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Mexican immigration to the U.S., the occurrence of violence and the impact of mental disorders

Borges,Guilherme; Rafful,Claudia; Tancredi,Daniel J.; Saito,Naomi; Aguilar-Gaxiola,Sergio; Medina-Mora,Maria-Elena; Breslau,Joshua
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
Objective: To study immigration, U.S. nativity, and return migration as risk factors for violence among people of Mexican origin in the U.S. and Mexico. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys in the United States (2001-2003; n=1,213) and Mexico (2001-2002; n=2,362). Discrete time survival models were used. The reference group was Mexicans living in Mexico without migrant experience or a migrant relative. Results: Mexican immigrants in the U.S. have lower risk for any violence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.5, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.4-0.7). U.S.-born Mexican-Americans were at higher risk for violence victimization of a sexual nature (for sexual assault, HR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.7-3.7). Return migrants were at increased risk for being kidnapped or held hostage (HR = 2.8, 95%CI 1.1-7.1). Compared to those without a mental disorder, those with a mental disorder were more likely to suffer any violence (HR = 2.3, 95%CI 1.9-2.7), regardless of the migrant experience. Conclusions: The impact of immigration on the occurrence of violence is more complex than usually believed. Return migrants are more likely to suffer violence such as being held hostage or beaten by someone other than a partner.

Healthier before they migrate, less healthy when they return? The health of returned migrants in Mexico

Ullmann, S. Heidi; Goldman, Noreen; Massey, Douglas S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Over the course of the 20th century, Mexico-U.S. migration has emerged as an important facet of both countries, with far reaching economic and social impacts. The health of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. has been well studied, but relatively less is known about the health of returned migrants to Mexico. The objectives of this paper are twofold. Relying on health data pertaining to two stages of the life course, early life health (pre-migration) and adult health (post-migration) from the Mexican Migration Project gathered between 2007 and 2009, we aim to assess disparities in adult health status between male returned migrants and male non-migrants in Mexico, accounting for their potentially different early life health profiles. While we find evidence that returned migrants had more favorable early life health, the results for adult health are more complex. Returned migrants have a higher prevalence of heart disease, emotional/psychiatric disorders, obesity, and smoking than non-migrants but no differences are found in self-rated health, diabetes, or hypertension.

Migration Selection, Protection, and Acculturation in Health: A Binational Perspective on Older Adults

Riosmena, Fernando; Wong, Rebeca; Palloni, Alberto
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.91%
In this article, we test for four potential explanations of the Hispanic Health Paradox (HHP): the “salmon bias,” emigration selection, and sociocultural protection originating in either destination or sending country. To reduce biases related to attrition by return migration typical of most U.S.-based surveys, we combine data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study in Mexico and the U.S. National Health Interview Survey to compare self-reported diabetes, hypertension, current smoking, obesity, and self-rated health among Mexican-born men ages 50 and older according to their previous U.S. migration experience, and U.S.-born Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. We also use height, a measure of health during childhood, to bolster some of our tests. We find an immigrant advantage relative to non-Hispanic whites in hypertension and, to a lesser extent, obesity. We find evidence consistent with emigration selection and the salmon bias in height, hypertension, and self-rated health among immigrants with less than 15 years of experience in the United States; we do not find conclusive evidence consistent with sociocultural protection mechanisms. Finally, we illustrate that although ignoring return migrants when testing for the HHP and its mechanisms...

Undiagnosed Disease, Especially Diabetes, Casts Doubt on some of Reported Health ‘Advantage’ of Recent Mexican Immigrants

Barcellos, Silvia Helena; Goldman, Dana P.; Smith, James P.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.06%
Newly arrived Mexican immigrants generally report better health in the United States than do native-born Americans, but this health advantage erodes over time. At issue is whether this advantage is illusory – or a product of disease that goes undiagnosed in Mexico but is discovered after immigration. Using the National Health and Nutrition Survey we compare clinical to self-reported diagnosed disease prevalence. We find that diagnosed prevalence is 47 percent lower among recent Mexican immigrants than among natives for both diabetes and hypertension, and that undiagnosed disease explains one third of this recent immigrant advantage for diabetes and one fifth for hypertension. The remaining health advantage might be explained by immigrant selectivity (how migrants differ from those in Mexico who stayed) or assimilation (the process of integration into the U.S.). Since undiagnosed disease can have adverse health consequences, medical practice should emphasize disease detection among new arrivals as part of routine doctor or hospital visits.

Housing and neighborhood quality among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants

Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
Extensive research has documented the challenges that undocumented immigrants face in navigating U.S. labor markets, but relatively little has explored the impact of legal status on residential outcomes despite their widespread repercussions for social well-being. Using data from the 1996–2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to impute documentation status among Mexican and Central American immigrants, we examine group differences in residential outcomes, including homeownership, housing crowding, satisfaction with neighborhood and housing quality, problems with neighborhood crime/safety, governmental services, and environmental issues, and deficiencies with housing units. Results from our analysis indicate that undocumented householders are far less likely to be homeowners than documented migrants, and also live in more crowded homes, report greater structural deficiencies with their dwellings, and express greater concern about the quality of public services and environmental conditions in their neighborhoods. In comparison to native whites, undocumented migrants’ residential circumstances are lacking, but their residential outcomes tend to be superior to those of native-born blacks. Overall, our results highlight the pervasive impact of legal status on stratifying Mexicans’ and Central Americans’ prospects for successful incorporation...

Does Selective Migration Explain the Hispanic Paradox?: A Comparative Analysis of Mexicans in the U.S. and Mexico

Bostean, Georgiana
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.22%
Latino immigrants, particularly Mexican, have some health advantages over U.S.-born Mexicans and Whites. Because of their lower socioeconomic status, this phenomenon has been called the epidemiologic “Hispanic Paradox.” While cultural theories have dominated explanations for the Paradox, the role of selective migration has been inadequately addressed. This study is among the few to combine Mexican and U.S. data to examine health selectivity in activity limitation, self-rated health, and chronic conditions among Mexican immigrants, ages 18 and over. Drawing on theories of selective migration, this study tested the “healthy migrant” and “salmon-bias” hypotheses by comparing the health of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. to non-migrants in Mexico, and to return migrants in Mexico. Results suggest that there are both healthy migrant and salmon-bias effects in activity limitation, but not other health aspects. In fact, consistent with prior research, immigrants are negatively selected on self-rated health. Future research should consider the complexities of migrants’ health profiles and examine selection mechanisms alongside other factors such as acculturation.

Importation, SES-selective Acculturation, and the Weaker SES-health Gradients of Mexican Immigrants in the United StatesΦ

Riosmena, Fernando; Dennis, Jeff A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.16%
Previous studies find U.S. immigrants have weaker socioeconomic gradients in health relative to non-Hispanic whites and their U.S.-born co-ethnics. Several explanations have been advanced but few have been tested empirically. We use data from the Mexican Family Life Survey and the U.S. National Health Interview Survey, including longitudinal data in the former measuring SES and health previous to emigration, to test if 1) immigrants “import” their gradients from the sending country, or if 2) they may be changing as a result of SES-graded acculturation among Mexican migrant men in two health indicators: obesity and current smoking. We find evidence consistent with the first hypothesis: the gradients of migrants measured prior to coming to the U.S. are not statistically different from those of non-migrants, as the gradients of each are relatively weak. Although the gradients for obesity and smoking appear to weaken with time spent in the U.S., the differences are not significant, suggesting little support for the selective acculturation hypothesis.

Immigrant Sexual Citizenship: Intersectional Templates among Mexican Gay Immigrants to the United States

Epstein, Steven; Carrillo, Héctor
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.04%
Existing literature on sexual citizenship has emphasized the sexuality-related claims of de jure citizens of nation-states, generally ignoring immigrants. Conversely, the literature on immigration rarely attends to the salience of sexual issues in understanding the social incorporation of migrants. This article seeks to fill the gap by theorizing and analyzing immigrant sexual citizenship. While some scholars of sexual citizenship have focused on the rights and recognition granted formally by the nation-state and others have stressed more diffuse, cultural perceptions of community and local belonging, we argue that the lived experiences of immigrant sexual citizenship call for multiscalar scrutiny of templates and practices of citizenship that bridge national policies with local connections. Analysis of ethnographic data from a study of 76 Mexican gay and bisexual male immigrants to San Diego, California reveals the specific citizenship templates that these men encounter as they negotiate their intersecting social statuses as gay/bisexual and as immigrants (legal or undocumented); these include an “asylum” template, a “rights” template, and a “local attachments” template. However, the complications of their intersecting identities constrain their capacity to claim immigrant sexual citizenship. The study underscores the importance of both intersectional and multiscalar approaches in research on citizenship as social practice.

Two Decades of Negative Educational Selectivity of Mexican Migrants to the United States

Rendall, Michael S.; Parker, Susan W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.2%
Immigration is commonly considered to be selective of more able individuals. Studies comparing the educational attainment of Mexican immigrants in the United States to that of the Mexican resident population support this characterization. Upward educational-attainment biases in both coverage and measurement, however, may be substantial in U.S. data sources. Moreover, differences in educational attainment by place size are very large within Mexico, and U.S. data sources provide no information on immigrants’ places of origin within Mexico. To address these problems, we use multiple sources of nationally-representative Mexican survey data to re-evaluate the educational selectivity of working-age Mexican migrants to the United States over the 1990s and 2000s. We document disproportionately rural and small-urban-area origins of Mexican migrants and a steep positive gradient of educational attainment by place size. We show that together these conditions induced strongly negative educational selection of Mexican migrants throughout the 1990s and 2000s. We interpret this finding as consistent with low returns to the education of unauthorized migrants and few opportunities for authorized migration.

Measuring Skilled Migration Rates : The Case of Small States

Docquier, Frederic; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.05%
Recent changes in information and communication technologies have contributed to a dramatic increase in the degree of integration and interdependency of countries, markets, and people. Against this background, one aspect of particular concern for small states is the international movement of people. This paper focuses on this particularly important aspect of globalization, with emphasis on the movement of skilled people and its relationship with country size. In addition to overall skilled migration, it provides evidence that controls for migration age in order to distinguish between those educated in the home country and those educated abroad. The authors discuss the growth implications of the brain drain from small countries and policies that may help control it.

Career Placement of Skilled Migrants in the U.S. Labor Market : A Dynamic Approach

Neagu, Ileana Cristina
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
The initial occupational placements of male immigrants in the U.S. labor market vary significantly by country of origin even when education and other factors are taken into account. Does the heterogeneity persist over time? Using data from the 1980, 1990, and 2000 U.S. Censuses, this study finds that the performance of migrants from countries with lower initial occupational placement levels improves at a higher rate compared with that of migrants originating from countries with higher initial levels. Nevertheless, the magnitude of convergence suggests full catch-up is unlikely. Country specific attributes are found to have less direct impact on the rate of assimilation than on the initial performance.

Eliciting Illegal Migration Rates through List Randomization

McKenzie, David; Siegel, Melissa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.06%
Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. This paper trials this technique by adding it to surveys conducted in Ethiopia, Mexico, Morocco, and the Philippines. It shows how, in principal, this can be used both to give an estimate of the overall rate of illegal migration in the population being surveyed, as well as to determine illegal migration rates for subgroups such as more or less educated households. The results suggest that there is some useful information in this method: higher rates of illegal migration in countries where illegal migration is thought to be more prevalent and households who say they have a migrant are more likely to report having an illegal migrant. Nevertheless, some of the other findings also suggest some possible inconsistencies or noise in the conclusions obtained using this method. The authors suggest directions for future attempts to implement this approach in migration surveys.

Human Rights violations: Central American Immigrants at the Northeastern Mexico Border

FERNÁNDEZ ZUBIETA ANA; MARTIN ALVAREZ Alberto
Fonte: The University of Arizona Press Publicador: The University of Arizona Press
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Printed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
25.97%
The conflict that devastated the Central American region in the 1980s and created a dramatic population movement had an effect on the migration patterns of the people in the area and the evolution of self-sustaining social process. This generated new regional migration system. In turn, these processes turned Mexico into a transit country-and in a minor way a destination- for the thousands of migrants coming form Central America and moving to the United States. Because of the particular characteristics of the undocumented migration phenomenon, there is an absence of quantitative information that would allow more precise knowledge of the nature and extent of the problem of human rights violations of Central American migrants crossing Mexican territory. This chapter gathers the results of a research project conducted in the cities of Nuevo Laredo, Reynosa and Matamoros, main border sites in the state of Tamaulipas (Mexico).The analysis confirms that the travel of Central American transit migrants is a high-risk enterprise: almost 5 out of 10 migrants suffer some type of aggression or abuse on their journey through Mexico. The majority of abuses and crimes that migrants suffer remain free from punishment. The study presents some the normative...

Binational Social Networks and Assimilation: A Test of the Importance of Transnationalism

Mouw, Ted; Chavez, Sergio; Edelblute, Heather; Verdery, Ashton
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Journal article; Text; publisher version
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.86%
While the concept of transnationalism has gained widespread popularity among scholars as a way to describe immigrants' long-term maintenance of cross-border ties to their origin communities, critics have argued that the overall proportion of immigrants who engage in transnational behavior is low and that, as a result, transnationalism has little sustained effect on the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation. In this article, we argue that a key shortcoming in the current empirical debate on transnationalism is the lack of data on the social networks that connect migrants to each other and to nonmigrants in communities of origin. To address this shortcoming, our analysis uses unique binational data on the social network connecting an immigrant sending community in Guanajuato, Mexico, to two destination areas in the United States. We test for the effect of respondents' positions in cross-border networks on their migration intentions and attitudes towards the United States using data on the opinions of their peers, their participation in cross-border and local communication networks, and their structural position in the network. The results indicate qualified empirical support for a network-based model of transnationalism; in the U.S. sample we find evidence of network clustering consistent with peer effects...

Essays on Migration: Nexus with Policy, Trade, and Development

Good, Michael
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.21%
This dissertation analyzes the intersection of migration with public policy, international trade, and economic development. The first essay investigates the impact on internal migration for 52 different demographic groups of the recent influx of state omnibus immigration laws targeting undocumented immigrants in the United States. Through a difference-in-differences estimation, I find empirical evidence that while the demographic groups pinpointed as having higher percentages of undocumented immigrants certainly experience population and employment 'outflows' from states implementing these immigration laws, there is a lack of associated 'inflows' for those demographic groups identified by economic theory as being probable substitutes for undocumented immigrants. Several segments designated as probable substitutes actually experience an adverse effect on population and employment. The second essay examines the effect that migrants have on international trade between states of current residence and states of origin. My analysis provides the first results as to the migration-trade nexus at the state level for both places of destination and origin, relying on a unique data set allowing the mapping of Mexican-born migrants' U.S. states of residence to Mexican states of origin. In addition to an augmented gravity model...

International Migration, Remittances, and the Brain Drain

Özden, Çağlar; Schiff, Maurice
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.01%
Knowledge of the economic effects of migration, especially its impact on economic development, is rather limited. In order to expand knowledge on migration, and identify policies and reforms that would lead to superior development outcomes, this volume presents the results of a first set of studies carried out on the subject. Current demographic trends in both developed and developing countries are pointing toward significant, potential economic gains from migration. The labor forces in many developed countries are expected to peak around 2010, and decline by around 5 percent in the following two decades, accompanied by a rapid increase in dependency ratios. Conversely, the labor forces in many developing countries are expanding rapidly, resulting in declines in dependency ratios. This imbalance is likely to create strong demand for workers in developed countries' labor markets, especially for numerous service sectors that can only be supplied locally. There are large north-south wage gaps, however, especially for unskilled and semiskilled labor. Part 1 of this book...

Feasibility and Acceptability of Door-to-Door Rapid HIV Testing Among Latino Immigrants and Their HIV Risk Factors in North Carolina

Wilson, Kate
Fonte: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC Publicador: MARY ANN LIEBERT INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
Latino immigrants in the United States are disproportionally impacted by the HIV epidemic but face barriers to clinic-based testing. We assessed a community-based strategy for rapid HIV testing by conducting "door-to-door'' outreaches in apartments with predominately Latino immigrants in Durham, North Carolina, that has experienced an exponential growth in its Latino population. Eligible persons were 18 years or older, not pregnant, and reported no HIV test in the previous month. Participants were asked to complete a survey and offered rapid HIV testing. Of the 228 Latino participants, 75.4% consented to HIV testing. There was a high prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among participants, with 42.5% acknowledging ever having sex with a commercial sex worker (CSW). Most (66.5%) had no history of prior HIV testing. In bivariate analysis, perceived HIV risk, no history of HIV testing, sex with a CSW, sex in exchange for drugs or money, living with a partner, and alcohol use were significantly associated with test acceptance. In the multivariate analysis, participants who had never been tested for HIV were more likely to consent to rapid HIV testing than those who had tested in the past (adjusted odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]...

Integration from below: Mexicans and other Latinos in the US labor market

Levine,Elaine
Fonte: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados de la Población Publicador: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados de la Población
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
In this article I shall analyze what I consider to be a certain degree of de facto labor market integration between Mexico and the US, which was further accentuated by Nafta, under conditions that are mostly disadvantageous for Mexican migrant workers, in terms of the US context. In the first part of the article I shall briefly analyze labor market conditions in Mexico to explain why low-waged jobs in the US are so attractive to Mexican migrants. I shall then proceed to analyze labor market outcomes for Mexicans and other recent Latino immigrants to the US. I will also look at the relative socioeconomic status of different groups of Latinos and compare their educational attainment, occupational profiles and incomes with those of the non-Hispanic population in the US.

Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

Gudelia Rangel,M.; Martínez-Donate,Ana P.; Hovell,Melbourne F.; Santibáñez,Jorge; Sipan,Carol L.; Izazola-Licea,Jose A.
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.24%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs) in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US), and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico)-San Diego (California, US) border region (N=1 429). RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

Gudelia Rangel,M.; Martínez-Donate,Ana P.; Hovell,Melbourne F.; Santibáñez,Jorge; Sipan,Carol L.; Izazola-Licea,Jose A.
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
126.24%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs) in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US), and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico)-San Diego (California, US) border region (N=1 429). RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.