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Avaliação da qualidade microbiológica de amostras de mercado de queijo mussarela, elaborado a partir de leite de búfala (Bubalus bubalis).; Evaluation of the microbiology quality of mozzarella cheese, produced with milk of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and acquired in the market.

Olivieri, Débora de Azevedo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/05/2004 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
A mussarela de leite de búfala, principal queijo obtido a partir desse leite no Brasil, é um produto praticamente novo no mercado, com alta aceitação pelos consumidores e excelentes perspectivas. Seguindo tecnologia de produção tradicional italiana, caracteriza-se pela intensa manipulação durante a sua elaboração. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a qualidade microbiológica de duas marcas comerciais de queijo mussarela de leite de búfala, sendo uma das marcas comercializada em embalagem com soro (A) e a outra em embalagem sem soro e a vácuo (B), adquiridas no comércio varejista da cidade de Piracicaba/SP. As análises microbiológicas compreenderam a determinação do NMP de coliformes totais e fecais, a pesquisa de Listeria spp., a contagem de Staphylococcus coagulase-positiva e a pesquisa de Salmonella spp. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se afirmar que as duas marcas analisadas encontram-se em acordo com os padrões microbiológicos legais vigentes. No entanto, pôde-se notar que a qualidade microbiológica dos queijos comercializados em embalagem com soro mostrou-se inferior à dos oferecidos ao consumo em embalagem sem soro e a vácuo.; Buffalo mozzarella cheese, main cheese obtained from buffalo milk in Brazil...

Microbiology of a Nitrite-Oxidizing Bioreactor

Burrell, Paul C.; Keller, Jürg; Blackall, Linda L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The microbiology of the biomass from a nitrite-oxidizing sequencing batch reactor (NOSBR) fed with an inorganic salts solution and nitrite as the sole energy source that had been operating for 6 months was investigated by microscopy, by culture-dependent methods, and by molecular biological methods, and the seed sludge that was used to inoculate the NOSBR was investigated by molecular biological methods. The NOSBR sludge comprised a complex and diverse microbial community containing gram-negative and gram-positive rods, cocci, and filaments. By culture-dependent methods (i.e., micromanipulation and sample dilution and spread plate inoculation), 16 heterotrophs (6 gram positive and 10 gram negative) were identified in the NOSBR sludge (RC), but no autotrophs were isolated. 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries of the two microbial communities revealed that the seed sludge (GC) comprised a complex microbial community dominated by Proteobacteria (29% beta subclass; 18% gamma subclass) and high G+C gram-positive bacteria (10%). Three clones (4%) were closely related to the autotrophic nitrite-oxidizer Nitrospira moscoviensis. The NOSBR sludge was overwhelmingly dominated by bacteria closely related to N. moscoviensis (89%). Two clone sequences were similar to those of the genus Nitrobacter. Near-complete insert sequences of eight RC and one GC N. moscoviensis clone were determined and phylogenetically analyzed. This is the first report of the presence of bacteria from the Nitrospira phylum in wastewater treatment systems...

Compliance of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories in the United States with Current Recommendations for Processing Respiratory Tract Specimens from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Zhou, Juyan; Garber, Elizabeth; Desai, Manisha; Saiman, Lisa
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Respiratory tract specimens from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) require unique processing by clinical microbiology laboratories to ensure detection of all potential pathogens. The present study sought to determine the compliance of microbiology laboratories in the United States with recently published recommendations for CF respiratory specimens. Microbiology laboratory protocols from 150 of 190 (79%) CF care sites were reviewed. Most described the use of selective media for Burkholderia cepacia complex (99%), Staphylococcus aureus (82%), and Haemophilus influenzae (89%) and identified the species of all gram-negative bacilli (87%). Only 52% delineated the use of agar diffusion assays for susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Standardizing laboratory practices will improve treatment, infection control, and our understanding of the changing epidemiology of CF microbiology.

First Evaluation of the WASP, a New Automated Microbiology Plating Instrument▿

Bourbeau, Paul P.; Swartz, Brandi Lynn
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Many laboratories are experiencing growing shortages of trained microbiology technologists and technicians. Consequently, there is considerable interest in new automation that could potentially lessen labor demands for specimen processing. In this study, we present the first published evaluation of a new microbiology instrument, the Walk Away Specimen Processor (WASP), manufactured by Copan, Inc., in which we evaluated cross-contamination, the accuracy of plating, and the quality of the results. The absence of cross-contamination was demonstrated by plating a total of 200 alternating inoculated and sterile specimen tubes. The ability of the WASP to subculture enrichment broths was evaluated with 106 Lim broth specimens, with the results being identical to those obtained by testing by routine methods. Plating of urine specimens with the WASP was compared to plating with the Dynacon Inoculab instrument. Three hundred specimens were plated in duplicate on both instruments with 1-μl loops, and 293 specimens were plated in duplicate on both instruments with 10-μl loops. The results of duplicate plating with the same instrument (replicate plating) and of the consensus agreement between the two instruments were compared. The replicate plating results were comparable for both instruments...

Memorial—John A. Washington II, M.D.▿

Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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John A. Washington II, M.D., former Head of Clinical Microbiology at the Mayo Clinic from 1972 to 1986 and Chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the Cleveland Clinic from 1986 to 1992, died on 5 September 2010 at the age of 74. John was an internationally recognized, widely respected leader in the disciplines of clinical microbiology and infectious diseases, authoring more than 450 scientific articles, books, and book chapters and training scores of pathology residents and clinical microbiology and infectious disease fellows. As one of the most eminent clinical microbiologists of the second half of the 20th century, his research had broad and practical relevance at the hospital bedside and significantly contributed to the care of patients with infectious disease. Likewise, his reputation attracted students, both domestically and internationally, who profited from his devotion to teaching, intellect, personal warmth, and model of excellence.

Impact of Online Learning Modules on Medical Student Microbiology Examination Scores

Johnson, Mary T.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/12/2008 EN
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Medical students have a limited amount of time in which to acquire working knowledge of an enormous amount of information, and this is especially relevant for microbiology. One large midwestern medical school is unique in having medical microbiology taught at nine regional campuses using a single core curriculum. A committee of statewide course directors writes a licensure board-style final examination that is referenced to the core and used at all campuses. To prepare for the final examination, students traditionally utilize print-based board examination review books. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether students who train using web-based quizzes score differently as a group on this statewide examination than students who do not utilize the materials online for exam preparation. The study included 71 learners from two different campuses who were taught by the same instructor and were admitted to medical school with similar exemplary credentials. Results were aggregated for three consecutive years. A standard medical microbiology textbook was used to assign the same suggested readings for all students and similar laboratory sessions were provided for all learners. The independent variable was use of the web-based quizzes to prepare before examinations...

The Recording of Student Performance in the Microbiology Laboratory as a Training, Tutorial, and Motivational Tool

Lipson, Steven M.; Gair, Marina
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/05/2011 EN
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The laboratory component of a microbiology course consists of exercises which mandate a level of proficiency and manual dexterity equal to and often beyond that recognized among other biology courses. Bacterial growth, maintenance, identification (e.g., Gram stain, biochemical tests, genomics), as well as the continuous need to maintain laboratory safety and sterile technique, are only a few skills/responsibilities critical to the discipline of microbiology. Performance of the Gram stain remains one of the most basic and pivotal skills that must be mastered in the microbiology laboratory. However, a number of students continually have difficulty executing the Gram stain and preparative procedures associated with the test. In order to address this issue, we incorporated real-time digital recording as a supplemental teaching aid in the microbiology laboratory. Our use of the digital movie camera in the teaching setting served to enhance interest, motivate students, and in general, improve student performance.

Designing Cancer-Killing Artificial Viruses to Improve Student Understanding of Microbiology

Kuniyuki, Andy; Sharp, Gwen
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a “learning by designing” group project used in a lower-division Microbiology course. Students used knowledge gained from the course to design an artificial virus that would kill cancer cells. The assignment required groups to integrate the individual course topics into a unified, complex understanding of the field of microbiology. Throughout the course, students and the instructor collaborated in creating a rubric to evaluate the groups’ final presentations. This paper reports the results of an assessment of the project by comparing the instructor’s and the students’ scores for the presentations. Students’ and the instructor’s scores were correlated; the Pearson coefficient of 0.52 was statistically significant. The results indicate that students gained sufficient knowledge to accurately evaluate proposed designs. Additionally, the overall course grade distribution improved compared to the semester before the project was introduced. Finally, in order to engage students in thinking about their own learning process, they completed a reflection assignment that required them to discuss the changes in their understanding of microbiology over the course of the semester. Our assessment indicates that a design project can serve as an effective and useful learning technique in undergraduate Microbiology courses...

The Development of Curricular Guidelines for Introductory Microbiology that Focus on Understanding

Merkel, Susan;
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/05/2012 EN
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The number of students who leave majors in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) due to a perception that courses are poorly taught is evidence that education reform in STEM is overdue. Despite decades of research that argues for student-centered teaching approaches, most introductory STEM courses are still taught in the large lecture format, focusing on rote memorization. While individual efforts in STEM educational reform are important, solutions will most certainly need to include institutional and cultural change. In biology, numerous national reports have called for educational reform to better prepare future scientists. We describe here a new, concept-based curriculum for Introductory Microbiology courses, designed to promote deep understanding of core concepts. Supported by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) and based on the overarching concepts and competencies presented in the AAAS/NSF report Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, we hope it will empower instructors to adapt student-centered approaches so that students in Introductory Microbiology courses can leave the course with a core set of enduring understandings of microbiology.

Transforming a Sequence of Microbiology Courses Using Student Profile Data

BUXEDA, ROSA J.; MOORE, DEBORAH A.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.11%
A study was performed in the General Microbiology and Industrial Microbiology courses to increase research awareness at an early stage of the educational process and to establish collaboration between students in an Industrial Microbiology program and industry. In both courses, the professor helped students determine their learning styles and then used these data to design activities in order to accomplish the above objectives. In both the treatment and the control sections, students learned about strategies to optimize learning based on their learning styles. A cooperative learning format was introduced to promote active learning and team-building skills. The diverse learning styles data profile was used by students during cooperative learning activities for effective team integration. In the General Microbiology course, a mentor-mentee structure was introduced to expose students to research in microbiology by visiting research facilities on campus. This structure was an addition to the regular curriculum, which meets American Society for Microbiology curriculum recommendations. The results suggest an increase in interest in research by students. In the Industrial Microbiology course, a strategy was introduced to establish collaboration with industry in which students visit the workplace and identify microbial processes...

Successful Application of Active Learning Techniques to Introductory Microbiology

HOFFMAN, ELIZABETH A.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2001 EN
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While the traditional lecture format may be a successful way to teach microbiology to both medical and nursing students, it was not an effective means of learning for many prenursing and preprofessional students enrolled in either of the introductory microbiology courses at Ashland Community College, an open enrollment institution. The structure of both Medical Microbiology and Principles of Microbiology was redesigned to allow students to address the material in an active manner. Daily quizzes, student group discussions, scrapbooks, lab project presentations and papers, and extra credit projects were all added in order to allow students maximum exposure to the course material in a manner compatible with various methods of learning. Student knowledge, course evaluations, and student success rates have all improved with the active learning format.

Using the Primary Literature in an Allied Health Microbiology Course

BREAKWELL, DONALD P.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
A strategy was adapted for using the primary literature to foster active learning in an allied health microbiology course. Recent journal articles were selected that underscored the fundamental microbiological principles to be learned in each course unit. At the beginning of the semester, students were taught the relationship between the layout of scientific articles and the scientific method. During the rest of the semester, students were oriented to the topic of each paper by viewing videos from Unseen Life on Earth: an Introduction to Microbiology, reading assigned pages from the text, and participating in mini-lectures and discussions. After all preparatory material was completed, a paper was read and discussed in small groups and as a class. Students were assessed using daily reading quizzes and end-of-unit concept quizzes. While reading quizzes averaged approximately 93%, concept quiz grades averaged approximately 82%. Student recognition of the terms used in each unit’s scientific article was assessed with pre-read and post-read wordlists. For the self-assessment, the percent change between pre-read and post-read word cognition was, as expected, highly significant. Approximately 80% of students agreed that reading the scientific articles was a valuable part of the class and that it provided meaning to their study of microbiology. Using the primary scientific literature facilitated active learning in and out of the classroom. This study showed that introducing the scientific literature in an allied health microbiology class can be an effective way of teaching microbiology by providing meaning through the current literature and understanding of the scientific method.

Development and Evaluation of an Electronic Guide for Introductory Microbiology Skills

WRIGHT, ALICE; HARDING, ETHELYNDA E.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.08%
To increase the quality of instruction, enhance student learning, and decrease laboratory time spent on laboratory safety, basic skills, and the use of equipment, we developed the Micro eGuide website. We compared the performance of students who used the Micro eGuide to students provided more traditional instruction in both an upper-level introductory microbiology course for biology majors and in a lower-division introductory microbiology course for nonmajors. Assessment of student learning included written pretests and posttests, practical testing of laboratory skills, and for the major’s class, a review of poster presentations of independent projects. Students who used the Micro eGuide showed a statistically significant increase in performance on written examination in the introductory microbiology courses for both biology majors and nonmajors. Use of the Micro eGuide in the sophomore-level course for nonbiology majors resulted in a statistically significant improvement in laboratory skills. Though the increase in laboratory skills in the majors courses was not statistically significant, instructors were able to use the site as an effective learning source and decrease the time spent in class on topics covered in the Micro eGuide. While the number of student independent research projects was too small for statistical analysis on the quality of the poster presentations...

Culture-Independent Analysis of Aerosol Microbiology in a Metropolitan Subway System

Robertson, Charles E.; Baumgartner, Laura K.; Harris, J. Kirk; Peterson, Kristen L.; Stevens, Mark J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Pace, Norman R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
The goal of this study was to determine the composition and diversity of microorganisms associated with bioaerosols in a heavily trafficked metropolitan subway environment. We collected bioaerosols by fluid impingement on several New York City subway platforms and associated sites in three sampling sessions over a 1.5-year period. The types and quantities of aerosolized microorganisms were determined by culture-independent phylogenetic analysis of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences by using both Sanger (universal) and pyrosequencing (bacterial) technologies. Overall, the subway bacterial composition was relatively simple; only 26 taxonomic families made up ∼75% of the sequences determined. The microbiology was more or less similar throughout the system and with time and was most similar to outdoor air, consistent with highly efficient air mixing in the system. Identifiable bacterial sequences indicated that the subway aerosol assemblage was composed of a mixture of genera and species characteristic of soil, environmental water, and human skin commensal bacteria. Eukaryotic diversity was mainly fungal, dominated by organisms of types associated with wood rot. Human skin bacterial species (at 99% rRNA sequence identity) included the Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococcus epidermidis (the most abundant and prevalent commensal of the human integument)...

How Much Is Too Much Assessment? Insight into Assessment-Driven Student Learning Gains in Large-Scale Undergraduate Microbiology Courses

Wang, Jack T. H.; Schembri, Mark A.; Hall, Roy A.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/05/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.05%
Designing and implementing assessment tasks in large-scale undergraduate science courses is a labor-intensive process subject to increasing scrutiny from students and quality assurance authorities alike. Recent pedagogical research has provided conceptual frameworks for teaching introductory undergraduate microbiology, but has yet to define best-practice assessment guidelines. This study assessed the applicability of Biggs’ theory of constructive alignment in designing consistent learning objectives, activities, and assessment items that aligned with the American Society for Microbiology’s concept-based microbiology curriculum in MICR2000, an introductory microbiology course offered at the University of Queensland, Australia. By improving the internal consistency in assessment criteria and increasing the number of assessment items explicitly aligned to the course learning objectives, the teaching team was able to efficiently provide adequate feedback on numerous assessment tasks throughout the semester, which contributed to improved student performance and learning gains. When comparing the constructively aligned 2011 offering of MICR2000 with its 2010 counterpart, students obtained higher marks in both coursework assignments and examinations as the semester progressed. Students also valued the additional feedback provided...

Competency Assessment of Microbiology Medical Laboratory Technologists in Ontario, Canada

Desjardins, Marc; Fleming, Christine Ann
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2014 EN
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Accreditation in Ontario, Canada, requires that licensed clinical laboratories participate in external quality assessment (also known as proficiency testing) and perform competency evaluation of their staff. To assess the extent of ongoing competency assessment practices, the Quality Management Program—Laboratory Services (QMP-LS) Microbiology Committee surveyed all 112 licensed Ontario microbiology laboratories. The questionnaire consisted of a total of 21 questions that included yes/no, multiple-choice, and short-answer formats. Participants were asked to provide information about existing programs, the frequency of testing, what areas are evaluated, and how results are communicated to the staff. Of the 111 responding laboratories, 6 indicated they did not have a formal evaluation program since they perform only limited bacteriology testing. Of the remaining 105 respondents, 87% perform evaluations at least annually or every 2 years, and 61% include any test or task performed, whereas 16% and 10% focus only on problem areas and high-volume complex tasks, respectively. The most common methods of evaluation were review of external quality assessment (EQA) challenges, direct observation, and worksheet review. With the exception of one participant...

The ASM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology: A Case Study of the Advocacy Role of Societies in Reform Efforts

Horak, Rachel E. A.; Merkel, Susan; Chang, Amy
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/05/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A number of national reports, including Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: A Call to Action, have called for drastic changes in how undergraduate biology is taught. To that end, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) has developed new Curriculum Guidelines for undergraduate microbiology that outline a comprehensive curriculum for any undergraduate introductory microbiology course or program of study. Designed to foster enduring understanding of core microbiology concepts, the Guidelines work synergistically with backwards course design to focus teaching on student-centered goals and priorities. In order to qualitatively assess how the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are used by educators and learn more about the needs of microbiology educators, the ASM Education Board distributed two surveys to the ASM education community. In this report, we discuss the results of these surveys (353 responses). We found that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines are being implemented in many different types of courses at all undergraduate levels. Educators indicated that the ASM Curriculum Guidelines were very helpful when planning courses and assessments. We discuss some specific ways in which the ASM Curriculum Guidelines have been used in undergraduate classrooms. The survey identified some barriers that microbiology educators faced when trying to adopt the ASM Curriculum Guidelines...

O microbio e o inimigo : debates sobre a microbiologia no Brasil (1885-1904); The microbe is the enemy : debates on the microbiology in Brazil (1885-1904)

Jorge Augusto Carreta
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/08/2006 PT
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O objetivo principal desta tese é mostrar o conflituoso processo de aceitação do conhecimento da microbiologia no Brasil entre o final do século XIX e começo do século XX. O foco se concentrou nas polêmicas e controvérsias em torno deste conhecimento entre os cientistas e médicos do Rio de Janeiro. Inicialmente, foram analisados os efeitos da Reforma de 1880 na Faculdade de Medicina, ligada aos projetos de profissionalização dos médicos cariocas, e que ambicionava introduzir os mais recentes avanços da medicina experimental na instituição. O trabalho mostra que essa reforma obteve alguns êxitos, mas teve alcance limitado. Entre as metas não atingidas pelos médicos estava o estabelecimento do consenso acerca do conhecimento que embasaria a sua profissão. Em seguida, essa ausência de consenso é exposta por meio do exame das diversas polêmicas sobre a etiologia, combate e profilaxia das doenças epidêmicas, que assolavam a capital do país desde a década de 1850. Destaque especial foi dado a doenças como a varíola, a febre amarela e o beribéri. Também foi investigada a trajetória do Laboratório de Fisiologia do Museu Nacional, um dos espaços exteriores à Faculdade de Medicina onde se desenvolveram atividades na área de microbiologia. A análise das controvérsias sobre o conhecimento microbiológico...

Automation in Clinical Microbiology

Bourbeau, Paul P.; Ledeboer, Nathan A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
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Editor's Note: In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Paul Bourbeau and Nate Ledeboer provide an informed review of an exciting new concept in clinical microbiology, the use of instrumentation to automate the front-end processing and workup of specimens submitted to a laboratory for analysis. The potential value of such instrumentation includes the possibility of substantial cost savings, standardization of initial specimen processing, more rapid and consistent provision of both identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test results, and a diminished risk for laboratory-acquired infections. However, as with any new diagnostic modality in clinical microbiology, there now exists a pressing need for investigations aimed at elucidating the performance characteristics of this new technology. Going forward, it will be imperative that laboratorians assess this new technology in objective, comparative, and preferably prospective clinical studies. Such studies will be necessary to define the true, rather than perceived or hoped-for, value of front-end and total laboratory automation in clinical microbiology. The Journal of Clinical Microbiology enthusiastically awaits submission of manuscripts that report the results of such investigations.

The era of microbiology: a Golden Phoenix

Maloy,Stanley; Schaechter,Moselio
Fonte: International Microbiology Publicador: International Microbiology
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2006 ENG
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The discoveries over the last decade have demonstrated that microbiology is a central scientific discipline with practical applications in agriculture, medicine, bioremediation, biotechnology, engineering, and other fields. It is clear that the roles of microbes in nature are so diverse that the process of mining this genetic variation for new applications will continue long into the future. Moreover, the rapid rate of microbial evolution ensures that there will be no permanent solution to agricultural, medical, or environmental problems caused by microbes. These problems will demand a continual stream of creative new approaches that evolve along with the microbes. Thus, the excitement of this field will continue long into the future. However, these opportunities and imperatives demand a deep understanding of basic microbial physiology, genetics, and ecology. Major challenges that lay ahead are to impart the broad training needed to entice and enable the next generation of microbiologists, and to educate the public and government representatives about the continued and critical importance of this field for health and the economy.