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Análise do ensino de genética e genômica em cursos de graduação em enfermagem no Brasil; Analysis of genetics and genomics teaching in undergraduate nursing programs in Brazil

Lopes Junior, Luis Carlos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
Após a conclusão do Projeto Genoma Humano, uma quantidade imensurável de conhecimentos genômicos surgiu e, atualmente, se torna essencial sua integração à prática profissional de enfermeiros. Esses conhecimentos vêm transformando o modelo de atenção à saúde, com implicações para a enfermagem e repercussões no ensino, na assistência e na pesquisa. Embora já seja reconhecida a importância da genética e da genômica na educação de enfermeiros, levantamentos realizados em diversos países mostram que esses conteúdos ainda são limitados nos cursos de graduação desses profissionais, sendo desconhecida a situação nas escolas de enfermagem do Brasil. O principal objetivo desse estudo foi identificar as oportunidades existentes de educação em genética e genômica, oferecidas por cursos brasileiros que graduam enfermeiros. Trata-se de pesquisa exploratória, tipo survey, com delineamento transversal e abordagem quantitativa, realizada no período de fevereiro de 2011 a novembro de 2012. A amostra de conveniência compreendeu 311 Instituições de Ensino Superior cadastradas junto ao Ministério da Educação. Após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário eletrônico...

Integration of Genomics in Cancer Care

Santos, Erika Maria Monteiro; Edwards, Quannetta T.; Floria-Santos, Milena; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Achatz, Maria Isabel Waddington; MacDonald, Deborah J.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 43-51
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
Purpose: The article aims to introduce nurses to how genetics-genomics is currently integrated into cancer care from prevention to treatment and influencing oncology nursing practice. Organizing Construct: An overview of genetics-genomics is described as it relates to cancer etiology, hereditary cancer syndromes, epigenetics factors, and management of care considerations. Methods: Peer-reviewed literature and expert professional guidelines were reviewed to address concepts of genetics-genomics in cancer care. Findings: Cancer is now known to be heterogeneous at the molecular level, with genetic and genomic factors underlying the etiology of all cancers. Understanding how these factors contribute to the development and treatment of both sporadic and hereditary cancers is important in cancer risk assessment, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management and surveillance. Conclusions: Rapidly developing advances in genetics-genomics are changing all aspects of cancer care, with implications for nursing practice. Clinical Relevance: Nurses can educate cancer patients and their families about genetic-genomic advances and advocate for use of evidence-based genetic-genomic practice guidelines to reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes in cancer management. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

Molecular Characterization of Equine Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae: Natural Disruption of Genes Encoding the Virulence Factors Pneumolysin and Autolysin

Whatmore, Adrian M.; King, Samantha J.; Doherty, Neil C.; Sturgeon, Daniel; Chanter, Neil; Dowson, Christopher G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 EN
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45.77%
Although often considered a strict human pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported to infect and cause pneumonia in horses, although the pathology appears restricted compared to that of human infections. Here we report on the molecular characterization of a group of S. pneumoniae isolates obtained from horses in England and Ireland. Despite being obtained from geographically distinct locations, the isolates were found to represent a tight clonal group, virtually identical to each other but genetically distinguishable from more than 120 divergent isolates of human S. pneumoniae. A comprehensive analysis of known pneumococcal virulence determinants was undertaken in an attempt to understand the pathogenicity of equine pneumococci. Surprisingly, equine isolates appear to lack activities associated with both the hemolytic cytotoxin pneumolysin, often considered a major virulence factor of pneumococci, and the major autolysin gene lytA, also considered an important virulence factor. In support of phenotypic data, molecular studies demonstrated a deletion of parts of the coding sequences of both lytA and ply genes in equine pneumococci. The implications of these findings for the evolution and pathogenicity of equine S. pneumoniae are discussed.

Antigenic and Molecular Conservation of the Gonococcal NspA Protein

Plante, Martin; Cadieux, Nathalie; Rioux, Clément R.; Hamel, Josée; Brodeur, Bernard R.; Martin, Denis
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1999 EN
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45.77%
A low-molecular-weight protein named NspA (neisserial surface protein A) was recently identified in the outer membrane of all Neisseria meningitidis strains tested. Antibodies directed against this protein were shown to protect mice against an experimental meningococcal infection. Hybridization experiments clearly demonstrated that the nspA gene was also present in the genomes of the 15 Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains tested. Cloning and sequencing of the nspA gene of N. gonorrhoeae B2 revealed an open reading frame of 525 nucleotides coding for a polypeptide of 174 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 18,316 and a pI of 10.21. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NspA polypeptides from the gonococcal strains B2 and FA1090, together with that of the meningococcal strain 608B, revealed an identity of 93%, suggesting that the NspA protein is highly conserved among pathogenic Neisseria strains. The level of identity rose to 98% when only the two gonococcal predicted NspA polypeptides were compared. To evaluate the level of antigenic conservation of the gonococcal NspA protein, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated. Four of the seven NspA-specific MAbs described in this report recognized their corresponding epitope in 100% of the 51 N. gonorrhoeae strains tested. Radioimmunobinding assays clearly indicated that the gonococcal NspA protein is exposed at the surface of intact cells.

Use of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Genome Mapping, Sequencing, and Comparative Genomics

Brosch, Roland; Gordon, Stephen V.; Billault, Alain; Garnier, Thierry; Eiglmeier, Karin; Soravito, Catherine; Barrell, Bart G.; Cole, Stewart T.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) cloning system is capable of stably propagating large, complex DNA inserts in Escherichia coli. As part of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv genome sequencing project, a BAC library was constructed in the pBeloBAC11 vector and used for genome mapping, confirmation of sequence assembly, and sequencing. The library contains about 5,000 BAC clones, with inserts ranging in size from 25 to 104 kb, representing theoretically a 70-fold coverage of the M. tuberculosis genome (4.4 Mb). A total of 840 sequences from the T7 and SP6 termini of 420 BACs were determined and compared to those of a partial genomic database. These sequences showed excellent correlation between the estimated sizes and positions of the BAC clones and the sizes and positions of previously sequenced cosmids and the resulting contigs. Many BAC clones represent linking clones between sequenced cosmids, allowing full coverage of the H37Rv chromosome, and they are now being shotgun sequenced in the framework of the H37Rv sequencing project. Also, no chimeric, deleted, or rearranged BAC clones were detected, which was of major importance for the correct mapping and assembly of the H37Rv sequence. The minimal overlapping set contains 68 unique BAC clones and spans the whole H37Rv chromosome with the exception of a single gap of ∼150 kb. As a postgenomic application...

Genome Diversification in Staphylococcus aureus: Molecular Evolution of a Highly Variable Chromosomal Region Encoding the Staphylococcal Exotoxin-Like Family of Proteins

Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Reid, Sean D.; Ruotsalainen, Eeva; Tripp, Timothy J.; Liu, MengYao; Cole, Robert; Kuusela, Pentti; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Järvinen, Asko; Musser, James M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.75%
Recent genomic studies have revealed extensive variation in natural populations of many pathogenic bacteria. However, the evolutionary processes which contribute to much of this variation remain unclear. A previous whole-genome DNA microarray study identified variation at a large chromosomal region (RD13) of Staphylococcus aureus which encodes a family of proteins with homology to staphylococcal and streptococcal superantigens, designated staphylococcal exotoxin-like (SET) proteins. In the present study, RD13 was found in all 63 S. aureus isolates of divergent clonal, geographic, and disease origins but contained a high level of variation in gene content in different strains. A central variable region which contained from 6 to 10 different set genes, depending on the strain, was identified, and DNA sequence analysis suggests that horizontal gene transfer and recombination have contributed to the diversification of RD13. Phylogenetic analysis based on the RD13 DNA sequence of 18 strains suggested that loss of various set genes has occurred independently several times, in separate lineages of pathogenic S. aureus, providing a model to explain the molecular variation of RD13 in extant strains. In spite of multiple episodes of set deletion...

Molecular Basis of Commensalism in the Urinary Tract: Low Virulence or Virulence Attenuation?▿ †

Zdziarski, Jaroslaw; Svanborg, Catharina; Wullt, Björn; Hacker, Jörg; Dobrindt, Ulrich
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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45.75%
In some patients, Escherichia coli strains establish significant bacteriuria without causing symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). These asymptomatic-bacteriuria (ABU) strains have been shown to express fewer virulence factors than the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains that cause severe, symptomatic UTI. Paradoxically, ABU strains carry many typical UPEC virulence genes, and the molecular basis of their low virulence therefore remains unclear. This study examined whether ABU strains might evolve from UPEC by genome loss and virulence gene attenuation. The presence of conserved E. coli K-12 genes was examined using an E. coli K-12 strain MG1655-specific DNA array and the distribution of UPEC virulence-related genes was examined with the E. coli pathoarray. Two groups of strains could be distinguished. Several ABU strains were shown by multilocus sequence typing and by comparative genomic analyses to be related to UPEC but to have smaller genome sizes. There were significant alterations in essential virulence genes, including reductive evolution by point mutations, DNA rearrangements, and deletions. Other strains were unrelated to UPEC and lacked most of the virulence-associated genes. The results suggest that some ABU strains arise from virulent strains by attenuation of virulence genes while others are nonvirulent and resemble commensal strains. We propose that virulence attenuation might constitute a general mechanism for mucosal pathogens to evolve toward commensalism.

Growth Factor Signals in Neural Cells: COHERENT PATTERNS OF INTERACTION CONTROL MULTIPLE LEVELS OF MOLECULAR AND PHENOTYPIC RESPONSES*S⃞

Martin, Bronwen; Brenneman, Randall; Golden, Erin; Walent, Tom; Becker, Kevin G.; Prabhu, Vinayakumar V.; Wood, William; Ladenheim, Bruce; Cadet, Jean-Lud; Maudsley, Stuart
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/01/2009 EN
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Individual neurons express receptors for several different growth factors that influence the survival, growth, neurotransmitter phenotype, and other properties of the cell. Although there has been considerable progress in elucidating the molecular signal transduction pathways and physiological responses of neurons and other cells to individual growth factors, little is known about if and how signals from different growth factors are integrated within a neuron. In this study, we determined the interactive effects of nerve growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 1, and epidermal growth factor on the activation status of downstream kinase cascades and transcription factors, cell survival, and neurotransmitter production in neural cells that express receptors for all three growth factors. We document considerable differences in the quality and quantity of intracellular signaling and eventual phenotypic responses that are dependent on whether cells are exposed to a single or multiple growth factors. Dual stimulations that generated the greatest antagonistic or synergistic actions, compared with a theoretically neutral summation of their two activities, yielded the largest eventual change of neuronal phenotype indicated by the ability of the cell to produce norepinephrine or resist oxidative stress. Combined activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptors was particularly notable for antagonistic interactions at some levels of signal transduction and norepinephrine production...

Bioinformatics and Data Mining Studies in Oral Genomics and Proteomics: New Trends and Challenges

Giacomelli, Luca; Covani, Ugo
Fonte: Bentham Open Publicador: Bentham Open
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/07/2010 EN
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36%
Genomics and proteomics have promised to change the practice of dentistry and oral pathology, allowing the identification and the characterization of risk factors and therapeutic targets at a molecular level. However, mass-scale molecular genomics and proteomics suffer from some pitfalls: gene/protein expression are significant only if inserted in a detailed network of molecular pathways and gene/gene, gene/protein and protein/protein interactions.

Evolutionary Genomics Reveals Lineage-Specific Gene Loss and Rapid Evolution of a Sperm-Specific Ion Channel Complex: CatSpers and CatSperβ

Cai, Xinjiang; Clapham, David Eldon; Schwartz, Arnold
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
The mammalian CatSper ion channel family consists of four sperm-specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that are crucial for sperm hyperactivation and male fertility. All four CatSper subunits are believed to assemble into a heteromultimeric channel complex, together with an auxiliary subunit, CatSperβ. Here, we report a comprehensive comparative genomics study and evolutionary analysis of CatSpers and CatSperβ, with important correlation to physiological significance of molecular evolution of the CatSper channel complex. The development of the CatSper channel complex with four CatSpers and CatSperβ originated as early as primitive metazoans such as the Cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Comparative genomics revealed extensive lineage-specific gene loss of all four CatSpers and CatSperβ through metazoan evolution, especially in vertebrates. The CatSper channel complex underwent rapid evolution and functional divergence, while distinct evolutionary constraints appear to have acted on different domains and specific sites of the four CatSper genes. These results reveal unique evolutionary characteristics of sperm-specific Ca2+ channels and their adaptation to sperm biology through metazoan evolution.; Molecular and Cellular Biology

An RNA Interference Lethality Screen of the Human Druggable Genome to Identify Molecular Vulnerabilities in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

Sethi, Geetika; Pathak, Harsh B.; Zhang, Hong; Zhou, Yan; Einarson, Margret B.; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Birrer, Michael James; Godwin, Andrew K.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
Targeted therapies have been used to combat many tumor types; however, few have effectively improved the overall survival in women with epithelial ovarian cancer, begging for a better understanding of this deadly disease and identification of essential drivers of tumorigenesis that can be targeted effectively. Therefore, we used a loss-of-function screening approach to help identify molecular vulnerabilities that may represent key points of therapeutic intervention. We employed an unbiased high-throughput lethality screen using a 24,088 siRNA library targeting over 6,000 druggable genes and studied their effects on growth and/or survival of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines. The top 300 “hits” affecting the viability of A1847 cells were rescreened across additional EOC cell lines and non-tumorigenic, human immortalized ovarian epithelial cell lines. Fifty-three gene candidates were found to exhibit effects in all tumorigenic cell lines tested. Extensive validation of these hits refined the list to four high quality candidates (HSPA5, NDC80, NUF2, and PTN). Mechanistic studies show that silencing of three genes leads to increased apoptosis, while HSPA5 silencing appears to alter cell growth through G1 cell cycle arrest. Furthermore...

Functional genomics: tools for improving farm animal health and welfare

Hiendleder, S.; Bauersachs, S.; Boulesteix, A.; Blum, H.; Arnold, G.; Frohlich, T.; Wolf, E.
Fonte: Office Int Epizooties Publicador: Office Int Epizooties
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
The first genome sequence assemblies of farm animal species are now accessible through public domain databases, and further sequencing projects are in rapid progress. In addition, large collections of expressed sequences have been obtained, which will aid in constructing annotated transcript maps for many economically important species. Thus, the breeding of farm animals is entering the post-genome era. Functional genomics, defined as applying global experimental approaches to assess gene function, by using the information and reagents provided by structural genomics (i.e. mapping and sequencing), has become the focus of interest. Combining a holistic view of phenotypes at the molecular level with genetic marker data seems a particularly promising approach for improving health and welfare traits in farm animals. These traits are often difficult to define. They suffer from low heritabilities and a corresponding lack of genetic gain in conventional selection and breeding programmes. At the same time, genomic information from micro-organisms and parasites offers the potential for new vaccines and therapeutics. This review describes major functional genomics tools, lists genomic resources available for farm animals and discusses the prospects and challenges of functional genomics in improving the health and welfare of farm animals.

Application of genomics to molecular breeding of wheat and barley

Varshney, R.; Langridge, P.; Graner, A.
Fonte: Academic Press Inc Publicador: Academic Press Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
In wheat and barley, several generations of selectable molecular markers have been included in the genetic maps; and a large number of qualitative and quantitative traits were located in the genomes, some of which are being routinely selected in marker-assisted breeding programs. In recent years, a large number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have been generated for wheat and barley that have been used for development of functional molecular markers, preparation of transcript maps, and construction of cDNA arrays. These functional genomic resources combined together with new approaches such as expression genetics, association mapping, allele mining, and informatics (bioinformatic tools) possess potential to identify genes responsible for a trait and their deployment in practical plant breeding. High costs currently limit the implementation of functional genomics in breeding programs. The potential applications together with some examples as well as challenges for applying genomics research in breeding activities are discussed. Genomics research will continue to enhance the efficiency and precision for crop improvement but will not replace conventional breeding and evaluation methods.; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/bookseries/00652660; Rajeev K. Varshney...

Exploring the evolution of (1,3;1,4)-β-D-glucans in plant cell walls: comparative genomics can help!; Exploring the evolution of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans in plant cell walls: comparative genomics can help!

Fincher, G.
Fonte: Current Biology Ltd Publicador: Current Biology Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 EN
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45.95%
A key distinguishing feature of the grasses is that their cell walls contain (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans, which are distributed almost exclusively within the Poaceae. The identification of genes that mediate in (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan biosynthesis has been possible through relatively recent genome sequencing programmes and comparative genomics techniques. The evolution of a single new gene appears to have been sufficient for the first synthesis of (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucans and there is compelling evidence that existing hydrolytic enzymes were adapted for the specific hydrolysis of the polysaccharide during wall turnover or degradation. Manipulation of the expression levels of genes involved in (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan synthesis is likely to provide opportunities to enhance the value of grasses and cereals in commercial applications such as human nutrition and biofuel production.; Geoffrey B. Fincher; Crown Copyright © 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Faba bean genomics: current status and future prospects

Alghamdi, S.; Migdadi, H.; Ammar, M.; Paull, J.; Siddique, K.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
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35.98%
Faba bean represents a crucial source of protein for food, especially for Mediterranean countries, and local demand for faba bean grains is increasing. The crop is also gaining increased attention as an elite candidate for conservation agriculture. However, the complexity of the faba genome has made progress in breeding programs and molecular studies relatively slow compared with other legume crops. Recent advances in plant genomics have made it feasible to understand complex genomes such as faba bean. With the increase of faba bean consumption in the Middle East region, there is an urgent need to develop elite faba genotypes suitable for arid and semi arid environments, with high yield potential and acceptable nutritional quality. This article highlights the recent advances in legume and faba genomics and its potential to contribute to the above mentioned goal. Emphasis is given on prospects on faba improvements strategies from the Middle East point of view.; Salem S. Alghamdi, Hussein M. Migdadi, Megahed H. Ammar, Jeffrey G. Paull and K.H.M. Siddique

Advances in functional genomics for investigating salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in cereals

Shelden, M.; Roessner, U.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Abiotic stresses such as low water availability and high salinity are major causes of cereal crop yield losses and significantly impact on sustainability. Wheat and barley are two of the most important cereal crops (after maize and rice) and are grown in increasingly hostile environments with soil salinity and drought both expected to increase this century, reducing the availability of arable land. Barley and wheat are classified as glycophytes (salt-sensitive), yet they are more salt-tolerant than other cereal crops such as rice and so are good models for studying salt tolerance in cereals. The exploitation of genetic variation of phenotypic traits through plant breeding could significantly improve growth of cereals in salinity-affected regions, thus leading to improved crop yields. Genetic variation in phenotypic traits for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified in land races and wild germplasm but the molecular basis of these differences is often difficult to determine due to the complex genetic nature of these species. High-throughput functional genomics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and ionomics are powerful tools for investigating the molecular responses of plants to abiotic stress. The advancement of these technologies has allowed for the identification and quantification of transcript/metabolites in specific cell types and/or tissues. Using these new technologies on plants will provide a powerful tool to uncovering genetic traits in more complex species such as wheat and barley and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of salinity stress tolerance.; Megan C. Shelden and Ute Roessner

Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward understanding genetics and evolution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Nadimi, Maryam
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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36.04%
Les champignons mycorhiziens arbusculaires (CMA) sont très répandus dans le sol où ils forment des associations symbiotiques avec la majorité des plantes appelées mycorhizes arbusculaires. Le développement des CMA dépend fortement de la plante hôte, de telle sorte qu'ils ne peuvent vivre à l'état saprotrophique, par conséquent ils sont considérés comme des biotrophes obligatoires. Les CMA forment une lignée évolutive basale des champignons et ils appartiennent au phylum Glomeromycota. Leurs mycélia sont formés d’un réseau d’hyphes cénocytiques dans lesquelles les noyaux et les organites cellulaires peuvent se déplacer librement d’un compartiment à l’autre. Les CMA permettent à la plante hôte de bénéficier d'une meilleure nutrition minérale, grâce au réseau d'hyphes extraradiculaires, qui s'étend au-delà de la zone du sol explorée par les racines. Ces hyphes possèdent une grande capacité d'absorption d’éléments nutritifs qui vont être transportés par ceux-ci jusqu’aux racines. De ce fait, les CMA améliorent la croissance des plantes tout en les protégeant des stresses biotiques et abiotiques. Malgré l’importance des CMA, leurs génétique et évolution demeurent peu connues. Leurs études sont ardues à cause de leur mode de vie qui empêche leur culture en absence des plantes hôtes. En plus leur diversité génétique intra-isolat des génomes nucléaires...

Eucalyptus applied genomics: from gene sequences to breeding tools

Grattapaglia, Dario; Kirst, Matias
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: Texto
EN
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36.06%
Eucalyptus is the most widely planted hardwood crop in the tropical and subtropical world because of its superior growth, broad adaptability and multipurpose wood properties. Plantation forestry of Eucalyptus supplies high-quality woody biomass for several industrial applications while reducing the pressure on tropical forests and associated biodiversity. This review links current eucalypt breeding practices with existing and emerging genomic tools. A brief discussion provides a background to modern eucalypt breeding together with some current applications of molecular markers in support of operational breeding. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and genetical genomics are reviewed and an in-depth perspective is provided on the power of association genetics to dissect quantitative variation in this highly diverse organism. Finally, some challenges and opportunities to integrate genomic information into directional selective breeding are discussed in light of the upcoming draft of the Eucalyptus grandis genome. Given the extraordinary genetic variation that exists in the genus Eucalyptus, the ingenuity of most breeders, and the powerful genomic tools that have become available, the prospects of applied genomics in Eucalyptus forest production are encouraging.

Comparative Genomics Reveals the Origins and Diversity of Arthropod Immune Systems

Palmer, William J.; Jiggins, Francis M.
Fonte: Oxford Journal on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution Publicador: Oxford Journal on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution
Tipo: Article; published version
EN
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45.89%
This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/05/12/molbev.msv093.long.; Insects are an important model for the study of innate immune systems, but remarkably little is known about the immune system of other arthropod groups despite their importance as disease vectors, pests, and components of biological diversity. Using comparative genomics, we have characterized the immune system of all the major groups of arthropods beyond insects for the first time?studying five chelicerates, a myriapod, and a crustacean.We found clear traces of an ancient origin of innate immunity, with some arthropods having Toll-like receptors and C3-complement factors that are more closely related in sequence or structure to vertebrates than other arthropods. Across the arthropods some components of the immune system, such as the Toll signaling pathway, are highly conserved. However, there is also remarkable diversity. The chelicerates apparently lack the Imd signaling pathway and beta-1,3 glucan binding proteins? a key class of pathogen recognition receptors. Many genes have large copy number variation across species, and this may sometimes be accompanied by changes in function. For example...

Functional genomics studies of human brain development and implications for autism spectrum disorder

Ziats, Mark
Fonte: University of Cambridge; Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience Publicador: University of Cambridge; Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Human neurodevelopment requires the coordinated expression of thousands of genes, exquisitely regulated in both spatial and temporal dimensions, to achieve the proper specialization and inter-connectivity of brain regions. Consequently, the dysregulation of complex gene networks in the developing brain is believed to underlie many neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism has a significant genetic etiology, but there are hundreds of genes implicated, and their functions are heterogeneous and complex. Therefore, an understanding of shared molecular and cellular pathways underlying the development ASD has remained elusive, hampering attempts to develop common diagnostic biomarkers or treatments for this disorder. I hypothesized that analyzing functional genomics relationships among ASD candidate genes during normal human brain development would provide insight into common cellular and molecular pathways that are affected in autistic individuals, and may help elucidate how hundreds of diverse genes can all be linked to a single clinical phenotype. This thesis describes a coordinated set of bioinformatics experiments that first (i) assessed for gene expression and co-expression properties among ASD candidates and other non-coding RNAs during normal human brain development to discover potential shared mechanisms; and then (ii) directly assessed for changes in these pathways in autistic post-mortem brain tissue. The results demonstrated that when examined in the context of normal human brain gene expression during early development...