performed in order to analyse the effect of individual and socio-structural variables on opposition towards immigration. Results showed that these attitudes are mainly associated to individual variables: the values of universalism stem negative attitudes towards immigrants while conservation values boost them; moreover human values have an effect on opposition towards immigration over and above other important individual and socio-structural factors. We extended the analysis of the impact of human values to the study of racial prejudice and threat perceptions...

Respect for cultural diversity in bioethics is an ethical imperative

Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 EN
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The field of bioethics continues to struggle with the problem of cultural diversity: can universal principles guide ethical decision making, regardless of the culture in which those decisions take place? Or should bioethical principles be derived from the moral traditions of local cultures? Ten Have and Gordijn (2011) and Bracanovic (2011) defend the universalist position, arguing that respect for cultural diversity in matters ethical will lead to a dangerous cultural relativity where vulnerable patients and research subjects will be harmed. We challenge the premises of moral universalism, showing how this approach imports and imposes moral notions of Western society and leads to harm in non-western cultures.

One, Two, Three Many Legal Orders: Legal Pluralism and the Cosmopolitan Dream

Kennedy, David W.
Fonte: New York University Publicador: New York University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Over the last few years, innumerable scholars have turned their attention to the fragmentation, disaggregation, and multiplicity of the international legal regime. With so many diverse perspectives on the puzzle, the opportunity, the problem, of legal pluralism in international society, I would be crazy to try to pull it all together. In my view, we are far better off leaving the issue lying about in fragments. I have three points. First, legal pluralism-whether encountered formally or sociologically--can be good for your professional moral health, opening the door to the experience of professional power. Second, in a world governed by experts, it is the pluralism of professional perspective that we least understand, and that may be the most significant. By mapping the diversity of professional sensibilities, we can put aside questions about whether "the legal order" is or should be or might be coherently unified, to focus on the projects of identity, power, and ethics pursued by legal professionals. In doing so, I want us to replace worry about legal pluralism with worry about something else-the dark sides, blind spots, and biases of the fragments. And of efforts to corral the ponies back to the herd. Third, a where-do-we-go-from-here point. My suggestion: we should take a break from the project of elaborating...

Ethica Nicomachea: uma leitura particularista.

CRUZ, Arthur Piranema da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Filosofia; Progama de P??s-Gradua????o em Filosofia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Filosofia; Progama de P??s-Gradua????o em Filosofia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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This work seeks to sustain the particularistic view of Aristotle‟s Nicomachean Ethics as opposed to universal readings. The analysis of the passages on the method of practical philosophy, about virtue as mean and about prudence as perceptive ability of the virtuous man will show that Aristotle‟s Ethics is actually particularistic. Although you can not defend an extreme particularism, because the record of universalizations and generalizations also find shelter, yet there is a distinct particularistic base that gives priority to the perception of what is relevant in every situation.; Este trabalho busca sustentar a vis??o particularista da Ethica Nicomachea de Arist??teles em contraposi????o ??s leituras universalistas. A an??lise das passagens sobre o m??todo da filosofia pr??tica, sobre a virtude como mediedade e sobre a prud??ncia como capacidade perceptiva do homem virtuoso mostrar?? que a ??tica de Arist??teles ?? efetivamente particularista. Embora n??o seja poss??vel defender um particularismo extremo, pois o registro das universaliza????es e generaliza????es tamb??m encontram guarida, ainda assim se verifica a n??tida base particularista que d?? prioridade ?? percep????o do que ?? relevante em cada situa????o.

Moralité internationale et hégémonie : les droits humains au 20e siècle

Gaudreault, France
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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16.58%
Deux conceptions de la moralité dominent actuellement l’analyse des enjeux moraux internationaux : la moralité d’États et la moralité cosmopolitique. La première reconnaît les États comme unités fondamentales du système international et la seconde, celle des individus. Dans cette thèse, nous développons une conception différente de la moralité : l’approche du discours moral hégémonique. Notre objectif est de démontrer que celle-ci est plus à même d’expliquer et de comprendre la moralité dans le monde contemporain. Elle nous permet de mettre l’accent sur la progression d’un discours moral dominant ainsi que sur le rôle de ceux ayant contribué à son développement. Afin de faire une analyse critique de l’histoire dominante du discours moderne des droits, nous avons d’abord identifié deux caractéristiques fondamentales à ce discours : l’individualisme et l’universalisme. Ensuite, nous avons étudié leur reproduction dans le temps. Pour ce faire, les principales irrégularités de leur histoire au cours des siècles sont exposées ainsi qu’à deux moments distincts au cours du 20e siècle. Ce parcours nous a permis d’observer que malgré ses opposants, une certaine conception du discours des droits s’est internationalisée après la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Ensuite...

Carl Schmitt et la critique de l’universalisme libéral

Bibeau-Picard, Gabriel
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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Ce mémoire porte sur la pensée politique du juriste allemand Carl Schmitt, plus précisément sur sa critique de l’universalisme libéral. Sur la base d’une analyse de ses principaux textes, nous démontrons que la pertinence de cet auteur controversé réside dans le défi renouvelé que présente son antinormativisme pour la pensée politique contemporaine. Nous soutenons qu’il y a chez Schmitt un souci constant de rattacher le droit à l’ordre concret, qu’il soit institué ou reçu. Nous démontrons ensuite comment l’antinormativisme se prolonge en droit international dans la critique de l’universalisme, entendu comme l’ambition de penser le politique à partir de l’humanité comme sujet unique. D’une perspective décisionniste, l’universalisme masque des intérêts impérialistes qu’il convient de dénoncer ; d’une perspective institutionnaliste, l’universalisme néglige l’ordre spatial concret sur lequel repose le droit international. Nous affirmons que Schmitt démontre l’importance de préserver l’autonomie de la science juridique envers la morale et la technique.; This essay examines Carl Schmitt’s political theory and more specifically his critique of liberal universalism. The aim is to show that the relevance of this controversial writer lies in the renewed challenge that his antinormativism represents to contemporary political theory. I maintain that there is in Schmitt’s thinking a constant attempt to establish the modalities of a relationship between law and order...

Values and antisocial behaviour during adolescence: The mediating and moderating roles of exposure to violence and moral cognitions

AQUILAR, SERENA
Fonte: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma Publicador: La Sapienza Universidade de Roma
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
The present dissertation is composed by three independent studies. The first study aimed at testing the psychometric properties of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ; Schwartz et al., 2001) on a sample of Italian early adolescents, both to extend the validity of the Italian version of the PVQ and to examine the structure of values in early adolescence. 407 adolescents, aged fourteen years old, participated in the study. A first-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis to test the 10 factors model and a second-order Confirmatory Factor Analysis to test the model that includes the four higher order value dimensions were performed. The results supported the adequate psychometric properties of the instrument, in line with previous validation studies of the PVQ on adult samples, and revealed that in early adolescence the structure of values is well developed and very similar to that of adults; the only found difference was the impossibility to distinguish between the values of conformity and tradition. The second study aimed at investigating the impact of the selected values of universalism, conformity, power, and hedonism, and the impact of exposure to violence as a witness or a victim in different contexts (family, school, and neighborhood) on antisocial behaviour. In addition...

Diversity and Knowledge in the Age of Nation-Building: Space and Time in the Thought of Yanagita Kunio

Kojima, Takehiko
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The study examines the thought of Yanagita Kunio (1875-1962), an influential Japanese nationalist thinker best known as a founder of the discipline of Japanese folklore (minzokugaku). The purpose of the study is to bring into light an unredeemed potential of his intellectual and political project as a critique of the way in which modern politics and knowledge systematically suppresses global diversity. The study reads his texts against the backdrop of the modern understanding of space and time and its political and moral implications and traces the historical evolution of his thought that culminates in the establishment of minzokugaku. My reading of Yanagita’s texts draws on three interpretive hypotheses. First, his thought can be interpreted as a critical engagement with John Stuart Mill’s philosophy of history, as he turns Mill’s defense of diversity against Mill’s justification of enlightened despotism in non-Western societies. Second, to counter Mill’s individualistic notion of progressive agency, he turns to a Marxian notion of anthropological space, in which a laboring class makes history by continuously transforming nature, and rehabilitates the common people (jōmin) as progressive agents. Third, in addition to the common people...

Gender, Culture and Human Rights : Reclaiming universalism

MULLALLY, Siobhán
Fonte: Hart Pub. Publicador: Hart Pub.
Tipo: Livro
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.75%
(Published version of EUI PhD thesis, 2003.); In recent years, feminist theory has increasingly defined itself in opposition to universalism and to discourses of human rights. Rejecting the troubled legacies of Enlightenment thinking, feminists have questioned the very premises upon which the international human rights movement is based. Rather than abandoning human rights discourse, however, this book argues that feminism should reclaim the universal and reconstruct the theory and practice of human rights. Discourse ethics and its post-metaphysical defence of universalism is offered as a key to this process of reconstruction. The implications of discourse ethics and the possibility of reclaiming universalism are explored in the context of the reservations debate in international human rights law and further examined in debates on women's human rights arising in Ireland, India and Pakistan. Each of these states shares a common constitutional heritage and, in each, religious-cultural claims, intertwined with processes of nation-building, have constrained the pursuit of gender equality. Ultimately, this book argues in favour of a dual-track approach to cultural conflicts, combining legal regulation with an ongoing moral-political dialogue on the scope and content of human rights.; --The discourse of human rights : 'an active enemy of women's progress'? --Alan Gewirth's community of rights : feminism...

Normative Foundations of the Welfare State: The Nordic experience

Fonte: London, Routledge Publicador: London, Routledge
Tipo: Livro
EN
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16.6%
This is a sharp analysis of the unique Nordic welfare system with urgent lessons for governments and societies across the globe. Welfare programs and institutions tend to be analyzed as instrumental arrangements, overlooking the fact that welfare programs are essentially expressions of moral conceptions and values. This book recognises this distinction and offers analyses, perspectives and interpretations of the normative foundation of the 'Nordic welfare state model'. These authors examine the main normative principles in this model, exploring their origins and the relationship between them. Paying particular attention to the principles of 'universalism', 'public responsibility for welfare', and 'work for all', they consider their significance for current welfare policy and question whether external economic and ideological pressures are threatening these principles. The book is divided into three clear parts: *Part I considers the historical trajectories behind the Nordic welfare model *Part II looks more specifically on normative tensions and dilemmas in current welfare policies with a focus on women friendly welfare, attitudes to basic income and alcohol and drug misuse *Part III focuses on the possible change in the normative foundation of the Nordic welfare states This book will be essential reading for researchers and students of the welfare state and also to those in the fields of social policy...

Dynamic nature of human rights: Rawls's critique of moral universalism

Ivic,Sanja
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Filosofia Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Filosofia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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26.18%
Human rights do not represent an absolute truth. Otherwise, they would represent ideology, which is contradictory to the basic idea of human rights itself. Consequently, there is a need for redefinition of the main presuppositions of modern conception of human rights represented in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This paper argues that Rawls's conception of human rights is significant for the refiguration of human rights. It represents the path towards postmodern idea of human rights and the recognition of difference.

Humanidad y barbarie. De la 'barbarie cultural' a la 'barbarie moral'

P??rez Tapias, Jos?? Antonio
Fonte: Pedro G??mez Publicador: Pedro G??mez
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.86%
Las guerras que azotan lo que era la antigua Yugoslavia, as?? como los fen??menos de racismo y xenofobia de nuestro entorno m??s inmediato, obligan a repensar la barbarie, y ello como parte de la estrategia moral que ha de suponer movilizarse activamente contra ella. El t??rmino ??barbarie?? se ha utilizado desde mucho tiempo atr??s para designar un comportamiento que aparece como no humano. Tal uso, cargado de ambig??edad, se ha ido desplazando desde la descalificaci??n de los otros como ??no civilizados?? hasta la recusaci??n de todo comportamiento in-humano respecto al otro, que des-humaniza en primer lugar a quien lo protagoniza. Si en el primer sentido (barbarie cultural) el uso del t??rmino no es aceptable, el segundo (barbarie moral) es el que hoy resulta, en cambio, pertinente. Y cuando empleamos as?? la noci??n de barbarie, para denunciar comportamientos que violan derechos humanos fundamentales, nos estamos comprometiendo con un universalismo moral que reconoce validez transcultural a la exigencia de respeto incondicional a la dignidad de cada individuo. Tal es el n??cleo ??tico del renovado humanismo que hay que hacer valer frente a la barbarie que ??desde dentro?? de nuestra cultura emerge amenazante para todos.; The wars that wiped out the former Yugoslavia...

Habemus habermas: o universalismo ético entre o naturalismo e a religião

Oliveira, Nythamar de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/07/2009 POR
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2009v8n1p31The article revisits Habermas’s recasting of moral universalism, so as to avoid the aporias of naturalism and cultural relativism, according to a pragmatic-formal perspective that does justice to the complex phenomenon of religion in a postsecular, pluralist world, where believers, atheists, and agnostics can coexist together and actively participate in the construction of a more tolerant, just society.

Universalism with humility: Grounding human rights in a diverse world.

Chen, Chun-hung
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.18%
This is a study of how one can successfully justify the universality of human rights to people with a diversity of beliefs and values. I argue that intercultural dialogue is an essential part of working out an interpretation of human rights that is acceptable to a broad range of cultures. I develop this position through critical engagement with three recent philosophical approaches to the intercultural validity of human rights: John Rawls's Law of Peoples, Martha Nussbaum's Human Capabilities approach, and Abdullahi An-Na'im's cross-cultural dialogue approach. Inspired by Judith Shklar's political liberalism of fear and Ins Young's critical theory, I seek an account of human rights that has normative legitimacy from the perspectives of marginalized and victimized people. Cross-cultural dialogue in my scheme is a bottom-up approach from the victimized and powerless people that can avoid the problem of generality and provide multiple routes to reach agreement regarding universal human rights. In the end, I believe my approach will be descriptively more suitable to the moral reality of universal human rights, and provide a normative grounding of human rights in a way that is more compelling than other approaches.

Refugee policy and the limits of liberal universalism.

Boswell, Christina
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2001 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.48%
This thesis aims to construct a conceptual framework for characterising the relationship between duties to refugees and duties to fellow nationals. The need for such a framework is generated by the current impasse on the policy debate about the nature and scope of refugee rights. The thesis examines a range of liberal political theories to see if they can provide an adequate account, evaluating them on three criteria: normative desirability; practical feasibility; and internal coherence. The discussion criticises liberal theories on two levels. Firstly, it shows how liberal universalist theories raise a problem of moral motivation: they impose overly stringent ethical demands, and risk being counter-productive. Attempts to incorporate some notion of the significance of national ties or to justify a national social contract simply produce an incoherent amalgam of universalist and particularist premises. Secondly, the thesis argues that these problems reflect a more profound weakness in liberal theories of moral agency and motivation. Liberal theory relies on an assumed dichotomy between a personal and an impartial perspective. The moral agent is assumed to abstract from her personal characteristics to adopt an "ethical" view-point. This notion of impartiality is descriptively implausible...