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Biologia molecular aplicada às dermatoses tropicais; Molecular biology in tropical dermatoses

ROSELINO, Ana Maria
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.89%
São apresentados conceitos básicos sobre célula, código genético e síntese protéica, e sobre algumas técnicas de biologia molecular, tais como PCR, PCR-RFLP, seqüenciamento de DNA, RT-PCR e immunoblotting. São fornecidos protocolos de extração de nucleotídeos e de proteínas, como salting out no sangue periférico e métodos do fenol-clorofórmio e do trizol em tecidos. Seguem-se exemplos comentados da aplicação de técnicas de biologia molecular para o diagnóstico etiológico e pesquisa em dermatoses tropicais, com ênfase na leishmaniose tegumentar americana e hanseníase.; Initially, basic concepts are presented concerning the cell, genetic code and protein synthesis, and some techniques of molecular biology, such as PCR, PCR-RFLP, DNA sequencing, RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Protocols of nucleotides and of proteins extraction are supplied, such as salting out in peripheral blood allied to phenol-chloroform and trizol methods in skin samples. To proceed, commented examples of application of those techniques of molecular biology for the etiologic diagnosis and for research in tropical dermatoses, with emphasis to American tegumentary leishmaniasis and leprosy are presented.; USP - FAEPA-HCFMRP; CNPq; Fapesp

Molecular biology in tropical dermatoses

ROSELINO, Ana Maria
Fonte: SOC BRASILEIRA DERMATOLOGIA Publicador: SOC BRASILEIRA DERMATOLOGIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
Initially, basic concepts are presented concerning the cell, genetic code and protein synthesis, and some techniques of molecular biology, such as PCR, PCR-RFLP, DNA sequencing, RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Protocols of nucleotides and of proteins extraction are supplied, such as salting out in peripheral blood allied to phenol-chloroform and trizol methods in skin samples. To proceed, commented examples of application of those techniques of molecular biology for the etiologic diagnosis and for research in tropical dermatoses, with emphasis to American tegumentary leishmaniasis and leprosy are presented.

Um modelo de qualidade para caracterização e seleção de bancos de dados de biologia molecular; A quality model for characterizing and selecting molecular biology databases

Lichtnow, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
O número de banco de dados de biologia molecular presentes na Web vem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos. A dificuldade de localizar estes bancos de dados na Web incentivou a criação de uma série de catálogos. Mesmo com estes catálogos, persiste o desafio de selecionar aqueles bancos de dados que possuem maior qualidade. Normalmente, a seleção é feita por usuários, que nem sempre possuem o conhecimento necessário e enfrentam problemas pela ausência de uma descrição mais rica dos bancos de dados nestes catálogos. Esta ausência de uma descrição mais rica dos bancos de dados gerou iniciativas recentes que visam identificar metadados relevantes para descrição dos bancos de dados de biologia molecular. No entanto, até o momento, como utilizar estes metadados na seleção dos bancos de dados presentes em um catálogo, relacionando estes às dimensões de qualidade de dados, é um tema pouco explorado. Da mesma forma, o uso de Web metrics, utilizadas na seleção de páginas Web, vem sendo quase ignorado na determinação da qualidade de bancos de dados de biologia molecular. Tendo em vista este cenário, nesta tese foi desenvolvido um modelo de qualidade que visa auxiliar na seleção de bancos de dados de biologia molecular presentes em catálogos na Web a partir da avaliação global de um banco de dados por meio de metadados e Web metrics. A definição deste modelo envolve adoção de metadados propostos em outros trabalhos...

Biologia molecular do câncer cervical; Molecular biology of cervical cancer

Rivoire, Waldemar Augusto; Corleta, Helena von Eye; Silva, Ilma Simoni Brum da; Capp, Edison
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
A carcinogênese é um processo de múltiplas etapas. Alterações no equilíbrio citogenético ocorrem na transformação do epitélio normal a câncer cervical. Numerosos estudos apoiam a hipótese de que a infecção por HPV está associada com o desenvolvimento de alterações malignas e pré-malignas do trato genital inferior. Neste trabalho são apresentadas as bases para a compreensão da oncogênese cervical. O ciclo celular é controlado por proto-oncogenes e genes supressores. Quando ocorrem mutações, proto-oncogenes tornam-se oncogenes, que são carcinogênicos e causam multiplicação celular excessiva. A perda da ação de genes supressores funcionais pode levar a célula ao crescimento inadequado. O ciclo celular também pode ser alterado pela ação de vírus, entre eles o HPV (Human Papiloma Virus), de especial interesse na oncogênese cervical. Os tipos de HPV 16 e 18 são os de maior interesse, freqüentemente associados a câncer cervical e anal. O conhecimento das bases moleculares que estão envolvidas na oncogênese cervical tem sido possível devido a utilização de técnicas avançadas de biologia molecular. A associação destas técnicas aos métodos diagnósticos clássicos, poderão levar a uma melhor avaliação das neoplasias cervicais e auxiliar no desenvolvimento de novas terapias...

Padrões de comportamento de busca e uso de informação por pesquisadores de biologia molecular e biotecnologia; Behavior standards of information search and use referring to molecular biology and biotechnology

Crespo, Isabel Merlo; Caregnato, Sonia Elisa
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.85%
O comportamento de busca e uso de informação dos pesquisadores da área de biologia molecular e biotecnologia foi analisado com base no modelo de David Ellis, verificando como a informação científica em meio digital altera este comportamento. Constituiu-se de pesquisa qualitativa, que, para a coleta de dados, utilizou questões abertas, com entrevista aos pesquisadores do Departamento de Biologia Molecular e Biotecnologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram trabalhados em uma base de dados desenvolvida no software de análise qualitativa Nvivo versão 2.0, em conformidade com técnicas de codificação o método comparativo constante. Os resultados mostraram um perfil de comportamento de busca e uso de informação do grupo de pesquisadores, com suas principais características, em vários aspectos, geradas pelo uso das tecnologias, destacando a nãolinearidade da busca e obtenção da informação. Constatou-se que os periódicos científicos eletrônicos são a principal fonte de informação destes pesquisadores, e que são amplamente utilizados e aceitos, mas o mesmo não acontece com aqueles de acesso livre, ainda usados de modo restrito. Conclui, também, que o modelo de Ellis é válido, com ampliações e modificações. Sugere novos temas de estudo relacionados ao enfoque pesquisado.; The information seeking and use behavior of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology researchers has been analyzed based on David Ellis´ model...

Update on colorectal carcinomatosis - from molecular biology to diagnosis and management

Martins, Sandra; Longatto Filho, Adhemar
Fonte: SciRes Publicador: SciRes
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
After liver metastases, Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) is the second most frequent cause of death in patients with Co-lorectal Cancer (CRC), although the precise incidence of Colorectal Cancer Peritoneal Carcinomatosis is not known, as the majority of the diagnostic studies cannot detect the disease in its initial stages, nowadays, the diagnosis of peritoneal carcinomatosis remains a challenge. The molecular biology of PC is only just beginning to be understood, future knowledge will permit not only identify novel strategies for PC prevention, but also contribute to therapeutic advances, through the development of molecular targeted therapies. The authors performed a literature revision about the Molecu-lar Biology, Diagnosis and Management of Colorectal Cancer Peritoneal carcinomatosis.

New Strategies on Molecular Biology Applied to Microbial Systematics

HÖFLING,José F.; ROSA,Edvaldo A. R.; BAPTISTA,Mirian J.; SPOLIDÓRIO,Denise M. P.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
Systematics is the study of diversity of the organisms and their relationships comprising classification, nomenclature and identification. The term classification or taxonomy means the arrangement of the organisms in groups (rate) and the nomenclature is the attribution of correct international scientific names to organisms and identification is the inclusion of unknown strains in groups derived from classification. Therefore, classification for a stable nomenclature and a perfect identification are required previously. The beginning of the new bacterial systematics era can be remembered by the introduction and application of new taxonomic concepts and techniques, from the 50’s and 60’s. Important progress were achieved using numerical taxonomy and molecular taxonomy. Molecular taxonomy, brought into effect after the emergence of the Molecular Biology resources, provided knowledge that comprises systematics of bacteria, in which occurs great evolutionary interest, or where is observed the necessity of eliminating any environmental interference. When you study the composition and disposition of nucleotides in certain portions of the genetic material, you study searching their genome, much less susceptible to environmental alterations than proteins...

Molecular biology of the kallikrein-kinin system: from structure to function

Pesquero,J.B.; Bader,M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
The participation of the kallikrein-kinin system, comprising the serine proteases kallikreins, the protein substrates kininogens and the effective peptides kinins, in some pathological processes like hypertension and cardiovascular diseases is still a matter of controversy. The use of different experimental set-ups in concert with the development of potent and specific inhibitors and antagonists for the system has highlighted its importance but the results still lack conclusivity. Over the last few years, transgenic and gene-targeting technologies associated with molecular biology tools have provided specific information about the elusive role of the kallikrein-kinin system in the control of blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. cDNA and genomic sequences for kinin receptors B2 and B1 from different species were isolated and shown to encode G-protein-coupled receptors and the structure and pharmacology of the receptors were characterized. Transgenic animals expressing an overactive kallikrein-kinin system were established to study the cardiovascular effects of these alterations and the results of these investigations further corroborate the importance of this system in the maintenance of normal blood pressure. Knockout animals for B2 and B1 receptors are available and their analysis also points to the role of these receptors in cardiovascular regulation and inflammatory processes. In this paper the most recent and relevant genetic animal models developed for the study of the kallikrein-kinin system are reviewed...

Molecular biology and clinical implication of hepatitis C virus

Lyra,A.C.; Fan,X.; Di Bisceglie,A.M.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) was first described in 1989 as the putative viral agent of non-A non-B hepatitis. It is a member of the Flaviviridae family and has been recognized as the major causative agent of chronic liver disease, including chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is a positive RNA virus with a genome containing approximately 9500 nucleotides. It has an open reading frame that encodes a large polyprotein of about 3000 amino acids and is characterized by extensive genetic diversity. HCV has been classified into at least 6 major genotypes with many subtypes and circulates within an infected individual as a number of closely related but distinct variants known as quasispecies. This article reviews aspects of the molecular biology of HCV and their clinical implication.

Founding, early history, and transformation of the Journal for Lipid Research to an American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology journal1

Dennis, Edward A.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%
The Journal of Lipid Research was founded in October, 1959 and has had a long and distinguished history. It evolved from an initial concept of a loose-leaf methodology handbook to a major journal for the lipid field. Its growth has in many ways paralleled the growth and expansion of lipid research. Today, it is operated as a journal of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the forefront of biomedical research on lipids.

Contrasting rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution in parasitic diptera and hymenoptera

Castro, L.; Austin, A.; Dowton, M.
Fonte: Soc Molecular Biology Evolution Publicador: Soc Molecular Biology Evolution
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.77%
We investigated the putative association between the parasitic lifestyle and an accelerated rate of mt genetic divergence, compositional bias, and gene rearrangement, employing a range of parasitic and nonparasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera. Sequences were obtained for the cox1, cox2, 16S, 28S genes, the regions between the cox2 and atp8 genes, and between the nad3 and nad5 genes. Relative rate tests indicated generally that the parasitic lifestyle was not associated with an increased rate of genetic divergence in the Diptera but reaffirmed that it was in the Hymenoptera. Similarly, a departure from compositional stationarity was not associated with parasitic Diptera but was in parasitic Hymenoptera. Finally, mitochondrial (mt) gene rearrangements were not observed in any of the dipteran species examined. The results indicate that these genetic phenomena are not accelerated in parasitic Diptera compared with nonparasitic Diptera. A possible explanation for the differences in the rate of mt molecular evolution in parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera is the extraordinary level of radiation that has occurred within the parasitic Hymenoptera but not in any of the dipteran parasitic lineages. If speciation events in the parasitic Hymenoptera are associated with founder events...

Insect molecular biology: an Australian perspective

Glatz, R.; Kent, J.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.92%
One of the biggest advances in biological research has undoubtedly been the development of our capacity to investigate individual phenotypes, species biology and multi-species interactions at the molecular level. This has provided the ability to understand the detailed mechanisms that regulate biological processes and, in many cases, to manipulate them or use them to our advantage. In this Overview we define ‘insect molecular biology’ as the study of gene/protein expression and molecular function and contrast it with ‘traditional entomology’ and ‘comparative molecular entomology’. Obtaining the genomes of various insect species has provided significant advances in our ability to quickly isolate important genes. Study of the proteins they produce is important as they are functionally extremely diverse and are the basis for biological differences in extant species. Australian researchers have contributed significantly to our knowledge of insect molecular biology. Functional insect molecular biology studies undertaken in Australia are summarised, concentrating on the last 15 years, during which time insect molecular research has accelerated, largely due to obtaining key insect genomes and corresponding advances in molecular technologies. Currently...

Assessment of the scientific-technological production in molecular biology in Brazil (1996-2007): the contribution of genomics programs

Meneghini,Rogério; Gamba,Estêvão C.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
Several genome sequencing programs were launched in Brazil by the end of the nineties and the early 2000s.The most important initiatives were supported by the ONSA program (http://watson.fapesp.br/onsa/Genoma3.htm) and aimed at gaining domain in genomic technology and bringing molecular biology to the state of art. Two mainsets of data were collected in the 1996-2007 period to evaluate the results of these genome programs: the scientific production (Scopus and Web of Science databases) and the register of patents (US Patent and Trademark Office), both related to the progress of molecular biology along this period. In regard to the former, Brazil took a great leap in comparison to 17 other developed and developing countries, being only surpassed by China. As to the register of patents in the area of molecular biology, Brazil's performance lags far behind most of the countries focused in the presentstudy, confirming the Brazilian long-standing tendency of poor achievements in technological innovations when compared with scientific production. Possible solutions to surpass this inequality are discussed.

BioMoleculesAlive.org: the biochemistry and molecular biology digital library

Craig, Paul
Fonte: Elsevier: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education Publicador: Elsevier: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 46888 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.76%

BioMoleculesAlive.org: the biochemistry and molecular biology digital library update

Craig, Paul
Fonte: Elsevier: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education Publicador: Elsevier: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 32362 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
85.89%
BioMoleculesAlive.org is a collection of digital resources sponsored by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It is part of a larger effort called the BioSciEdNet (BEN) initiative (www.biosciednet.org). The collection will include resources in five areas: software, visual resources, curriculum resources, reviews, and articles from Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education. Efforts on the web interface, database design, and tools and guidelines for submission to BioMoleculesAlive.org are ongoing. We hope to be open for submissions by April 2003. Please plan to attend our session at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB) meeting in San Diego (12 noon on Saturday, April 12, 2003) where you will be able to hear about our progress and to meet some of the members of the steering committee. In the meantime, we have identified several examples of the types of resources we are seeking in the areas of molecular visualization, software, and curriculum. Please check out these exemplary websites for ideas on BioMoleculesAlive.org submissions of your own.

Introducing legacy program scripting to molecular biology toolkit (MBT)

Newell, Todd
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Masters Project
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.83%
Successful navigating of the ever-changing landscape of molecular visualization programs requires a common thread that can offer users an oasis from the maelstrom of new languages, proprietary applications, and miniscule software life-cycles. Crossapplication scripting remains the benchmark, allowing scientists and researchers to speak a common tongue. The introduction of a new, powerful visualization language, Molecular Biology Toolkit (MBT), has tempted many users to abandon previous methodologies and adopt a new mode of research. MBT, however, is not without drawbacks. Its lack of scripting capabilities creates unmanageable complexity for unsophisticated end-users, namely those without the ability to program. MBT, thus, lacks the basic handholds for its widespread acceptance in the molecular visualization community. As a toolkit package without its own mode of execution, its design challenges users to develop their own customized features and applications. However, able to contribute as a text based virtual molecular collection or a fully rendered 3D molecular representation, MBT has the tools researchers want in a new visualization program. Using JavaCC to parse legacy commands and in turn executing MBT methods all from a single...

Serviços e fontes de informação eletrônicas: mudanças verificadas através de um estudo das áreas de biologia molecular e biotecnologia Electronic information services and sources: changes observed by a molecular biology and biotechnology study p.216-234

Crespo, Isabel Merlo
Fonte: Associação Catarinense de Bibliotecários Publicador: Associação Catarinense de Bibliotecários
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/11/2007 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.81%
O artigo descreve a influência e as mudanças geradas pelas fontes e serviços de informação eletrônicos, como o periódico científico, bases de dados e recursos de texto integral, para a busca e localização e acesso de informação por um grupo pesquisadores. Identifica o uso e aceitação que estes recursos possuem e também aborda o reflexo sobre as bibliotecas. Desenvolve-se a partir de uma pesquisa qualitativa, com a aplicação de entrevistas com questões abertas, realizada com docentes/pesquisadores das áreas da Biologia Molecular e da Biotecnologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. Entre os resultados verificados ressalta-se o uso intensivo de periódicos científicos eletrônicos, de bases de dados, alterações no uso das bibliotecas e a unificação do processo de busca, localização e acesso da informação. Abstract: This article describes the influence and the changes generated by electronic information sources and services, scientific papers and data banks for example, for the search and access of information process by a group of researchers. Identifies the use and acceptance of this resources and the reflexes upon libraries and informational services. Is based on qualitative research and open interviews with Molecular Biology and Biotechnology teachers/researchers from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande o Sul. Among the verified results the most important are the intensive use of electronic scientific papers...

Molecular epidemiology: The impact of molecular biology in epidemiology research

Dorman,Janice S
Fonte: Sociedad Médica de Santiago Publicador: Sociedad Médica de Santiago
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.82%
Progress in molecular biology and genetics is changing the practice of medicine and public health through the development of molecular diagnostics and targeted interventions for susceptible individuals. The ethical, legal and social issues that are becoming apparent as these important discoveries are introduced into practice will have an enormous impact on society. The accurate translation of this new genetic information from the laboratory to the community is an urgent need. Molecular epidemiology is at the foundation of this important link, and represents the scientific basis of public health for the 21st Century. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1261-68)

Third Jesús Culebras Lecture: Molecular Biology and Clinical Nutrition; ¿where do we stand and where do we go?

Gil,Ángel
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.84%
Nutrition plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of health and the treatment of disease, and serves as the crossroads for many disciplines. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology represents a key brand of science to ascertain the mechanism of action of nutrients and other food bioactive compounds in health and disease. The aim of the present Jesús M. Culebras lecture is to consider the future of the relationships between Molecular Biology and Clinical Nutrition and to discuss the use of molecular and genetic tools to study molecular responses to dietary factors and the metabolic consequences of food and to consider major challenges on human nutrition sciences in the 21st century. Particular emphasis is given to the identification and use of novel biomarkers in inflammatory diseases. Likewise, the importance of the human microbiome and how microorganisms can be safely utilized in the prevention and management of infectious and chronic diseases are discussed. Moreover, the key role of nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and epigenetics in the new era of nutrition is considered. Nutrigenetics refers to the role of DNA sequence variation in the responses to nutrients, whereas nutrigenomics is the study of the role of nutrients in gene expression. Epigenetics is the study of mitotically heritable alterations in gene expression potential that are not caused by DNA sequence alterations. In the past decade...

Forensic anthropology and molecular biology: independent or Forensic anthropology and molecular biology: independent or complementary sciences in forensic dentistry? An overview;

Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da; Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira de
Fonte: UNICAMP/FOP Publicador: UNICAMP/FOP
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/01/2016 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.86%
Human identification is currently one of the most outstanding areas of Forensic Sciences. Forensic anthropology is a branch of the Forensic Sciences concerned with the application of general anthropological knowledge and methods to the process of law. Postmortem human identification is one of the major areas of study and research in Legal Medicine and Forensic Dentistry and both sciences work with the same type material and the human body in several conditions. Every human being has an identity in life, which should be recognized after death both for family consolation and for juridical purposes. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to discuss and elaborate on the relationship between Forensic Anthropology and Molecular Biology in the expert practice of Forensic Dentistry. The use of DNA profile tests in Forensic Dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification. Molecular biology techniques should definitely be added to the constellation of investigative resources of the forensic sciences, providing a variety of tools to Forensic Anthropology practice in human identity research, especially when the usual identification methods fail due to the deleterious effects of heat, trauma or autolytic processes on the body or body remains.;