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Dogs of peace: a potential role for private military companies in peace implementation

Fitzsimmons, Scott
Fonte: University of Calgary: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies Publicador: University of Calgary: Centre for Military and Strategic Studies
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
peer-reviewed; Scholars and practitioners generally agree that one of the keys to effective implementation of peace settlements is the provision of strong third party security guarantees.1 The United Nations (UN) has been largely ineffective at this task and great powers who could be effective are often reluctant to act when national interests are not at stake. This paper argues that Private Military Companies (PMCs) may be able to do the job more effectively than the traditional blue helmets.2 This paper addresses two important questions about the potential role of Private Military Companies in peace implementation.; PUBLISHED; peer-reviewed

Military Expenditure : Threats, Aid, and Arms Races

Collier, Paul; Hoeffler, Anke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
Using global data for the period 1960-99, the authors estimate neighborhood arms races. They find that the level of military expenditure is strongly influenced by the expenditure of neighbors. The authors estimate an "arms race multiplier," finding that an initial exogenous increase in military expenditure by one country is more than doubled in both the originating country and its neighbor. An implication is that military expenditure is, to an extent, a "regional public bad." Potentially, there is an offsetting public good effect if rebellions are deterred by military expenditure. However, instrumenting for military expenditure, the authors find no deterrence effect of military spending on the risk of internal conflict. So there appears to be no regional public good effect offsetting the public bad arising from a neighborhood arms race.

Military elites and regime trajectories in the Arab spring : Egypt, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen in comparative perspective

KOEHLER, Kevin
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN
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36.8%
Why did different regimes react differently to the mass uprisings that shook the Middle East and North Africa in 2010 and 2011? Why did the personalist presidencies of Husni Mubarak in Egypt and Zine al-Abidin Ben Ali in Tunisia collapse only weeks into the uprisings while Syria’s Bashar al-Assad still holds onto power and Yemen’s Ali Abdallah Salih could negotiate his way out of office? Focusing on the cases of Egypt, Syria, Tunisia and Yemen, this thesis is an attempt to answer this question. The central argument of this thesis is that military elite behavior shaped regime trajectories in the Arab Spring. Where the armed forces as an institution defected from the incumbent, the presidency immediately collapsed; where at least some military elites remained loyal, the respective chief executives survived in office for a significantly longer period. I develop an explanation that focuses on the presence of regime cronies within the military leadership. Where such cronies exist, the costs of defection increase for all members of the officer corps. Since the loyalty of cronies appears as a forgone conclusion, defection would likely lead to confrontation within the military. In other words, the absence of crony officers is a necessary condition for the cohesive defection of the armed forces from authoritarian presidents. Empirically...

The military role in internal defense and security: some problems

Rasmussen, Maria Jose Moyano
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Tipo: Outros
EN_US
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46.74%
A key issue in the post-Cold War world is whether military forces should be deployed in domestic law enforcement missions. Advocates of military involvement in domestic law enforcement see it as a useful strategy for avoiding immediate force reductions. In many new democracies this practice is not even questioned. Due to the traditional involvement of the military in law enforcement missions, when violence breaks out policy-makers and society-at-large assume that the military should be brought in. This paper will analyze some of the difficulties that emerge when the military is employed in domestic law enforcement. It discusses the American military's involvement in riot control in Los Angeles in 1992, the British military's thirty-year experience of riot control and counter-terrorism in Northern Ireland, and some lessons we derive from these two cases. In Los Angeles and Britain, public officials deployed the military in law enforcement missions as an act of desperation, without giving much thought to the impact that these decisions might have on military organizations, democratic practices, and the orderly functioning of civilian law enforcement agencies.; U.S. Agency for International Development

Comparison of the U.S. and German approaches to democratic civil-military relations; Comparison of the United States and German approaches to democratic civil-military relations

Frank, Peter
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 128 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; Since the fall of the Iron Curtain, the issue of civil-military relations has become critical to the development of the new Eastern European democracies. Both the United States and Germany have a long civil-military relations tradition. A comparison of the United States' and Germany's approaches to civil-military relations will provide clear examples for new democratic states to follow, as they develop their civil-military relations, especially as they consider multi-national NATO units. Following an overview of civil-military theory, this thesis highlights the historical and political developments of civil-military relations within both countries. The thesis further explains the similarities and differences in their developments, as well as the implications for the military profession. The thesis provides a comparison of both approaches to the military profession and to the primary civil-military relations theory, in order to determine if the requirement of democratic civilian control over the military has been met. The thesis summarizes advantages and disadvantages of both American and German approaches.; Lieutenant Colonel (GS), German Army

Pakistan's First Military Coup: Why Did the First Pakistani Coup Occur and Why Does it Matter?

Chaudhry, Naghman
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.81%
The first military coup of Pakistan in 1958 set up a pattern that continues to show itself four decades later and dominate the government either directly or indirectly. The first military coup of Pakistan also created an institutional path for the subsequent three military coups. The first military coup was due to various factors, not just one that civil military theorists neglect to explain. The British recruitment policy during the pre-partition period had as large a role in creating the setting for the coup as did unequal distribution of resources and geographical location. Pakistani military at the time of partition was professional while the other institutions were weak, which challenges the notion that professional military do not cause coups. The Pakistani military also gained prominence because of the all-around external and internal threats. The powerful military and bureaucratic alliance further delayed the enactment of a constitution and changed seven prime ministers within first eleven years of independence by further discrediting the politicians before the people. All these events provided occasion, opportunity and disposition to the Pakistan army to affect the first coup by General Ayub Khan in 1958. The thesis also evaluates the effects of the first military coup on the present civil-military relations in Pakistan.; Captain...

The strategy of Ukrainian - U.S. defense and military relations on the modern stage

Verbytskyi, Serhii
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 83 p. ;
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46.7%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis analyses the strategy of modern Ukrainian - U.S. defense and military relations in three areas: Defense Relations; Military Relations; and Civil-Military Relations. These relations are assessed in terms of their adequacy to obtain Ukraine's overall strategic goals. The quantity and complexity of the U.S. defense and military engagement programs towards Ukraine have made the entire coordination process fragmented. The thesis concludes that the recent goals and objectives of existing relations should be concentrated on the Ukrainian Armed Forces transition to democratic civil-military relations. The transformation of the Ukrainian Armed Forces is essential to maintaining progress toward the development of stable and democratic civil-military relations in Ukraine and its armed forces that are prepared to assume their place within European and Transatlantic Security.; Major, Ukrainian Army

The European Union in peace operations : limits of policy-making and military implementation

Sule, Attila
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 105 p. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The 1992 European Union (EU) Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP, Maastricht Treaty) marked a turning point in the trans-Atlantic relationship. The Balkan conflicts and broader political changes in the 1990s compelled the EU to assume more responsibility in peace operations. The EU's 60,000 strong Rapid Reaction Force (RRF) is planned to be operational in 2003. Will the EU be able to conduct Petersberg-type peace operations? This thesis analyzes policy and military shortfalls of the Balkan peacekeeping effort. Questions about the legitimacy of armed humanitarian interventions, about difficulties in common policy formulation and translation to sound military objectives are the core problems of civil-military relations in European peace operations. The case studies focus on the EU failure to resolve the Bosnian crises between 1992-95, and on the gaps between NATO policies and military objectives in the operations of 'Implementation Force' in Bosnia and 'Allied Force' in Kosovo. The thesis considers developments in EU CFSP institutions and EU-NATO relationship as well as the EU's response to terrorist attacks on September 11 2001. The thesis argues that the difficulty in EU CFSP formulation limits the effective use of RRF in military operations.; Major...

Civil military operations in Ecuador

Camacho, Carlos Eduardo Paladines.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 75 p. : ill. ;
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46.72%
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Civil Military Operations (CMO) has often been blamed for the politicization of the armed forces and a loss of civilian control. This thesis confronts this traditional approach and argues that CMO need not lead to these outcomes. It introduces democratic civilian control of the armed forces, a well-established military mission, and civilian and military expertise as the basic requirements for the application of CMO. If the requirements are fulfilled, a multiplier effects starts giving legitimacy to the government, consolidating the democratic process and increasing civilian control over the armed forces. This thesis examines Ecuador as a case study. Ecuador fulfills partially the requirements for the application of CMO. The State's structure allows democratic civilian control. There is a well-established mission: the north frontier of Ecuador has become a "gap" in the national security system that demands the assistance of the armed forces. But there is lack of civilian and military expertise in the application of CMO. The demand of CMO in the north frontier can be the perfect scenario for training and education in Civil Military Affairs, fulfilling the requirement of expertise and thus allowing the application of CMO in Ecuador without risking the democratic regime.; Civilian...

Study of civil-military relations in crises of Czechoslavak history

Hrdina, Otakar, III
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xii, 63 p.
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.81%
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This thesis examines civil-military relations during the critical moments of the Czechoslovak history, particularly during the deep political and societal crises in 1938, 1948, 1968, and 1989. Such a method offers an opportunity to analyze civilian control of the military under a situation when the civil-military relations are in deep crisis. By concluding that even under such conditions there were stable civil-military relations in former Czechoslovakia, this thesis affirms the theory of military professionalism as a crucial factor in civil-military relations, as presented by Samuel P. Huntington. Thus, the study of civil-military relations in crises of the Czechoslovak history provides an exceptional opportunity to test the Huntington's model of the equilibrium of objective civilian control in the circumstances of profound societal disturbances. In accordance with the Huntington's theory of stable civil-military relations, this thesis attests that a strong military professionalism, typified by the bonds of traditions, obedience, and patriotic loyalty, plays crucial role in determining stability of civil-military relations, i.e. an objective civilian control of the military. Subsequently...

An English admiral and an American Aviator: Advanced trauma life support and two historical military casualties

Bridgewater, F.
Fonte: Assn Military Surg US Publicador: Assn Military Surg US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN
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46.56%
Copyright of Military Medicine is the property of Association of Military Surgeons of the United States and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.; Franklin H. G. Bridgewater

The Australian defence force Parliamentary Program: positioning civil-military relations for the twenty first century

Boyer, Charlotte
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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36.79%
At the request of Mr Kim Wilkie this report discusses the Australian Defence Force Parliamentary Program (ADFPP). This Program encourages parliamentarians and Defence Force personnel to learn about each other and their respective institutions. The ADFPP helps promote a sound relationship between politicians and the military to achieve Australia's national interests. Australia is a democratic state. In democracies a sound relationship between the nation's elected representatives and its military is fundamental to achieving national security and foreign policy objectives. Such a relationship between the Australian Parliament and the Australia Defence Force (ADF) requires mutual awareness, steady communication and a conscious effort by both sides which cannot be taken for granted. Parliamentary knowledge about the ADF has previously resided in the significant numbers of Members of Parliament with military experience. The last military veteran in the Australian Parliament is leaving at the end of 2007. The ADFPP helps compensate for the loss of parliamentarians with military experience. One hundred and eighteen parliamentarians have participated in military attachments over the last six years and have had some experience of life as a service person. The ADF Parliamentary Program has two stages. Parliamentarians participate in ADF operations for a week for a 'hands-on' experience of the Defence Force. The politicians reciprocate by hosting ADF personnel on an exchange during a sitting week in Parliament House. A dinner is held to celebrate the Program and the participants. This report assesses the ADFPP in terms of its capacity to improve civil military relations for the benefit of Australia. There has been little assessment of this Program so the report relies on interviews with parliamentarians...

Law and military operations in Haiti, 1994-95; Law and military operations in Haiti, 1994-1995

Center for Law and Military Operations (U.S.)
Fonte: Universidade da Flórida Publicador: Universidade da Flórida
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1 online resource (vi, 419 pages) : illustrations ;
Publicado em // ENGLISH
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46.68%
(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; "11 December 1995."; (Statement of Responsibility) Center for Law and Military Operations.

A SCIENTIFIC WAY OF WAR: ANTEBELLUM MILITARY SCIENCE, WEST POINT, AND THE ORIGINS OF AMERICAN MILITARY THOUGHT

HOPE, IAN CLARENCE
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
This work examines what constituted 19th century American military science, why it was framed within government policy and taught within the United States Military Academy, and how it became the early American way of war. The work uses as evidence a wide array of documents including biographical records of 2046 West Point graduates. It tracks the evolution of military science from Enlightenment Europe to the United States during the American Revolution and its relative obscurity until after the War of 1812. It then explains why a deliberate decision was made to transplant a French Napoleonic version of military science to serve as the curriculum of the military academy and to support the formulation of a national defense policy that called for militarized coastal frontiers and an “expansible army.” The work then follows how and why military science was modified during the period 1820-1860 in response to changes to the threats to the United States, changes related to state and federal plans for “internal improvements,” Indian wars, westward expansion, war with Mexico, and advances in military technology. Specifically it tracks how the doctrine of military science evolved from the teaching of specific Napoleonic applications to embrace subjects needed for war in North America. Inculcation in this American military science eventually came to provide the army with an officer corps that shared a common all-arms doctrine and common skill in using mathematics for military problem-solving. The majority of long-service graduates went on to spend years of their career fulfilling general staff...

The Other Cold War: Canadian Military Assistance in the Developing World

KILFORD, CHRISTOPHER
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 1778373 bytes; application/pdf
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.8%
This thesis explains how Canada, and the Canadian Forces, became involved with the delivery of military assistance to the developing world from the post-war period until the election of Pierre Trudeau as prime minister in 1968. Military assistance, in effect the provision of equipment, advice or training to the armed forces of a recipient country, was an area in which Canada and the Canadian Forces became significantly, if somewhat haphazardly involved with, after 1945. The thesis argues that the number of military personnel deployed overseas for military assistance purposes was very small compared to Canada’s North Atlantic Treaty Organization and United Nations contributions. Nevertheless, those Canadians involved in training and advising foreign militaries were highly trained senior officers and non-commissioned officers who provided invaluable advice and assistance. Furthermore, and as requests from the developing world for military assistance increased, Ottawa had little choice but to create the Interdepartmental Military Assistance Committee in 1964 in an effort to coordinate Canada’s previously ad hoc military assistance efforts. Lastly, while Prime Minister Diefenbaker and his successor, Lester Pearson, were willing to offer military assistance to Commonwealth countries in the post-colonial period...

El fuero penal militar en Colombia cumple con la función esencial de garantía y protección de los derechos humanos; The criminal jurisdiction in Colombia military meets the essential role of warranty and protection of human rights

Franco Álvarez, Gloria del Pilar; García, Sebastian
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Derecho; Especialización en Derechos Humanos y Defensa ante Sistemas Internacionales de Protección Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Derecho; Especialización en Derechos Humanos y Defensa ante Sistemas Internacionales de Protección
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
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El Derecho Penal Militar, tiene como función principal la protección de los bienes jurídicos inherentes a la fuerza pública y a sus miembros activos; en procura de evitar cualquier irregularidad en el desempeño de las funciones que la constitución Nacional1, les ha encomendado, con restricción al ejercicio de la fuerza, con miras a fortalecer la observancia y cumplimiento del debido proceso que es la obligación indispensable para cumplir con la recta administración 1 CN art. 221 Mod, Art.1 Acto Legislativo No. 2 de 1995. de justicia y el respeto de los derechos humanos de la población civil, dando a conocer las norma de carácter nacional e internacional, que son aplicables y vinculantes al Estado colombiano, y así establecer la normatividad e interpretación de las mismas, son compatibles entre sí, para indicar que la aplicación del Fuero Penal Militar, se encuentra a justado o no a los derechos humanos. Pero no hay que desconocer la inconformidad del análisis, que de la misma hacen los diferentes actores del Estado, cuando establecen la competencia de la Jurisdicción Penal Militar, en virtud a que toda conducta punible, perpetrada por un servidor de las Fuerzas Militares, es de conocimiento de la Justicia Penal Militar...

Who Will Serve? Education, Labor Markets, and Military Personnel Policy

Cohn, Lindsay P.
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 2222575 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 28/09/2007 EN_US
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Contemporary militaries depend on volunteer soldiers capable of dealing with advanced technology and complex missions. An important factor in the successful recruiting, retention, and employment of quality personnel is the set of personnel policies which a military has in place. It might be assumed that military policies on personnel derive solely from the functional necessities of the organization's mission, given that the stakes of military effectiveness are generally very high. Unless the survival of the state is in jeopardy, however, it will seek to limit defense costs, which may entail cutting into effectiveness. How a state chooses to make the tradeoffs between effectiveness and economy will be subject to influences other than military necessity. In this study, I argue that military personnel management policies ought to be a function of the interaction between the internal pressures of military mission and the external pressures of the national economic infrastructure surrounding the military. The pressures of military mission should not vary significantly across advanced democratic states, but the national market economic type will. Using written policy and expert interview data from five countries, this study analyzes how military selection...

Targeting Unmet Military Community Needs: Recommendations to the Central North Carolina Red Cross for Improving the Outreach Capacity of its Service to the Armed Forces

Thompson, Maureena
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 18/04/2012 EN
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36.8%
Policy Question: How can the Central North Carolina Chapter of the American Red Cross improve its capacity to support local service members, veterans, and their families? Recommendation: I recommend the Central NC Red Cross focus on increasing support services to less visible members of the local military community, specifically National Guard and Reserve families and extended military family members who may fall outside of more traditional support networks. This can be accomplished through: 1. Implementing an undergraduate Service to the Armed Forces (SAF) internship program; 2. Forming a local, volunteer-led Military Community Learning Series; 3. Raising public awareness of military Reserve and National Guard service. Problem Statement: The Central NC Red Cross Service to the Armed Forces department is seeking meaningful ways to expand its support to the local military community within a limited budget. Traditionally, SAF is known for sending emergency communications messages to troops, but now that this service is housed at a national level, smaller chapters, such as the one in Durham, are looking for new ways to serve the military community. To improve the department’s capacity to support service members, veterans, and their families...

Toward a Unified Military Response: Hurricane Sandy and the Dual Status Commander

Burke, Ryan; McNeil, Sue
Fonte: U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA Publicador: U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA
Tipo: Livro
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.79%
U.S. military forces have played a role in supporting civil authorities in varying locations and capacities from the Whiskey Rebellion to Hurricane Sandy. In a large-scale incident response scenario requiring combined support from the National Guard and federal military, effective management and coordination continues to challenge all involved. There are issues of constitutionality, legality, policy, financial considerations, and even politics, all uniquely situated between individual states??? interests and those of the Federal Government. In this context, there is a philosophical conflict between federalism and state sovereignty during military civil support missions that continues to present itself as an impediment to success. Balancing these institutionally divergent approaches to achieve a unified, efficient, coordinated, and effective military response has, and will continue to be, a strategic and political imperative. Despite the challenges, military forces are frequently involved in domestic response missions, often in a very public manner. As such, military force allocation and management have evolved into major topics of conversation among policymakers, academics, emergency managers, and military strategists alike. Owing to these issues...

Beyond ‘the soldier and the state’ - the theoretical framework of elite civil-military relations

Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Though the civil-military relations field has seen a lot of theoretical work in recent years, the field still lacks consistent overarching theories. This dissertation argues that the field requires a new and better theoretical framework. Scholars do not agree about how to define key concepts or how these concepts affect one another. They therefore have a tendency to talk past one another when debating and developing theories of civil-military relations. This dissertation develops a new and more sophisticated theoretical framework for elite civil-military relations. The field’s current theoretical framework was developed by Samuel Huntington in The Soldier and the State. This dissertation uses his framework as a starting point for a larger conceptual analysis, where political and military sociology, international relations, political theory, and military science are used to define the key concepts of civil-military relations. There are two heterogeneous types of civil-military relations that should be studied separately: societal civil-military relations and elite civil-military relations. Political science approaches to civil-military relations, such as this dissertation, typically focus on the latter type. Elite civil-military relations consist of two separate fields of study: civilian control and military effectiveness. Elite civil-military relations function as a system that essentially depends on civilian overall preferences...