Host-specific toxin from the rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) pathotype of Alternaria alternata (ACR toxin) was tested for effects on mitochondria isolated from several citrus species. The toxin caused uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and changes in membrane potential in mitochondria from leaves of the susceptible host (rough lemon); the effects differed from those of carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, a typical protonophore. ACR toxin also inhibited malate oxidation, apparently because of lack of NAD+ in the matrix. In contrast, the toxin had no effect on mitochondria from citrus species (Dancy tangerine and Emperor mandarin [Citrus reticulata Blanco], and grapefruit [Citrus paradisi Macf.]) that are not hosts of the fungus. The effects of the toxin on mitochondria from rough lemon are similar to the effects of a host-specific toxin from Helminthosporium maydis (HMT) on mitochondria from T-cytoplasm maize. Both ACR and HMT toxins are highly selective for the respective host plants. HMT toxin and methomyl had no effect (toxic or protective) on the activity of ACR toxin against mitochondria from rough lemon.
A glucan preparation obtained from the mycelial walls of the fungus Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea and known as an elicitor of phytoalexins in soybean was shown to be a very efficient inducer of resistance against viruses in tobacco. The glucan preparation protected against mechanically transmitted viral infections on the upper and lower leaf surfaces. Whether the glucan preparation was applied by injection, inoculation, or spraying, it protected the plants if applied before, at the same time as, or not later than 8 hours after virus inoculation. At concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 micrograms per milliliter, the glucan preparation induced protection ranging from 50 to 100% against both symptom production (necrotic local lesions, necrotic rings, or systemic mosaic) and virus accumulation in all Nicotiana-virus combinations examined. However, no significant protection against some of the same viruses was observed in bean or turnip. The host plants successfully protected included N. tabacum (9 different cultivars), N. sylvestris, N. glutinosa, and N. clevelandii. The viruses belonged to several taxonomic groups including tobacco mosaic virus, alfalfa mosaic virus, and tomato black ring virus. The glucan preparation did not act directly on the virus and did not interfere with virus disassembly; rather...
Aplysia gonad lectin, a polygalacturonic acid-binding lectin isolated from the sea mollusc Aplysia depilans, was complexed to colloidal gold and used for localizing polygalacturonic-acid-containing molecules in tomato root tissues infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL). Colonization of host tissues by FORL was associated with striking wall modifications including disruption and even loss of middle lamellae. According to the labeling pattern observed in host wall areas adjacent to fungal penetration channels, it is likely that FORL pectolytic enzymes act through localized wall degradation. The release of polygalacturonic acid-rich wall fragments and the accumulation of polygalacturonic acid-containing molecules in some altered phloem cells were frequently observed and considered to be specific host reactions to fungal attack. The heavy deposition of such molecules at strategic sites such as wall oppositions and intercellular spaces provides support to their implication in the plant defense system. The possible interrelation between polygalacturonic acid-containing molecules and other polymers such as lignin and phenolic compounds remains to be investigated further. The role of these molecules in host-pathogen interactions is discussed in relation to plant defense.
Resistance to the fungal plant pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum race 1 and to its host-selective toxin, HC-toxin, is determined by Hm, a single dominant gene in the host plant maize, (Zea mays L). Radiolabeled HC-toxin of specific activity 70 milliCuries per millimole, prepared by feeding tritiated d,l-alanine to the fungus, was used to study its fate in maize leaf tissues. HC-toxin was converted by resistant leaf segments to a single compound, identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance as the 8-hydroxy derivative of HC-toxin formed by reduction of the 8-keto group of 2-amino-9, 10-epoxy-8-oxo-decanoic acid, one of the amino acids in HC-toxin. Reduction of HC-toxin occurred in cell-free preparations from etiolated (Hm/hm) maize shoots, and the activity was sensitive to heat and proteolytic digestion, dependent on NADPH, and inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and disulfiram. The enzyme (from the Hm/hm genotype) was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and diethylaminoethyl-ion exchange chromatography. By gel filtration chromatography, the enzyme had a molecular weight of 42,000. NADH was approximately 30% as effective as NADPH as a hydride donor, and flavin-containing cofactors had no effect on activity. When HC-toxin was introduced to maize leaf segments through the transpiration stream...
Carbohydrate microarrays have emerged as powerful tools in analyses of microbe-host interactions. Using a microarray with 190 sequence-defined oligosaccharides in the form of natural glycolipids and neoglycolipids representative of diverse mammalian glycans, we examined interactions of simian virus 40 (SV40) with potential carbohydrate receptors. While the results confirmed the high specificity of SV40 for the ganglioside GM1, they also revealed that N-glycolyl GM1 ganglioside [GM1(Gc)], which is characteristic of simian species and many other nonhuman mammals, is a better ligand than the N-acetyl analog [GM1(Ac)] found in mammals, including humans. After supplementing glycolipid-deficient GM95 cells with GM1(Ac) and GM1(Gc) gangliosides and the corresponding neoglycolipids with phosphatidylethanolamine lipid groups, it was found that GM1(Gc) analogs conferred better virus binding and infectivity. Moreover, we visualized the interaction of NeuGc with VP1 protein of SV40 by molecular modeling and identified a conformation for GM1(Gc) ganglioside in complex with the virus VP1 pentamer that is compatible with its presentation as a membrane receptor. Our results open the way not only to detailed studies of SV40 infection in relation to receptor expression in host cells but also to the monitoring of changes that may occur with time in receptor usage by the virus.
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are susceptible to genetic manipulation and retain the potential to differentiate into diverse cell types, which are factors that make them potentially attractive cells for studying host-pathogen interactions. Murine ES cells were found to be susceptible to invasion by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Shigella flexneri and to the formation of attaching and effacing lesions by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. flexneri cell entry was dependent on the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and Shigella mxi/spa type III secretion systems, respectively. Microscopy studies indicated that both S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. flexneri were located in intracellular niches in ES cells that were similar to the niches occupied in differentiated cells. ES cells were eventually killed following bacterial invasion, but no evidence of activation of classical caspase-associated apoptotic or innate immune pathways was found. To demonstrate the potential of mutant ES cells, we employed an ES cell line defective in cholesterol synthesis and found that the mutant cells were less susceptible to infection by Salmonella and Shigella than the parental ES cells. Thus, we highlighted the practical use of genetically modified ES cells for studying microbe-host interactions.
All microbes that form beneficial, neutral, or pathogenic associations with hosts face similar challenges. They must physically adhere to and/or gain entry to host tissues; they must avoid, suppress, or tolerate host defenses; they must acquire nutrients from the host and successfully multiply. Microbes that associate with hosts come from many kingdoms of life and include bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. The increasing numbers of full genome sequences from these diverse microbes provide the opportunity to discover common mechanisms by which the microbes forge and maintain intimate associations with host organisms. However, cross-genome analyses have been hindered by lack of a universal vocabulary for describing biological processes involved in the interplay between microbes and their hosts. The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been working for three years as an official interest group of the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium to develop well-defined GO terms that describe many of the biological processes common to diverse plant- and animal-associated microbes. Creating these terms, over 700 at this time, has required a synthesis of diverse points of view from many research communities. The use of these terms in genome annotation will allow cross-genome searches for genes with common function (without demand for sequence similarity) and also improve the interpretation of data from high-throughput microarray and proteomic analyses. This article...
Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis. Previous studies demonstrated that E. coli K1 invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) is required for penetration into the central nervous system, but the microbe-host interactions that are involved in this process remain incompletely understood. Here we report the involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) expressed on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) in E. coli K1 invasion of HBMEC. Our results showed that treatment of confluent HBMEC with pan-VEGFR inhibitors significantly inhibited E. coli K1 invasion of HBMEC. Immunofluorescence results indicated the colocalization of VEGFR1 with E. coli K1 during bacterial invasion of HBMEC. The E. coli-induced actin cytoskeleton rearrangements in HBMEC were blocked by VEGFR inhibitors but not by VEGFR2-specific inhibitors. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of VEGFR1 in HBMEC significantly attenuated E. coli invasion and the concomitant actin filament rearrangement. Furthermore, we found an increased association of VEGFR1 with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in HBMEC infected with E. coli K1 and that E. coli K1-triggered Akt activation in HBMEC was blocked by VEGFR1 siRNA and VEGFR inhibitors. Taken together...
Intracellular pathogens subvert the host cell cytoskeleton to promote their own survival, replication, and dissemination. Study of these microbes has led to many discoveries about host cell biology, including the identification of cytoskeletal proteins, regulatory pathways, and mechanisms of cytoskeletal function. Actin is a common target of bacterial pathogens, but recent work also highlights the use of microtubules, cytoskeletal motors, intermediate filaments, and septins. The study of pathogen interactions with the cytoskeleton has illuminated key cellular processes such as phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, membrane trafficking, motility, autophagy, and signal transduction.
Biofilms are increasingly recognized as the predominant form for survival in the environment for most bacteria. The successful colonization of Vibrio fischeri in its squid host Euprymna tasmanica, involves complex microbe-host interactions mediated by specific genes that are essential for biofilm formation and colonization. In the present investigation, structural and regulatory genes were selected to study their role in biofilm formation and host colonization. We have mutated several genes (pilT, pilU, flgF, motY, ibpA and mifB) by an insertional inactivation strategy. Results demonstrate that structural genes responsible for synthesis of type IV pili and flagella are crucial for biofilm formation and host infection. Moreover, regulatory genes affect colony aggregation by various mechanisms including alteration of synthesis of transcriptional factors and regulation of extracellular polysaccharide production. These results reflect the significance of how genetic alterations influence communal behavior, which is important in understanding symbiotic relationships.
Gram negative bacteria have evolved many mechanisms of attaching to and invading host epithelial and immune cells. In particular, many outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are involved in this initial interaction between the pathogen and their host. The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria performs the crucial role of providing an extra layer of protection to the organism without compromising the exchange of material required for sustaining life. The OM, therefore, represents a sophisticated macromolecular assembly, whose complexity has yet to be fully elucidated. This review will summarize the structural information available for porins, a class of OMP, and highlight their role in bacterial pathogenesis and their potential as therapeutic targets.
The genomes are regularly targeted by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms (DNA methylation, histone modifications, binding of regulatory proteins) in infected cells. In addition, proteins encoded by microbial genomes may disturb the action of a set of cellular promoters by interacting with the same epi-regulatory machinery. The outcome of this may result in epigenetic dysregulation and subsequent cellular dysfunctions that may manifest in or contribute to the development of pathological changes. How epigenetic methylation decorations on DNA and histones are started and established remains largely unknown. The inherited nature of these processes in regulation of genes suggests that they could play key roles in chronic diseases associated with microbial persistence; they might also explain so-called hit-and-run phenomena in infectious disease pathogenesis. Microbes infecting mammals may cause diseases by causing hyper-methylation of key cellular promoters at CpG di-nucleotides and may induce pathological changes by epigenetic reprogramming of host cells they are interacting with elucidation of the epigenetic consequences of microbe–host interactions may have important therapeutic implications because epigenetic processes can be reverted and elimination of microbes inducing patho-epigenetic changes may prevent disease development.
No plant or cryptogam exists in nature without microorganisms associated with its tissues. Plants as microbial hosts are puzzles of different microhabitats, each of them colonized by specifically adapted microbiomes. The interactions with such microorganisms have drastic effects on the host fitness. Since the last 20 years, the combination of microscopic tools and molecular approaches contributed to new insights into microbe-host interactions. Particularly, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) facilitated the exploration of microbial habitats and allowed the observation of host-associated microorganisms in situ with an unprecedented accuracy. Here I present an overview of the progresses made in the study of the interactions between microorganisms and plants or plant-like organisms, focusing on the role of CLSM for the understanding of their significance. I critically discuss risks of misinterpretation when procedures of CLSM are not properly optimized. I also review approaches for quantitative and statistical analyses of CLSM images, the combination with other molecular and microscopic methods, and suggest the re-evaluation of natural autofluorescence. In this review, technical aspects were coupled with scientific outcomes, to facilitate the readers in identifying possible CLSM applications in their research or to expand their existing potential. The scope of this review is to highlight the importance of confocal microscopy in the study of plant-microbe interactions and also to be an inspiration for integrating microscopy with molecular techniques in future researches of microbial ecology.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 causes outbreaks of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. E. coli O157:H7 intimately attaches to epithelial cells, effaces microvilli, and recruits F-actin into pedestals to form attaching and effacing lesions. Lipid rafts serve as signal transduction platforms that mediate microbe-host interactions. The aims of this study were to determine if protein kinase C (PKC) is recruited to lipid rafts in response to E. coli O157:H7 infection and what role it plays in attaching and effacing lesion formation. HEp-2 and intestine 407 tissue culture epithelial cells were challenged with E. coli O157:H7, and cell protein extracts were then separated by buoyant density ultracentrifugation to isolate lipid rafts. Immunoblotting for PKC was performed, and localization in lipid rafts was confirmed with an anti-caveolin-1 antibody. Isoform-specific PKC small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to determine the role of PKC in E. coli O157:H7-induced attaching and effacing lesions. In contrast to uninfected cells, PKC was recruited to lipid rafts in response to E. coli O157:H7. Metabolically active bacteria and cells with intact lipid rafts were necessary for the recruitment of PKC. PKC recruitment was independent of the intimin gene...
Microbe–host interactions are complex processes that are directly and indirectly regulated by a variety of factors, including microbe presentation of specific molecular signatures on the microbial surface, as well as host cell presentation of receptors that recognize these pathogen signatures. Cell surface glycans are one important class of microbial signatures that are recognized by a variety of host cell lectins. Host cell lectins that recognize microbial glycans include members of the galectin family of lectins that recognize specific glycan ligands on viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this review, we will discuss the ways that the interactions of microbial glycans with host cell galectins positively and negatively regulate pathogen attachment, invasion, and survival, as well as regulate host responses that mitigate microbial pathogenesis.
To locate and evaluate host patches before oviposition, parasitoids of herbivorous insects utilize plant volatiles and host-derived cues, but also evaluate predator-derived infochemicals to reduce predation risks. When foraging in host habitats infested with entomopathogenic fungi that can infect both a parasitoid and its host, parasitoids may reduce the risk of intraguild predation (IGP) by avoiding such patches. In this study, we examined whether the presence of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana in soil habitats of a root herbivore, Delia radicum, affects the behavior of Trybliographa rapae, a parasitoid of D. radicum. Olfactometer bioassays revealed that T. rapae avoided fungal infested host habitats and that this was dependent on fungal species and density. In particular, the parasitoid avoided habitats with high densities of the more virulent fungus, M. brunneum. In addition, host density was found to be important for the attraction of T. rapae. Volatiles collected from host habitats revealed different compound profiles depending on fungal presence and density, which could explain the behavior of T. rapae. We conclude that T. rapae females may use volatile compounds to locate high densities of prey...
Bacterial colonisation of the gut is involved in the development of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear how the gut microbiota dynamically shifts correlating with colorectal carcinogenesis. Here, we reveal the longitudinal shifts in the microbial community that occur with colitis-associated colorectal cancer. High-throughput sequencing results for the bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V3 region) were compared for azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate-treated mice and control mice. We found that microbial community structure was significantly altered by chronic colitis. Microbes in the species Streptococcus luteciae, Lactobacillus hamster, Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides ovatus were increased during colorectal carcinogenesis. Histological measurements for a molecular network including six interconnected key factors from inflammation to cancer, namely p65, p53, COX-2, PPARγ, CCR2 and β-catenin, indicated that the microbiome modifications were correlated with molecular pathogenesis of colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Phylotype modifications after each AOM/DSS cycle were identified. A longitudinal microbial network was then constructed for the gut microbiome and showed that the phylotype shifts during this process were complex and highly dynamic. This work may provide a deeper understanding of the role of the microbiota and microbe-host interactions in colitis-associated colorectal cancer.
After a brief period of biotrophic growth, the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Mgn.) Bri et Cav. develops extensively in bean leaf cells, causing severe wall alterations and death of the host protoplast. Aplysia gonad lectin, a polygalacturonic acid-binding agglutinin, was complexed to gold and used to study the extent of pectin breakdown during the necrotrophic phase of the infection process. In view of its specific binding properties for the endopolygalacturonase produced by C. lindemuthianum, a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein isolated from bean cell walls was successfully tagged with gold particles and used for localizing the sites of enzyme accumulation in infected host tissues. The basal level of endopolygalacturonase produced by C. lindemuthianum grown in culture was found to increase severalfold when the fungus developed in host plant tissues. The enzyme was able to diffuse freely in the host cell wall, causing drastic degradation of the pectic material of primary walls and middle lamella matrices. The enzymatic alteration of plant cell walls was accompanied by the release of pectic fragments and by the accumulation of pectic molecules at specific sites, such as intercellular spaces and aggregated cytoplasm of infected host cells. The occurrence of pectic molecules at those sites where fungal growth is likely to be restricted is discussed in relation to their origin and their implication in the plant's defense system.
Microbial pathogens have evolved many ingenious ways to infect
their hosts and cause disease, including the subversion and
exploitation of target host cells. One such subversive microbe is
enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). A major cause
of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, EPEC poses a significant
health threat to children worldwide. Central to EPEC-mediated disease
is its colonization of the intestinal epithelium. After initial
adherence, EPEC causes the localized effacement of microvilli and
intimately attaches to the host cell surface, forming characteristic
attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions. Considered the prototype for a
family of A/E lesion-causing bacteria, recent in vitro
studies of EPEC have revolutionized our understanding of how these
pathogens infect their hosts and cause disease. Intimate attachment
requires the type III-mediated secretion of bacterial proteins, several
of which are translocated directly into the infected cell, including
the bacteria's own receptor (Tir). Binding to this membrane-bound,
pathogen-derived protein permits EPEC to intimately attach to mammalian
cells. The translocated EPEC proteins also activate signaling pathways
within the underlying cell, causing the reorganization of the host
actin cytoskeleton and the formation of pedestal-like structures
beneath the adherent bacteria. This review explores what is known about
EPEC's subversion of mammalian cell functions and how this knowledge
has provided novel insights into bacterial pathogenesis and
microbe-host interactions. Future studies of A/E pathogens in animal
models should provide further insights into how EPEC exploits not only
epithelial cells but other host cells...
Molecules exuded by plant roots are thought to act as signals to influence the ability of microbial strains to colonize the roots and to survive in the rhizosphere. Differential bacterial responses to signals from different plant species may mediate the selection of specific rhizosphere populations. Very little, however, is known about the effects of plant exudates on patterns of bacterial gene expression. Here, we have tested the concept that plant root exudates modulate expression of bacterial genes involved in establishing microbe-plant interactions. We have examined the influence on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 transcriptome of exudates from two varieties of sugarbeet that select for genetically distinct pseudomonad populations in the rhizosphere. The response to the two exudates showed only a partial overlap; the majority of those genes with altered expression was regulated in response to only one of the two exudates. Genes with altered expression included those with functions previously implicated in microbe-plant interactions, such as aspects of metabolism, chemotaxis and type III secretion, and a subset with putative or unknown function. Use of a panel of mutants with targeted disruptions allowed us to identify previously uncharacterized genes with roles in the competitive ability of P. aeruginosa in the rhizosphere within this subset. No genes with host-specific effects were identified. Homologues of the genes identified occur in the genomes of both beneficial and pathogenic root-associated bacteria...