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Exército brasileiro: estrutura militar e ordenamento político 1984-2007; The Brazilian Army: military structure and policy planning 1984 - 2007

Kuhlmann, Paulo Roberto Loyolla
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2007 PT
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Ocorreram amplas transformações nos sistemas militares de diversos países no período pós- Guerra Fria. No Brasil, o Exército replanejou sua força militar terrestre após a guerra das Malvinas mediante a implantação de um sistema de planejamento estruturado. Atualizações constantes foram feitas, mas as suas linhas principais podem ainda serem encontradas na remodelagem das unidades, missões e estrutura. Mesmo com a criação do Ministério da Defesa, o elemento político de direção nacional pouco interferiu. Essa reestruturação não tem correspondência direta com o modelo do pós-modernismo militar estruturado por Charles Moskos e que sugeria a transformação de grandes exércitos de conscritos em pequenos exércitos tecnologizados, cumprindo missões diferentes das tradicionais guerras inter-estatais. O desafio dos estruturadores da força terrestre foi de administrar poucos recursos com muita criatividade, especializando número crescente de profissionais de guerra terrestre, alargando o escopo das missões sem abrir mão das tradicionais, tornando algumas organizações militares mais operacionais, produzindo um salto de qualidade, ainda que tudo isso se desse sem interesse e sem direcionamento político. A ausência de clara direção política das forças armadas produz imprecisões na formulação de estratégias e de missões criando...

Tintas da terra tintas do reino: arquitetura e arte nas Missões Jesuíticas do Grão-Pará (1653-1759); Tintas da Terra, Tintas do Reino: Art and Architecture in the Grão-Pará Jesuit Missions (1653-1759)

Martins, Renata Maria de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2009 PT
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A presente tese estuda a produção arquitetônica e artística nas Missões Jesuíticas situadas no território do antigo Estado do Maranhão e Grão-Pará (criado em 1621), com particular destaque à região da Capitania do Grão-Pará. O arco temporal compreende os anos de 1653 (estabelecimento da Companhia de Jesus em Belém) a 1759 (expulsão dos jesuítas das colônias portuguesas). A tese enfoca, em particular, o trabalho artístico de jesuítas e índios nas oficinas que funcionaram no Colégio Jesuítico de Santo Alexandre em Belém a partir do século XVIII; procurando identificar a irradiação de modelos criados nas mesmas em direção às igrejas e capelas implantadas pelos jesuítas ao longo do Rio Amazonas e seus afluentes; sobretudo, àquelas que estavam localizadas em vilas, aldeias ou fazendas jesuíticas mais próximas a Belém (Vila de Nossa Senhora de Nazaré da Vigia, Vila Souza do Caeté, Mortigura, Gibirié, Mamaiacú, Jaguarari, entre outras). É colocada a hipótese de que Belém, como um pólo criador de modelos (também pólo econômico e comercial), alimentou toda a produção artística dos jesuítas no Grão-Pará, ao difundir seus métodos de trabalho e suas experiências técnicas. O título Tintas da Terra...

As organizações da sociedade civil no México e no Brasil: os desafios para a mobilização de recursos e o cumprimento da missão organizacional; Nonprofit organizations in Mexico and Brazil: challenges for mobilizing resources and the fulfilment of organizational missions

Pereira, Fernanda Cristina dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/08/2013 PT
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As organizações da sociedade civil possuem diversos papéis na sociedade sejam por meio da provisão de serviços, da promoção do desenvolvimento e, até mesmo, pela manifestação do pluralismo e da expressão da diversidade. O cumprimento destes papéis está diretamente relacionado à capacidade que essas organizações possuem em mobilizar recursos, haja vista, que, em geral, elas não controlam as fontes de geração de suas receitas e, por essa razão, tendem a sofrer muito mais os efeitos da dependência externa. Com isso, as organizações da sociedade civil devem alinhar, constantemente, o desenvolvimento de estratégias para lidarem com a dependência externa e viabilizar o cumprimento da sua missão organizacional. Nesse sentido, este estudo busca entender as dependências geradas pelos recursos captados ou pelas estratégias definidas para a mobilização de recursos que influenciaram o cumprimento da missão organizacional definida pelas organizações da sociedade civil: Comércio Justo México (CJM) e Fórum de Articulação do Comércio Ético e Solidário do Brasil (Faces do Brasil), mexicana e brasileira, respectivamente. Para tanto, foi realizada uma ampla revisão de literatura, entrevistas e análises de documentos. Este processo permitiu um maior entendimento sobre os desafios enfrentados pelas organizações da sociedade civil para mobilizar e gerir recursos que permitem o cumprimento da missão organizacional e garantem a existência dessas instituições...

Missões jesuíticas como sistema; Jesuit missions as system

Soster, Sandra Schmitt
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2014 PT
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Tendo como estudo de caso o antigo conjunto denominado Trinta Povos das Missões, que compreende parte dos territórios do Brasil, Argentina, Paraguai e Uruguai, esta pesquisa entende que é necessário um olhar baseado no pensamento complexo para observá-lo como um sistema histórico-tipológico e para entender a atualidade do que se pode chamar sistema de preservação do patrimônio missioneiro, que envolve o patrimônio material e imaterial desta cultura ímpar e também as interações realizadas entre os diversos agentes envolvidos em sua preservação: pesquisadores, órgãos responsáveis, guias de turismo e comunidade. Diante do cenário comunicacional e tecnológico do século XXI, a pesquisa busca embasamento teórico para enfatizar a necessidade de criação e implementação de ferramentas digitais que auxiliem não somente registro, preservação e divulgação deste patrimônio, mas também potencializem as interações entre os agentes envolvidos, para que o sistema funcione de maneira mais eficiente e mantenha-se vivo, cumprindo sua função social como suporte da memória e da identidade de uma cultura local e de uma reflexão social glocal.; Taking as a study case the old set called Thirty Missions of the Guarani...

A refiguração da Tava Miri São Miguel na memória coletiva dos Mbyá-Guarani nas Missões/RS, Brasil; The refiguration of Tava Miri São Miguel by Mbyá-Guarani collective memory in missions Region/RS, Brazil

Moraes, Carlos Eduardo Neves de
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Este trabalho discorre sobre a memória coletiva Mbyá-Guarani acerca do Sítio Arqueológico de São Miguel Arcanjo, Patrimônio da Humanidade reconhecido pela UNESCO, e situado na região das Missões, noroeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os Mbyá-Guarani habitam uma aldeia no município de São Miguel das Missões (reserva do Inhacapetum) e circulam pela região, a qual reconhecem como um território ancestral. Os membros do grupo comercializam seu artesanato no alpendre do Museu da Missões, localizado no perímetro do Parque Arqueológico, mantendo uma relação cotidiana com os remanescentes da antiga igreja de São Miguel a qual denominam pela categoria Tava Miri. A historiografia oficial, entretanto, nega a ligação dos atuais Mbyá-Guarani com os Guarani missioneiros, alegando que a presença da atual população data do início do século XX. As narrativas dos Mbyá-Guarani conformam uma ligação cosmológica com a Tava Miri, o que pude apreender no contexto da aplicação do Inventário Nacional de Referências Culturais em que participei da equipe executora. Assim, busco neste estudo, fazer ecoar a voz dos Mbyá e sua versão da história. Entendendo a memória enquanto “inteligência narrativa” (Eckert e Rocha...

Do culto aos ancestrais ao cristianismo e vice-versa : vislumbres da pratica da comunicação nas missões espiritanas do Planalto Central Angolano; From ancestral cult to cristianism and vice versa : glimpses of the practice of communication in the spiritanin missions of the Central Highlands of Angola

Iracema Hilario Dulley
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/06/2008 PT
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O presente trabalho debruça-se sobre a prática da comunicação nas missões católicas da Congregação do Espírito Santo no Planalto Central angolano, território dos Ovimbundu, do período que vai de meados do século XIX ao período pré-Guerra de Libertação do século XX. O principal material empírico utilizado são as traduções de gêneros da oralidade em umbundu (provérbios, contos e adivinhas) para o português e de materiais doutrinários católicos (catecismos, liturgias) do português para o umbundu. Com base nesses registros, procura-se vislumbrar o processo de disputa simbólica que deu origem à convenção de significação estabelecida a partir da relação entre os diversos agentes envolvidos no contexto missionário; The present work focuses on the practice of communication in the Catholic missions of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit located in the Central Highlands of Angola, territory of the Ovimbundu, from mid-19th century to pre-Liberation War 20th century. Its empirical material consists basically of translations of oral genres from Umbundu into Portuguese (proverbs, tales, conundrums) and Catholic doctrinal material (catechisms, liturgies) from Portuguese into Umbundu. Based on these registers, an attempt is made to grasp the process of symbolic struggle between the various agents involved in the missionary context in order to understand the meaning convention arising from this relationship

Major impediments to human security providence of current eu missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Möller, Miriam
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL) Publicador: Centro de Estudos Internacionais do Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (ISCTE-IUL)
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2014 ENG
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The EU as a Human Security provider has played an important role in the aftermath of the two wars in the DRC. Currently, it leads the two civil missions EUSEC RD Congo and EUPOL RD Congo supporting security sector and police reforms. But despite thoughtful ambitions, the Human Security situation of the Congolese population remains critical. The article argues that three major factors limit the missions’ impact for Human Security providence: (1) Intrinsic aspects of the missions like the limited resources and the design of the mandates (2) Cooperation failures and (3) the Congolese Government.

Particulars of recent intelligence respecting the above missions.

London Association in Aid of the Moravian Missions
Fonte: London, C. Jacques, Publicador: London, C. Jacques,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Families (of products) in space

Hinchey, Mike
Fonte: IEEE Computer Society Publicador: IEEE Computer Society
Tipo: Conference item; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; none
ENG
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peer-reviewed; NASA is developing plans for innovative and novel approaches to future (unmanned) space exploration missions. Future missions involve sending spacecraft and robots to harsh environments, where resilience is necessary for the survival of the mission. In addition, distances and communication lead times between the spacecraft and Earth necessitate much of the mission operation being autonomous. We have been conducting research on the development of autonomous space exploration missions based on principles from Autonomic Computing (AC), whereby the mission is imbued with self-management capabilities. Such missions will involve several, rather than single, spacecraft, robots or other devices, operating in collaboration. We describe one such concept mission, ANTS (Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm), which involves a number of sub-missions that are self-similar. Our work in this, and other future missions, has involved the use of techniques from AC for building in self-management, and ultimately self-governance. We have also explored the use of formal methods to gain confidence in the correct behavior of the mission. Since both the physical devices which will be used for exploration, and the software that is essential for their successful deployment...

Music schools and musical activity in 17th Century New Mexico Missions [full paper]

Lozano, Tom??s
Fonte: Latin American Music Center Publicador: Latin American Music Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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Before borders were established between Mexico and the US as we know it today, a great section of the latter was previously part of New Spain. This paper will present a part of musical history that to this day remains dimly recognized. By taking Franciscan documents from the 17th Century, I will demonstrate that by 1630 there proved to be large amounts of musical activity, including orchestras, performed by natives from La Provincia de la Nuevo M??jico???what today is New Mexico. They played musical instruments including chirim??as, bajones, trumpets, and organs, and sang Gregorian and polyphonic chants, following the same pattern and structure of all other missions in New Spain. Among other activities, the missions assumed the role of teaching both how to read and write music. I will even say that the craft of musical instrument making also took place at the missions of La Provincia de la Nuevo M??jico. The musical activity that transpired in these missions during the 17th century will perhaps always retain an air of mystery, but enough documentation exists to offer a window into the past. All this activity occurred more than one hundred years before the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) in which Mexico ceded its lands to the US Government. New Mexico became then a US Territory but was not a member of the Union until 1912. This music schools from La Provincia de la Nuevo M??jico were the first music schools of what today is the United States.

Best practices and potential biases in trade missions : Portuguese SMEs mission guidelines

Sousa, Jorge Diogo Rodrigues e
Fonte: Universidade Católica Portuguesa Publicador: Universidade Católica Portuguesa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 29/05/2015 ENG
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Standing in a period of economic uncertainty, Portugal had to look for measures to improve its financial health. Internationalization was regarded as an option, leading EPAs and, specifically, Trade Missions to gain notoriety. Since SMEs are crucial in the country’s recovery and are seen as the companies which can receive greater benefits from participating in these Missions, we develop a list of potential biases and best practices regarding Trade Mission. Through interviewing SMEs participants, EPAs, and Trade Fairs SMEs participants, we manage to identify some initiatives expected to contribute in making Portuguese Trade Missions more efficient. Among the potential biases, most of them are related to internal attribution. As a result, firms need to: be explicit while interacting with the agencies; take measured risks on which country to invest and be aware of their capability to internationalize their operations; understand who their potential partners are and how to interact with them; and be as less dependent as possible from the organizers, hence, making deals on their own. Regarding the best practices, the ones listed intend to give doable conducts on how an SME can prepare for a Trade Mission. We aim at making participants aware of others’ importance and...

Non-traditional missions and the U.S. Military: past, present, and prospects

Brown, Jeff R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 150 p.
EN_US
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Non-traditional military missions have become a topical issue in tne United States since the end of the Cold War and are an important concern for the All-Volunteer Force. Many feel that military involvement in activities such as disaster relief, civil-military programs, humanitarian assistance, and peacekeeping is revolutionary, inappropriate, and contrary to the central purpose of the armed forces. However, American military forces have participated in non-traditional missions throughout the country's history. These missions have been a vital part of military service as the focus of the military changed along with the nation. This thesis defines non-traditional missions and reviews U.S. military participation over three periods: 1776 to 1973, when America's involvement in the Vietnam war ended and the All-Volunteer Force was initiated; 1973 until the end of the Cold War in 1989; and 1989 to the present. This sets the stage for a detailed evaluation of the reasons for and against continued involvement in non-traditional missions. Recommendations balancing the military's legacy of non-traditional missions with current needs and constraints are offered to suggest a course for the future.; NA; NA; U.S. Coast Guard (U.S.C.G.) author.

Romanian special forces identifying appropriate missions and organizational structure

Cucu, Dan
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xvi, 107 p. ;
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Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Trying to adapt to the post-9/11 challenges to Euro-Atlantic security, the Romanian Ministry of National Defense continues its efforts to modernize and professionalize the country's armed forces in accordance with NATO standards. Part of this process is the development of a Special Forces (SF) capability that is to accomplish initial operational readiness by FY 2005. With appropriate organizational arrangements and focused combat training, the Romanian SF will increase their performance during future deployments in joint and combined settings. This project analyzes Romania's strategic documents, identifies the missions that can be conducted by the country's General-Purpose Forces or other security services, and finally proposes five appropriate tasks for the SF: Combating Terrorism, Counterproliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Special Reconnaissance, Direct Action, and Security Detail for Romanian officials in crisis zones. In exploring what are the most effective structural arrangements for the Romanian Special Forces, this thesis uses a design program the recommendations of which lead to the proposal of a new organizational structure. Thus, it is determined that Romania's Special Forces elements should develop into a flexible...

Approximations to the reliability of phased missions

Ziehms, Harald
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: NA
EN_US
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A system whose configuration (block diagram or fault tree) changes during consecutive time periods (phases) performs a 'phased mission.' Recently, Esary and Ziehms have shown that any multi-phase mission can be transformed into an equivalent, synthetic, single-phase system, and thus that the phased mission problem can in principle be solved by standard reliability methods. The author employs these ideas here to study approximations to mission reliability and to develop an algorithm which may be of practical interest. In addition, he extends the reliability calculus of Rubinstein, and Esary and Hayne, based on an approximate hazard transform, to phased missions. It is shown how this extended calculus can be used in situations where phases are not of known fixed duration; supported by the Office of Naval Research (NR 042-300) and the Strategic Systems Project Office (TA 19422); http://archive.org/details/approximationsto00zieh; NA

Annual report of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Regular Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec. For the year ending 15th Oct., 1889. Also the reports of the women's societies with a list of contributions for the year.

Regular Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec. Board of Foreign Missions.
Fonte: Toronto, Dudley & Burns, Publicador: Toronto, Dudley & Burns,
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Les missions des bibliothèques publiques autonomes du point de vue des élus municipaux québécois

Gazo, Dominique
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
FR
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La légitimité d’une organisation est fondée sur sa mission, c’est-à-dire sur sa raison d’être. Des responsables des bibliothèques et de nombreux chercheurs craignent que la légitimité des bibliothèques publiques soit contestée dans la société de l’information. De plus, les textes officiels présentant les missions des bibliothèques publiques sont divers et les missions y sont délibérément non définies. Au Québec, où une grande majorité des bibliothèques publiques autonomes sont placées directement sous la tutelle des municipalités, les bibliothèques publiques doivent définir et légitimer leurs missions avec les élus municipaux. L’objectif principal de cette recherche est de comprendre, via les discours, le point de vue des élus municipaux québécois sur les missions des bibliothèques publiques autonomes, en comparaison avec les pratiques et les ressources des bibliothèques au plan local. Basé sur la théorie de la construction sociale de la réalité, un cadre conceptuel est proposé de manière à étudier non seulement les discours dans leur dimension textuelle, mais aussi à contextualiser ces discours et analyser l’écart entre ces discours et les pratiques des bibliothèques.La stratégie de recherche adoptée est une étude de cas multiples. L’objectif est de développer une analyse en profondeur de chaque cas et une analyse inter cas. Les douze cas (municipalités) ont été sélectionnés en fonction de deux critères de variation (la taille de la municipalité et le budget annuel alloué par la municipalité à la bibliothèque) et un critère discriminant (la distance par rapport à l’Université de Montréal). Des entrevues ont été menées auprès des élus municipaux présidant la commission ou le comité dont dépendent les bibliothèques publiques. Ces entrevues et les politiques culturelles ont fait l’objet d’une analyse de discours. Les entrevues auprès des responsables des bibliothèques et la documentation ont fait l’objet d’une analyse de contenu. Ces analyses ont permis la triangulation des méthodes et des sources de données.Les élus municipaux québécois...

Empowerment, Ethics and Intercultural Competence in Short-­Term Medical Missions in the Dominican Republic

Gravier, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Publicado em 07/05/2013 EN_US
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While the Dominican healthcare system has recently been lauded by USAID for strides in more efficient patient care, the day-to-day experiences of patients, doctors and other healthcare providers in a small community in San Pedro de Macoris reflect a different reality. With a public system that inefficient and chaotic and a private system that is often too expensive for poorer Dominicans to access, short-term medical missions (STMMs) have filled a niche in Dominican healthcare. In my thesis, I discuss a specific model of STMMs that involves students and faculty from a U.S. pharmacy school traveling to the Dominican Republic for 7-10 days in order to host ambulatory clinics in conjunction with local doctors in barrios around San Pedro de Macoris. In addition to examining the ethical implications of these STMMs in terms of religion, language and intercultural competence, I address questions of agency, empowerment and privilege.; Honors Thesis

"Choosing the Jesus Way:" the Assemblies of God's Home Missions to American Indians and the Development of an Indian Pentecostal Identity

Tarango, Angela
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 1095520 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 EN_US
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This dissertation explores the history of the Assemblies of God's Home Missions to American Indians, the development of an American Indian leadership in the denomination and the development of a Pentecostal Indian identity. The history that is told in this work is that of a century-long struggle by American Indian Pentecostals for autonomy, leadership, and recognition within the Assemblies of God. I argue that the AG's efforts to establish indigenous churches in its home missions work to American Indians bore two important and largely unanticipated consequences. The first was that it prompted American Indian Pentecostals to forge a new identity: fully Indian and fully Pentecostal. The second was that it forced white Pentecostals to own up to their belief in the indigenous principle: that God's Spirit fell equally on peoples, without regard to ethnicity or social standing. I focus mainly on giving voice to the Pentecostal Indian actors in this history, in order to fill in the gaps on a group of modern Pentecostal believers that were almost never written about in the histories of the movement.

I have rooted this work in the history of American religious history, as well as Native American history and the history of American Pentecostalism. The majority of the sources come from the Assemblies of God's archives...

"The seed of the missionary spirit": foreign missions, print culture, and evangelical identity in the Early American Republic

Moreshead, Ashley E.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Heyrman, Christine Leigh; Evangelical Protestants in the early American republic published pamphlets, memoirs, and periodicals as a way of identifying to each other and to the unevangelized world who they were and what it meant to be an evangelical, creating their own "print culture" as they tried to preserve the purity of their message while establishing a transformative presence in the world around them. Promoters of foreign missions created their own subset of evangelical literature that recruited volunteers and financial support for evangelical missions overseas. In their efforts to draw attention to the foreign missionary cause, producers of missionary literature tapped into different concerns that evangelicals shared as they navigated the evolving culture of the early republic, specifically in the Northeast, where most early leaders of the foreign missions movement were headquartered. They engaged several cultural processes--including the creation of national and denominational identity, the evolution of American masculinity, and the debates over women's roles in the early republic--and thus contributed their own perspectives to textual dialogues about the nature and evolution of American evangelical identity. This dissertation focuses on the creation and promotion of the first two American foreign missions organizations...

Appropreating the closure of Jesuit missions: Fritz Hochwälder's Das heilige Experiment

Hale,F
Fonte: Acta Theologica Publicador: Acta Theologica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 EN
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Since the eighteenth century the history of the Jesuit missionary endeavours in South America, especially their forced closure in 1760s, has been used rhetorically by writers in several genres, providing them with historical evidence to support a variety of latter-day causes. During the Second World War the Viennese Jewish playwright Fritz Hochwälder, then living in exile in Switzerland, followed in this tradition when he wrote his tragedy Das heilige Experiment. It was a timely plea for toleration and religious freedom. Though almost completely ignored in histories of the Society of Jesus, this work vividly illustrates how a dramatic event in the history of Christianity can speak to subsequent issues. Since the eighteenth century, Jesuit missions in South America, especially the model communities, or reducciónes, established amongst the Guarani and their forced closure in the 1760s, have served as an arsenal in which writers in several genres have found evidentiary historical weapons for supporting their contemporary causes.¹ As I have pointed out elsewhere, when Voltaire had reason to believe that representatives of the Society of Jesus on that continent as well as in Europe were abusing their power and treating people in a manner which violated his sense of dignity and his understanding of the rise of the human race from barbarism to a cultivated state...