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Desenvolvimento ponderal, características da carcaça e eficiência da nutrição energética e protéica no metabolismo ruminal de búfalos e produção de gases in vitro; Growth rate, carcass characteristics and efficiency of nutritional energy and protein metabolism in rumen of buffalo and gas production in vitro

Alves, Teresa Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/07/2010 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.89%
Com o objetivo de estudar a espécie bubalina quanto ao desempenho de machos bubalinos do nascimento ao abate em regime de pastejo e as características de carcaça em dois pesos de abate, assim como o metabolismo ruminal de dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína e energia e a produção de gases in vitro, o presente trabalho apresenta-se avaliações feitas em quatro partes. A parte 1 foi realizada com búfalos em crescimento criados à pasto, do nascimento até atingirem dois pesos distintos de abate (517 e 568 kg). Avaliações do desempenho foram realizadas com medição do peso vivo, perímetro torácico, altura de cernelha e comprimento corporal e as avaliações das características da carcaça e carne com determinação do rendimento de carcaça quente e fria, perda no resfriamento, peso da gordura, peso do fígado, temperatura e pH da carcaça, área de olho de lombo, espessura de gordura subcutânea, marmorização, maciez e coloração. A segunda parte avaliou dietas com três níveis de proteína (9%, 12% e 15%) no metabolismo ruminal. Os Itens analisados foram: consumo de nutrientes, pH, amônia e ácidos graxos voláteis no rúmen e degradabilidade in situ. Na parte 3, foram avaliadas dietas com dois níveis de proteína (9 e 15%) e dois de energia (65 e 69% NDT) no metabolismo ruminal. Além dos Itens avaliados na parte 2 foram ainda analisados a digestibilidade com uso de marcador...

Efeito do teor de proteína e fonte nitrogenada em dietas com cana-de-açúcar sobre frações protéicas do leite, balanço nitrogenado e parâmetros metabólicos sanguíneos de vacas lactantes; Effect of crude protein content and nitrogen source with sugar cane diets on milk protein fraction, nitrogen balance and metabolic blood parameters of lactating dairy cows

Conti, Luís Henrique Andreucci
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/08/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.98%
O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do teor de proteína bruta (PB) e da fonte nitrogenada da dieta para vacas lactantes, utilizando cana-de-açúcar como volumoso sobre a síntese de proteína microbiana, composição da fração nitrogenada do leite, balanço nitrogenado e parâmetros metabólicos sangüíneos. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas Holandesas com média de 235 dias em lactação, agrupadas em três quadrados latinos contemporâneos 4x4, com período experimental de 21 dias, sendo 14 para adaptação as dietas e os 7 últimos para coletas. Os animais foram alimentados com rações isoenergéticas (1,29 Mcal/Kg de MS), com duas fontes nitrogenadas principais (farelo de soja e uréia) e dois teores de PB (14,5 e 16,0 %) na ração: A) 14,21% de PB e farelo de soja (FS) como fonte nitrogenada principal, com 65% de PDR, B) 15,57% de PB e FS, com 65% PDR, C) 14,23% de PB e Ureia, com 70% de PDR, D) 15,62% de PB e Uréia, com 70% PDR. Para a determinação da contagem de células somáticas e de nitrogênio ureico no leite (NUL) foram coletadas amostras de leite do 14º ao 18º dia de cada período. Para a determinação dos teores de proteína bruta, nitrogênio não protéico, nitrogênio não caseinoso, proteína verdadeira...

Local e Extensao da Digestao em Terneiros Desmamados Alimentados "ad Libitum" com Dietas Ricas em Concentrado Contendo Diferentes Fontes de Proteina Suplementar; Site and extent of digestion by weaned calves fed “ad libitum “ on high concentrate-rich diets with different supplemental protein sources

Kozloski, Gilberto Vilmar; Ciocca, Maria de Lourdes Santorio; Sanches, Luis Maria Bonnecarrere; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
Foram utilizados nove terneiros da raça Holandesa (139 ± 2,4kg), fistulados no duodeno, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado para estudar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes protéicas (2% de uréia ou 10% de farinha de carne na dieta total) de dietas ricas em concentrado (milho e farelo de soja) sobre o local e extensão da digestão do alimento, em condições de consumo ad libitum. A relação volumoso:concentrado das dietas foi de 30:70. A digestibilidade ruminal e total da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e nitrogênio, assim como o fluxo duodenal de nitrogênio microbiano e residual do alimento, e a eficiência da síntese protéica microbiana foram semelhantes nos dois tratamentos (P>0,10). A digestibilidade ruminal do amido também foi semelhante, mas a digestibilidade total foi menor no tratamento com uréia (P<0,10). No entanto, é provável que isso seja devido mais a limitações dos ruminantes em digerir amido no intestino delgado do que a uma influência do suplemento protéico. O uso de uréia ou de farinha de carne, como fontes de proteína suplementar de dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja, balanceadas para suprir a demanda de crescimento de terneiros jovens e fornecidas ad libitum...

The effect of lipid sources on intake, rumen fermentation parameters and microbial protein synthesis in Nellore steers supplemented with glycerol

Gomez Insuasti, Arturo Samuel; Granja Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Castagnino, Pablo de Souza; Vieira, Bruno Ramalho; Malheiros, Euclides Braga; Berchielli, Telma T.
Fonte: Csiro Publishing Publicador: Csiro Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1871-1876
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); The effects of glycerol with fat sources as a feed alternative were investigated in the ration for Nellore steers (Bos indicus). Eight cannulated steers at 30 months of age with initial bodyweight of 554 +/- 36.0 kg were used in a double 4 by 4 Latin square design with four consecutive 16-day periods. Treatments were three different diets with lipid sources (soybean, soybean oil and calcium salts of fatty acids) and one diet control without lipid sources. All diets formulated contained 10% crude glycerol and 5% ether extract with a forage : concentrate ratio of 35 : 65; corn silage was used as forage. The ruminal liquid was sampled for 24 h and ruminal fermentations were monitored by measuring pH, concentrations of ammonia nitrogenand volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. Urine samples were obtained from the total collection for 24 h for estimation of rumen microbial protein supply using urinary purine derivatives. Our results showed that the use of lipid sources combined with glycerol did not induce significant changes in rumen pH, acetate molar proportion, ruminal microbial protein or dry matter intake. Although the acetate molar proportion was kept constant within normal parameters...

Ruminal fermentation modification of protein and carbohydrate by means of roasted and estimation of microbial protein synthesis

Andrade-Montemayor,Héctor; García Gasca,Teresa; Kawas,Jorge
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
95.97%
The animal meal prohibition as a protein source with low ruminal degradability in ruminant nutrition, creates the need to seek alternatives, as legume seeds, however, its protein, have a high degradability, which could generate losses of nitrogen in the rumen. Other problem in the legume seeds is the content of antinutritional factors such as protease inhibitors, tannins, phenolic compounds, lectins and some others, could affect the digestibility. One alternative to decrease the degradability of the protein and/or decrease the activity of some antinutritional factors is the use of different technological treatments such as roasting. Microbial protein synthesis is dependent on the availability of nitrogen or amino acids and of the degradable carbohydrate content, or of content of Organic Matter digestible and rumen degraded (OMDRD), and the synchronization in rumen degradation between protein and carbohydrates. If there are high amounts of degradable nitrogen or if the content and rate of carbohydrates degradation in the rumen is reduced or not synchronized with the degradation of protein, could be losses of nitrogen and/or energy in the rumen. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of proteins and carbohydrates from various seeds and grains...

Coffee hull in the diet of dairy heifers: nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis

Souza,Alexandre Lima de; Garcia,Rasmo; Cabral,Luciano da Silva; Pereira,Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Valadares,Rilene Ferreira Diniz
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/05/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
It was evaluated nitrogen compounds and microbial protein synthesis in heifers fed diets containing coffee hulls (0.0; 8.75; 17.25; and 26.25% of dry matter) replacing ground corn concentrate at the following levels of coffee hulls in the total diet dry matter: 0.0, 3.5, 7.0 or 10.5%. It was used 24 crossbreed heifers (7/8, 15/16 and 31/32 Holstein-Zebu), which were distributed in a random block design made up accordingly to the weight of the animals. Spot samples of urine were colleted aproximatelly four hours after morning feeding and were used to estimate microbial protein synthesis by using urine purine derivatives. It was not observed effect of coffee hull levels in the diet on total nitrogen intake (160 g/day) and nitrogen excretion in the urine (87.4 g/day). The inclusion of coffee hull in the diet linearly increased nitrogen excretion in feces, as well as nitrogen balance. There was linear reduction in urinary excretion of allantoin, in total purine derivative and absorbed purine, which reduced 0.715, 0.873, and 0.954 mmol/day to each coffee hull unity added to the concentrate, respectively. Coffee hull altered microbial protein synthesis, which reduced in 0.687 g/day to each coffee hull unity added to the concentrate. Reduction in microbial protein synthesis can reduce weight gain in heifers fed coffee hulls.

Microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in cows bred on tropical pasture and fed on cassava root and corn

Silva,Ádler Carvalho da; Figueiredo,Mauro Pereira de; Bonomo,Paulo; Pereira,Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Luz,Yann dos Santos; Santos,Edileuza de Jesus
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.01%
Current experiment evaluated the effect of replacement of full corn meal by dehydrated ground cassava roots at levels 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% in experimental supplements for lactating cows grazing on irrigated and fertilized tropical pastures. Ten Holstein cows were divided into two 5 x 5 Latin squares, with average initial 150 days of lactation, milk production 22±3.30 kg day-1 at the beginning of experiment and initial body weight of 603±65 kg. Cows were maintained on pasture consisting of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum) cultivar Pioneiro, intercropped with Tifton 85 (Cynodon nlemfuensis), fertilized with 600 kg nitrogen per hectare year-1. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the substitution levels of corn meal by ground and dehydrated cassava root in the concentrate on the synthesis of microbial protein with an estimated average of 1,288.49 g day-1 and efficiency in the synthesis of microbial protein per kilogram of TDN with estimated average of 91.30 g kg-1 TDN. Nitrogen equilibrium showed an estimated average of 218.79 g day-1 of retained nitrogen. The microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance were not affected by treatments.

Effects of Physical Form and Urea Treatment of Rice Straw on Rumen Fermentation, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Steers

Gunun, P.; Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.02%
This study was designed to determine the effect of physical form and urea treatment of rice straw on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nutrient digestibility. Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a 2 (2 factorial arrangement in a 4 (4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. Factor A was roughage source: untreated rice straw (RS) and urea-treated (3%) rice straw (UTRS), and factor B was type of physical form of rice straw: long form rice straw (LFR) and chopped (4 cm) rice straw (CHR). The steers were offered the concentrate at 0.5% body weight (BW) /d and rice straw was fed ad libitum. DM intake and nutrient digestibility were increased (p<0.05) by urea treatment. Ruminal pH were decreased (p<0.05) in UTRS fed group, while ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were increased (p<0.01) by urea treatment. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations increased (p<0.01) when steers were fed UTRS. Furthermore, VFA concentrations were not altered by treatments (p>0.05), except propionic acid (C3) was increased (p<0.05) in UTRS fed group. Nitrogen (N) balance was affected by urea treatment (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis (MCP) synthesis were greater by UTRS and CHR group (p<0.05). The efficiency of microbial N synthesis was greater for UTRS than for RS (p<0.05). From these results...

Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers

Piao, Min Yu; Kim, Hyun J.; Seo, J. K.; Park, T. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, K. H.; Ha, Jong K.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.99%
Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N) released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS). In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR) were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR) diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS), 0.77 (MS) and 0.95 (HS), respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal’s body weight) in a 3×3 Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF) (p>0.05). The ruminal NH3-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the other groups; however...

Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios

López-Soto, M. A.; Rivera-Méndez, C. R.; Aguilar-Hernández, J. A.; Barreras, A.; Calderón-Cortés, J. F.; Plascencia, A.; Dávila-Ramos, H.; Estrada-Angulo, A.; Valdes-García, Y. S.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.91%
As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers (213±4 kg) were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to examine the combination of Optigen and U in a finishing diet containing different starch:acid detergent fibre ratios (S:F) on the characteristics of digestive function. Three S:F ratios (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0) were tested using a combination of U (0.80%) and Optigen (1.0%). Additionally, a treatment of 4.5 S:F ratio with urea (0.80% in ration) as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used to compare the effect of urea combination at same S:F ratio. The S:F ratio of the diet was manipulated by replacing the corn grain by dried distillers grain with solubles and roughage. Urea combination did not affect ruminal pH. The S:F ratio did not affect ruminal pH at 0 and 2 h post-feeding but...

Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

Anantasook, N.; Wanapat, M.; Cherdthong, A.; Gunun, P.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.04%
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75%) lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW) of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control), supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM) at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO) at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO), of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05). However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). In addition...

Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; Rowlinson, P.; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.97%
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was cotton seed meal levels in the concentrate; 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) at similar overall CP levels (490 g CP/kg). Bulls received urea-lime treated rice straw ad libitum and were supplemented with 10 g of concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source and level of cotton seed meal did not have significant effects on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, microbial protein synthesis or feed intake. Animals which received CC showed significantly higher BUN concentration, ruminal propionic acid and butyric acid proportions, while dry matter, organic matter digestibility, populations of total viable bacteria and proteolytic bacteria were lower than those in the CR3:1 treatment. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids was higher in HCM than LCM treatments...

Effects of Synchronicity of Carbohydrate and Protein Degradation on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Protein Synthesis

Seo, J. K.; Kim, M. H.; Yang, J. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, C. H.; Kim, K. H.; Ha, Jong K.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
65.87%
A series of in vitro studies were carried out to determine i) the effects of enzyme and formaldehyde treatment on the degradation characteristics of carbohydrate and protein sources and on the synchronicity of these processes, and ii) the effects of synchronizing carbohydrate and protein supply on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in in vitro experiments. Untreated corn (C) and enzyme-treated corn (EC) were combined with soy bean meal with (ES) and without (S) enzyme treatment or formaldehyde treatment (FS). Six experimental feeds (CS, CES, CFS, ECS, ECES and ECFS) with different synchrony indices were prepared. Highly synchronous diets had the greatest dry matter (DM) digestibility when untreated corn was used. However, the degree of synchronicity did not influence DM digestibility when EC was mixed with various soybean meals. At time points of 12 h and 24 h of incubation, EC-containing diets showed lower ammonia-N concentrations than those of C-containing diets, irrespective of the degree of synchronicity, indicating that more efficient utilization of ammonia-N for MPS was achieved by ruminal microorganisms when EC was offered as a carbohydrate source. Within C-containing treatments, the purine base concentration increased as the diets were more synchronized. This effect was not observed when EC was offered. There were significant effects on VFA concentration of both C and S treatments and their interactions. Similar to purine concentrations...

Effect of Carbohydrate Source and Cottonseed Meal Level in the Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Swamp Buffaloes

Wanapat, M.; Pilajun, R.; Polyorach, S.; Cherdthong, A.; Khejornsart, P.; Rowlinson, P.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.01%
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in swamp buffaloes. Four, 4-yr old rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and CC+rice bran at a ratio 3:1 (CR3:1), and factor B was level of cottonseed meal (CM); 109 g CP/kg (LCM) and 328 g CP/kg (HCM) in isonitrogenous diets (490 g CP/kg). Buffaloes received urea-treated rice straw ad libitum and supplemented with 5 g concentrate/kg BW. It was found that carbohydrate source did not affect feed intake, nutrient intake, digested nutrients, nutrient digestibility, ammonia nitrogen concentration, fungi and bacterial populations, or microbial protein synthesis (p>0.05). Ruminal pH at 6 h after feeding and the population of protozoa at 4 h after feeding were higher when buffalo were fed with CC than in the CR3:1 treatment (p<0.05). Buffalo fed with HCM had a lower roughage intake, nutrient intake, population of total viable and cellulolytic bacteria and microbial nitrogen supply than the LCM fed group (p<0.05). However...

Nitrogenous compounds balance and microbial protein synthesis in steers supplemented with sunflower crushed in partial replacement of soybean meal

Lima,Hellen Leles; Goes,Rafael Henrique de Tonissi e Buschinelli de; Oliveira,Euclides Reuter de; Gressler,Maria Gizelma de Menezes; Brabes,Kelly Cristina da Silva; Gabriel,Andrea Maria de Araújo
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM Publicador: Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringá - EDUEM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.04%
Four steers in individual paddocks with Marandu grass (B. Brizantha) in 4x4 square design were used to evaluate sunflower crushed supplementation in pasture-grazing animals on nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis. Supplements at 6 g kg-1 body weight comprised corn, soybean meal, and mineral and soybean meal substituted at proportions 0, 20, 40 and 60%. Diet contained averages 6.79, 6.96, 7.10 and 6.87% nitrogen respectively for substitution levels 0, 20, 40 and 60%. The inclusion of sunflower crushed (SC) increased nitrogen intake and fecal excretion of nitrogen while providing a positive balance. Animals' plasma urea concentration supplemented with SC was 28.13% lower than that of supplemented animals without SC. SC inclusion did not change allantoin concentration, purine derivatives, microbial nitrogen, crude microbial protein and microbial efficiency microbial, with mean rates totaling 150.98 mmol day-1; 158.06 mmol day-1, 112.35 g day-1, 702.18 g day-1; 146.41 crude protein (CP) microbial kg-1 of TDN. Partial replacement of soybean meal by sunflower crushed improves nitrogen balance without altering microbial protein synthesis and excretion of urea and creatinine.

Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius)

Guerouali, Abdelhai; El Gass, Youssef; Balcells, Joaquín; Belenguer, Álvaro; Nolan, John
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 148845 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
75.89%
8 pages, 4 tables, 3 figures.--PMID: 15333153 [PubMed].; Five experiments were carried out to extend knowledge of purine metabolism in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to establish a model to enable microbial protein outflow from the forestomachs to be estimated from the urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD; i.e. xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin). In experiment 1, four camels were fasted for five consecutive days to enable endogenous PD excretion in urine to be determined. Total PD excretion decreased during the fasting period to 267 (SE 41.5) micromol/kg body weight (W)0.75 per d. Allantoin and xanthine + hypoxanthine were consistently 86 and 6.1 % of total urinary PD during this period but uric acid increased from 3.6 % to 7.4 %. Xanthine oxidase activity in tissues (experiment 2) was (micromol/min per g fresh tissue) 0.038 in liver and 0.005 in gut mucosa but was not detected in plasma. In experiment 3, the duodenal supply of yeast containing exogenous purines produced a linear increase in urinary PD excretion rate with the slope indicating that 0.63 was excreted in urine. After taking account of endogenous PD excretion, the relationship can be used to predict purine outflow from the rumen. From the latter prediction...

Nitrogen balance and milk composition of dairy cows fed urea and soybean meal and two protein levels using sugar cane based diets; Balanço de nitrogênio e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com ureia e farelo de soja e dois teores de proteína em dietas com cana-de-açúcar

Conti, Luís Henrique Andreucci; Jesus, Elmeson Ferreira de; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; Arcari, Marcos André; Junior, Kleber da Cunha Peixoto; Rennó, Francisco Palma; Santos, Marcos Veiga dos
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/12/2014 ENG
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of feeding two levels of crude protein (CP) (low: 142 g CP/kg DM; and high: 156 g CP/kg DM) and two nitrogen sources (soybean meal and urea) to dairy cows using sugar cane as forage on microbial protein synthesis, the composition of the milk nitrogen fraction, nitrogen (N) balance and blood parameters. Twelve Holstein cows with an average milk yield of 22.0 ± 2.3 kg/day, and with 235 ± 40 days in milk were included in this study. The animals were grouped into three balanced and contemporary 4x4 Latin squares for an experimental period of 21 days. On the 15th day of each period, milk and urine samples were collected for microbial protein synthesis determination. Total excretion of urine (L/day), milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and blood urea were higher for the diets with high CP, regardless of the nitrogen source. Nitrogen efficiency was higher for cows fed diets with low CP. Cows in the final third of lactation can be fed diets with reduced CP levels, regardless of the nitrogen source, soybean meal or urea, without influencing the synthesis of microbial protein or the composition of the nitrogen fraction of milk.; O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de dois teores de proteína bruta (PB) (baixa: 142 g de PB/kg de MS e alta: 156 g de PB/kg de MS) e de duas fontes nitrogenadas (farelo de soja e ureia) na dieta de vacas leiteiras...

Variability of indigestible NDF in C3 and C4 forages and implications on the resulting feed energy values and potential microbial protein synthesis in dairy cattle

Raffrenato,E; Erasmus,L.J
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2013 EN
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65.89%
Estimation of indigestible neutral detergent fibre (iNDF) is necessary for accurate and precise predictions of feed energy values and potential microbial protein from digested NDF in the rumen. Due to lengthy laboratory procedures, iNDF has been estimated using the formula ADLx2.4 (iNDF2.4). The relationship between iNDF and acid detergent lignin (ADL) is more variable, across and within forage species. The purpose of our study was then to assess the variability of iNDF and respective implications on ration fine-tuning for dairy cattle. Sixty forages, including grasses, maize silages and lucerne hays, were fermented in vitro from 0 to 240 hours. Residual NDF of the fermented samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 216 and 240 h, with the last value assumed to represent iNDF (iNDF240).This was used to obtain the potentially digestible NDF fraction (pdNDF). Rates of digestion of pdNDF were obtained assuming a first order decay. Simulations with the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS v 6.1, 2012) were done to evaluate the effects of the different estimated iNDF and NDF rate of digestion (kd) on energy and microbial protein estimations, assuming the requirements of a high-yielding lactating cow and a standard TMR with at least 50% forage. Results were dependent on the amount of forage and respective NDF and ADL. The iNDF240 values resulted between 1% and 136% higher than the iNDF240 values. The reduced pdNDF pool resulted in both lower cell wall linked protein in the rumen and microbial protein of around 5 to 165 g...

Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by exogenous fibrolytic enzymes

van de Vyver,W.F.J.; Useni,B.A.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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65.83%
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), crude protein (CP) and on the microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in sheep of a milled substrate consisting of a 50 : 50 mixture of lucerne hay (LH) and wheat straw (WS). Four cannulated Döhne-Merino sheep were randomly assigned to two groups in a 2 x 2 cross-over experiment. Additional to the in situ study, the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (EFE) on the in vitro gas production (GP) and ANKOM digestion systems on the mixture of milled LH and WS were determined. The substrate was pre-treated with distilled water (control) or EFE (treatment) 12 hours prior to incubation to allow interaction between the substrate and enzyme. Adding EFE significantly improved the in vitro cumulative gas production (GP), but it did not affect the in vitro MPS measured as purine derivates of the GP residues. The enzyme significantly increased the in vitro DM and NDF disappearances after 36 hours. However, the in situ disappearances of DM, NDF and CP of the roughage mixture were not affected by the EFE. Further, the in situ MPS was increased significantly with the EFE treatment of the mixed substrate. It is concluded that the improved ruminal digestion of DM...

Evaluation of crude glycerine inclusion in beef cattle diet: apparent nutrient digestibility and microbial protein synthesis

Castañeda Serrano,Roman D; Ferriani Branco,Antonio; Teixeira,Silvana; Osmari,Milene
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas INIA, Maracay, Venezuela. Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agricolas INIA, Maracay, Venezuela.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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65.94%
Crude glycerine (CG) is an abundant biodiesel byproduct and an alternative material for livestock diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of glycerol supplementation on the digestibility and microbial protein synthesis in Nelore steers. Five ruminally cannulated Nelore breed steers (522±43 kg) were used in a replicated 5×5 Latin Square design to evaluate 0 (control), 3, 6, 9 and 12% of CG in total dry matter of diets during five experimental periods of 21 days. The dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal apparent digestibility (RAD), intestinal apparent digestibility (IAD), total apparent digestibility coefficient (TAD) of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) were not affected (P > 0,05) by CG inclusion. Fecal flow of ether extract (EE) decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of CG in the diet increased. However, the CDI and CDT of EE increased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of CG in the diet increased. The inclusion of different levels of CG in the diet showed no significant (P > 0.05) effect on microbial protein synthesis. It is concluded that CG may be used in the diet of beef cattle up to 12% and can be considered a good alternative energy.