We report the results of qualitative (n=19) and quantitative (n=545) interviews with young injection drug users (IDUs) in San Diego, California, USA about their experiences using drugs in Tijuana, Mexico, and associated risks for HIV infection. Young IDUs who have ever traveled to Mexico (n=365) used a variety of injection (54%) and non-injection (30%) drugs there, and appear to be heavier users than those who have never traveled to Mexico. Sociocultural themes influencing drug use in Mexico included: interactions amongst the purpose of travel, drug preference, and route of administration; familiarity with the border region; evolving relationships with the US and Mexican drug markets; and the experience of crossing the US/Mexico border. Interventions for IDUs in border regions need to be sensitive to the ethnicity, familiarity with the border region, and life history of participants, as well as differences in national policies that could influence drug use and risk for HIV on both sides of the border.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of formative focus groups as a community-based participatory research (CBPR) method in developing cancer education programs. Two focus groups were conducted according to CBPR principles, in order to develop a community-competent human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer educational program for Latinas living in the USA/Mexico border region. Focus group participants were 18 female Mexican American community health advisors. Participants reported that there is limited information and many myths about HPV and the vaccine in the Latino/Latina community, along with many barriers to acceptance of HPV/cervical cancer-related information. Furthermore, participants discussed their recommendations for the development of a culturally appropriate HPV educational program. From these data, we have a better understanding of the HPV/cervical cancer educational approach that will be most accepted in the community and what key information needs to be provided to women who participate in the program, which reinforces the importance of the CBPR approach to the formative phase of cancer education program development.
The Beck Depression Inventory-I (BDI-I) is a self-report measure of
depressive symptomatology that is widely used in both research and clinical
settings. While the Spanish language version of the BDI-I is frequently used in
the USA, there are currently no available guidelines to determine depressive
symptomatology base rates in Spanish speaking populations using this instrument.
In the present study, base rates of depressive symptoms and demographic
influences on the BDI-I were measured in a non-clinical Spanish speaking
population from the US-Mexico border region. A sample of 198 neurologically
normal Spanish speaking individuals, mostly of Mexican decent, completed the
BDI-I as part of a larger neuropsychological norming study. The results
indicated that while there were no effects of age or education on overall BDI-I
scores, those with lower education tended to report higher severity of
individual symptoms. Consistent with findings in other populations, women
endorsed a greater number of depressive symptoms. Therefore separate cut-scores
were derived for men and women to represent these differences. Future research
should assess the impact of acculturation and socioeconomic stressors on the BDI
scores in this mostly immigrant population.
The thesis proposes and develops a threefold categorisation as a framework for the analysis of the sustainable development (SD) discourse of business groups, local government and NGOs in the Mexico-US border region and specifically in the border cities of Juarez (Chihuahua, Mexico) and El Paso (Texas, US). The SD categorisation proposed in this thesis consists of three schools of thought, namely, Ecologism, Ecologically-sustainable-Development (EsD) and Corporate-Environmentalism. The thesis investigates how and why Corporate- Environmentalism came to dominate sustainable development discourse in the 1990s. Based on data collected in the border region of Juarez and El Paso, this thesis argues that Corporate-Environmentalism strongly influenced the sustainable development discourse of business groups, local government and NGOs and became the prevailing orthodoxy in the sustainable development discourse of the region during the 1990s. In the course of the same decade, ideas of Ecologism and Ecologically-sustainable-Development were marginalised and lost significant support, whilst Corporate-Environmentalism shaped the majority of respondents' sustainable development discourse and practices. The complex interrelations between the sustainable development discourse of the 1990s and the views of business environmental managers...
Historically and culturally, water has always been considered to be a critical issue in Mexico-USA agenda. Along the 3 140-km border between Mexico and the United States, there is intense competition over the adequate availability of water. Water uses in urban border areas have continued to increase exponentially due to steadily increasing levels of population growth. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in more intensive patterns of water consumption and use. Agricultural water demands continue to be high. Mexico and the United States have established institutions and agreements to manage and protect rivers in the border region. The Treaty between Mexico and the United States for the Utilisation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande was signed in 1944. With the turn of the century, the growing urban centers along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), where the river becomes the international boundary, started increasingly to depend on groundwater. This situation was not specifically addressed in the 1944 Treaty, especially as groundwater use at that time was not so significant.
This article analyzes the effects of the Mexico-United States geopolitical border in social and cultural differentiation, using the crossing experience as the analytical core. Based in 60 life histories of residents of the Mexico-USA border region, a typology of life experiences structured around border crossing is developed, including a wide range of life experiences, from those that involve never having crossed the border to those that are precisely the product of border crossing. The experienced border encompasses the subjectified experience of the region, integrating both the meaning of crossing and the structural elements that historically have defined the border: proximity, asymmetry, and interaction.
The electronics industry is an important factor in Mexico's economy, representing 80% of companies in the northwest of this country, where we find Mexicali (as arid zone) and Tijuana (as marine region), two cities in the state Baja California, adjacent to cities in California, USA, on the border of Mexico-United States. A study was conducted indoors in three plants of each city mentioned above, to determine if corrosion phenomena has an effect on the lifetime and productive performance of the CS. The results show that major air pollutants present indoors, that generate aggressive environments in Mexicali are the sulfides, while in Tijuana are the chlorides, which affect the functioning of the CS, and originate electrical failures in industrial equipments and machines.
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la SaludPublicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista CientíficaFormato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2000EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a) lack of communication binationally; b) interrupted medical care due to migration; c) inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d) lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e) deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge...
Objective. Mexico has one of the highest mortality rates of invasive cervical cancer in the world. This is particularly true for the states in northern Mexico that border on the United States of America. In addition, Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do non-Hispanics in the country. Therefore, a binational team was formed to focus on this problem and to determine the risk factors and prevalence of cervical dysplasia and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the sexually transmitted disease (STD) known to cause cervical cancer. Chlamydia trachomatis infection, a common STD and potential HPV cofactor, was also assessed. Methods. Research was conducted in 1997 and 1998 in the border region of two states, Arizona in the United States and Sonora in Mexico, applying a cross-sectional study of women attending clinics for routine gynecologic care. Clinical measurements included Pap smears, HPV infection by both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Hybrid Capture (HC), and C. trachomatis status by HC and enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). A total of 2 436 women were enrolled (mean age 33.3 years ± 10.3 years). Results. The overall prevalence of abnormal cytology was 9.3%, with a significant difference in the prevalence in Mexico (11.4%) vs. the United States (6.6%). Of the participants...