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Repeated exposure of adolescent rats to oral methylphenidate does not induce behavioral sensitization or cross-sensitization to nicotine

JUSTO, C.C.; CARNEIRO-DE-OLIVEIRA, P.E.; DELUCIA, R.; AIZENSTEIN, M.L.; PLANETA, C.S.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of stimulant drugs, including methylphenidate (MPD), increases tobacco smoking. This has raised concerns that MPD use during adolescence could facilitate nicotine abuse. Preclinical studies have shown that repeated treatment with an addictive drug produces sensitization to that drug and usually cross-sensitization to other drugs. Behavioral sensitization has been implicated in the development of drug addiction. We examined whether repeated oral MPD administration during adolescence could induce behavioral sensitization to MPD and long-lasting cross-sensitization to nicotine. Adolescent male Wistar rats were treated orally with 10 mg/kg MPD or saline (SAL) from postnatal day (PND) 27 to 33. To evaluate behavioral sensitization to MPD in adolescent rats (PND 39), the SAL pretreated group was subdivided into two groups that received intragastric SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or MPD (10 mg/kg); MPD pretreated rats received MPD (10 mg/kg). Cross-sensitization was evaluated on PND 39 or PND 70 (adulthood). To this end, SAL- and MPD-pretreated groups received subcutaneous injections of SAL (1.0 mL/kg) or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg). All groups had 8 animals. Immediately after injections, locomotor activity was determined. The locomotor response to MPD challenge of MPD-pretreated rats was not significantly different from that of the SAL-pretreated group. Moreover...

Do Phenotypic Characteristics, Parental Psychopathology, Family Functioning, and Environmental Stressors Have a Role in the Response to Methylphenidate in Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? A Naturalistic Study From a Developing Country

CHAZAN, Rodrigo; BOROWSKI, Carolina; PIANCA, Thiago; LUDWIG, Henrique; ROHDE, Luis Augusto; POLANCZYK, Guilherme
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Little is known about the effect of clinical characteristics, parental psychopathology, family functioning, and environmental stressors in the response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) followed up in a naturalistic setting. Data from cultures outside the United States are extremely scarce. This is a longitudinal study using a nonrandom assignment, quasi-experimental design. One hundred twenty-five children with ADHD were treated with methylphenidate according to standard clinical procedures, and followed up for 6 months. The severity of ADHD symptoms was assessed by the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale. In the final multivariate model, ADHD combined subtype (P < 0.001) and comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (P = 0.03) were both predictors of a worse clinical response. In addition, the levels of maternal ADHD symptoms were also associated with worse prognosis (P < 0.001). In the context of several adverse psychosocial factors assessed, only undesired pregnancy was associated with poorer response to methylphenidate in the final comprehensive-model (P = 0.02). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of clinical characteristics, maternal psychopathology, and environmental stressors in the response to methylphenidate. Clinicians may consider adjuvant strategies when negative predictors are present to increase the chances of success with methylphenidate treatment.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq...

Avaliação neuropsicológica da funções executivas e da atenção antes e depois do uso do metilfenidato em crianças com transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade; Neuropsychological assessment of the executive functions and attention, before and after the use of Methylphenidate, in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Bolfer, Cristiana Pacheco Martini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/12/2014 PT
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OBJETIVOS: Analisar se os testes neuropsicológicos de atenção e funções executivas apresentam correlação, em crianças com TDAH subtipo combinado, com o diagnóstico e evolução clínica após tratamento com metilfenidato, e propor um protocolo, com testes mais significantes. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo longitudinal foram selecionados 23 meninos, nove a 12 anos de idade, diagnóstico de TDAH sem comorbidades, estabelecido segundo os critérios do DSM-IV, QI >= 89, não previamente medicados para TDAH, que soubessem ler e escrever e estivessem em acompanhamento no Ambulatório de Distúrbios de Aprendizagem do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP. Foram utilizados os seguintes instrumentos: Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças (WISC III), Teste Psicofísico Para Atenção Visual Voluntária (TPAVV), Teste de Cancelamento, Teste das Trilhas partes A e B, Teste de Stroop e Teste de Atenção Visual - Terceira Edição (TAVIS 3R). O experimento corresponde a duas etapas: avaliações clínica e neuropsicológica da atenção e das funções executivas dos pacientes com TDAH; e reavaliação, com os mesmos testes, após três meses de terapia medicamentosa, usando-se metilfenidato. Comparou-se o desempenho dos testes, com o grupo controle (n=30)...

Avaliação da eficácia e tolerabilidade da risperidona e do metilfenidato na redução de sintomas do transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade em crianças e adolescentes com retardo mental moderado; Risperidone and Methylphenidate in Reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Moderate Mental Retardation

Correia Filho, Alceu Gomes
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O artigo apresenta um ensaio clínico cujo objetivo foi avaliar a eficácia e tolerabilidade, a curto prazo, da Risperidona e do Metilfenidato na redução de sintomas do Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade (TDAH) em crianças e adolescentes com Retardo Mental Moderado (RMM) que preencheram os critérios do DSM-IV para TDAH. Foram acompanhados, durante 4 semanas, 46 pacientes com diagnóstico de RMM e TDAH que receberam metilfenidato ou risperidona. As medidas de eficácia foram avaliadas através da aplicação das escalas “Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham” – SNAP-IV e do Formulário Nisonger Para Avaliação do Comportamento da Criança. Os efeitos colaterais das medicações foram detectados através da aplicação das escalas “Barkley’s Side-Effects Rating Scale” (SERS) e da “Ugvald for Kliniske Undersgelser”(UKU). Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos no final do ensaio (todos os TE ≤ 0.27). Ocorreu uma significativa redução de peso nos pacientes do grupo do metilfenidato e um significativo ganho de peso nos pacientes do grupo da risperidona. Nossos achados preliminares sugerem que tanto a risperidona como o metilfenidato podem ser eficazes na redução de sintomas do TDAH nestes pacientes com Retardo Mental Moderado. O perfil dos efeitos colaterais pode ser importante na decisão da medicação a ser escolhida.; The article describes a clinical trial. The objective was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and tolerability of risperidone and methylphenidate (MPH) in reducing symptoms related to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents with Moderate Mental Retardation (MMR) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. In a 4-week...

Lithium and methylphenidate : opposite effects on perirenal brown fat; Lítio e metilfenidato : efeitos opostos sobre a gordura perirrenal

Oliveira, José Menna; Crema, Leonardo Machado; Diehl, Luisa Amalia; Pettenuzzo, Letícia Ferreira; Bertinetti, Liane Tavares; Dalmaz, Carla; Rocha, Elizabete Rocha da
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
ENG
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Objetivo: Avaliar como a administração de lítio afeta o tecido adiposo marrom (perirrenal) e branco (inguinal) e se o metilfenidato modula os efeitos do lítio. Métodos: Vinte e cinco ratos Wistar adultos machos foram alimentados com ração normal ou contendo lítio por 30 dias. Entre os dias 15 e 30 de tratamento, os animais receberam doses intraperitoneais diárias de metilfenidato ou solução salina. Resultados: A administração de lítio reduziu signifi cativamente a gordura perirrenal. Esse efeito foi reduzido com a administração de metilfenidato. Não houve diferenças signifi cativas entre os grupos em relação à gordura inguinal. Conclusão: Os achados sugerem que efeitos diferenciados sobre os tecidos adiposos marrom e branco podem estar envolvidos no ganho de peso induzido pelo tratamento com lítio.; Objective: To evaluate the effects of the administration of lithium to adult rats on brown (perirenal) and white (inguinal) adipose tissues and to assess whether methylphenidate modulates lithium effects. Methods: Twenty-fi ve adult male Wistar rats were fed with either regular or lithium-containing chow for 30 days. Between days 15 to 30 of treatment, animals received daily intraperitoneal administrations of either methylphenidate or saline. Results: Lithium signifi cantly reduced perirenal fat...

The effect of methylphenidate on oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

Serra-Pinheiro,Maria Antonia; Mattos,Paulo; Souza,Isabella; Pastura,Giuseppe; Gomes,Fernanda
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Neurologia - ABNEURO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2004 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of methylphenidate on the diagnosis of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: We conducted an open-label study in which 10 children and adolescents with a dual diagnosis of ODD and ADHD were assessed for their ODD symptoms and treated with methylphenidate. At least one month after ADHD symptoms were under control, ODD symptoms were reevaluated with the Parent form of the Children Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (P-ChIPS). RESULTS: Nine of the 10 patients no longer fulfilled diagnostic criteria for ODD after they were treated with methylphenidate for ADHD. CONCLUSION: Methylphenidate seems to be an effective treatment for ODD, as well as for ADHD itself. The implications for the treatment of patients with ODD not comorbid with ADHD needs further investigation.

Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

Perini,Edson; Junqueira,Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana,Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz,Tatiana Chama Borges
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
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OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note...

Lithium and methylphenidate: opposite effects on perirenal brown fat

Oliveira,José Menna; Crema,Leonardo Machado; Diehl,Luísa Amália; Pettenuzzo,Letícia Ferreira; Bertinette,Liane Tavares; Dalmaz,Carla; Rocha,Elizabete Rocha da
Fonte: Sociedade de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Sociedade de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the administration of lithium to adult rats on brown (perirenal) and white (inguinal) adipose tissues and to assess whether methylphenidate modulates lithium effects. METHODS: Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were fed with either regular or lithium-containing chow for 30 days. Between days 15 to 30 of treatment, animals received daily intraperitoneal administrations of either methylphenidate or saline. RESULTS: Lithium significantly reduced perirenal fat, and this effect was minimized by the administration of methylphenidate. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of the effects of lithium on inguinal fat. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that different effects on white and brown tissue distribution may be involved in lithium-induced weight gain.

Use of methylphenidate among medical students: a systematic review

Finger,Guilherme; Silva,Emerson Rodrigues da; Falavigna,Asdrubal
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 EN
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OBJECTIVE: To review the effects of methylphenidate on cognitive enhancement, memory, and performance in medical students. METHODS: A review of four databases (LILACS, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and SciELO), analyzing the title and of all articles published between 1990 and 2012 in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Selected articles were read in entirety, including in the review those that met the established criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of use among medical students reached 16%, with no gender difference. Most students began using the drug after entering the university, and the reasons cited to justify it are related to enhancing academic performance. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence in the literature that the use of methylphenidate is beneficial in terms of memory or learning. The drug simply increases wakefulness and alertness, reducing the time of sleep.

Pulmonary emphysema induced by methylphenidate: experimental study

Rapello,Gabriel Victor Guimarães; Antoniolli,Andréia; Pereira,Daniel Martins; Facco,Gilberto; Pêgo-Fernandes,Paulo Manuel; Pazetti,Rogério
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2015 EN
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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate is the most widely used drug for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, it has important side effects, such as abdominal pain, insomnia, anorexia and loss of appetite, and also some cases of early severe emphysema after drug abuse have been reported. Our aim was to investigate the development of pulmonary emphysema in rats that were subjected to different doses of methylphenidate. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study carried out at the laboratory of a public university. METHODS: Eighteen male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (0.9% saline solution); MP 0.8 (methylphenidate, 0.8 mg/kg); MP 1.2 (methylphenidate, 1.2 mg/kg). After 90 days of daily gavage, the animals were sacrificed and lung tissue samples were prepared for analysis on the mean alveolar diameter (Lm). RESULTS: The Lm was greater in MP 0.8 (47.91 ± 3.13; P < 0.01) and MP 1.2 (46.36 ± 4.39; P < 0.05) than in the control group (40.00 ± 3.48). CONCLUSION: Methylphenidate caused an increase in the alveolar diameter of rats, which was compatible with human pulmonary emphysema.

Evaluation of light/dark cycle in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors after regular treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride in rats of different ages

Gomes,Karin M.; Souza,Renan P.; Inácio,Cecília G.; Valvassori,Samira S.; Réus,Gislaine Z.; Martins,Márcio R.; Comim,Clarissa M.; Quevedo,João
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
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OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate hydrochloride is the most widely used medication for treatment and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the chronic effects of methylphenidate hydrochloride on anxiety- and depressive-like rat behaviors remain poorly investigated. In this context, the present study evaluated the effects of treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride on anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors using young and adult rats during the light and the dark cycle. METHOD: Male Wistar rats (25 or 60 days old) received a once-daily (in either the light or dark cycle) methylphenidate hydrochloride (2mg/kg) or saline intraperitoneal injection for 28 days. We performed elevated plus maze and forced swimming test two hours after the last injection. RESULTS: The light/dark cycle was a significant factor in the anxiety-like behaviors; however, no significant interaction between all three factors (cycle, age and methylphenidate hydrochloride) was found. Nevertheless, we observed a nominally significant interaction between the light/ dark cycle and age in the forced swimming test. CONCLUSION: Our results have shown that age and the light/dark cycle are more significant modulators of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors than methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment.

Non-medical use of methylphenidate: a review

Freese,Luana; Signor,Luciana; Machado,Cassio; Ferigolo,Maristela; Barros,Helena Maria Tannhauser
Fonte: Associação de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Associação de Psiquiatria do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 EN
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INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant medication used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy. However, it has also been used for non-medical purposes, e.g. to produce euphoria, to increase self-esteem, and to achieve the so-called neurocognitive enhancement, decreasing the feeling of tiredness and increasing focus and attention. OBJECTIVE: To describe, from theoretical and contextual points of view, the potential for abuse and non-medical use of methylphenidate. METHOD: The PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane databases were searched using the following keywords in Portuguese: metilfenidato, transtorno do déficit de atenção com hiperatividade, facilitadores dos processos cognitivos or agentes nootrópicos, and abuso de substâncias; and in English: methylphenidate, attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity, cognitive enhancement or nootropic agents, and substance abuse. Studies published between 1990 and 2010 were selected for review. RESULTS: Non-medical use of methylphenidate is a relevant topic that raises important ethical and scientific questions in several areas, e.g. pharmacological and neurobiological characteristics, evidence of methylphenidate use, forms of non-medical use of methylphenidate...

Interferência do cloridrato de metilfenidato no desempenho de escolares com transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade; The interference of methylphenidate hydrochloride in school performance of students with attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity disorder

Bezerra, Claudia Santos Gonçalves Barreto
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde (FM); Faculdade de Medicina - FM (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde (FM); Faculdade de Medicina - FM (RG)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
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The attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder provided in the International C lassification of Diseases (ICD) characterizing a continuing pattern of attention deficit and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity with more intense and higher rates than what presented by individuals at the same development level. This dissertation was organized u sing the models of scientific articles analyzing the results from school performance by students of the Colégio de Aplicação (a school maintained by a university) of the Federal University of Goiás, 7 to 14 age group with and without ADHD diagnosis. Initia lly, the prospective observational study to assess comparative effectiveness involved 355 students and investigated the results from school performance by 60 of them before and during Methylphenidate - based treatment (MPH) and psychotherapy compared with th e control group. The students had their school performance and treatment adherence monitored for the first eight months. The literature review on the theme is presented in the first article submitted to the journal “Revista Ciência & Saúde Coletiva” (Journ al of Science and Collective Health), entitled “ Methylphenidate - based treatment and school performance by students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder : integrative literature review”. The review included scientific articles published from 2006 to 2013. Six hundred and sixteen out of the 629 articles found did not meet the criteria for inclusion and 13 were part of the sample. Most of the studies emphasized that the group of children with ADHD undergoing methylphenidate - based treatment improved the ir performance compared with the group of children with ADHD with no records for the treatment and stimulant - based therapies are more beneficial in the long term. The second article...

Die Behandlung der adulten Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitäts-Störung (ADHS) mit Methylphenidat versus Atomoxetin: systematische Review; Treatment of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with methylphenidate versus atomoxetine: systematic review

Maier, Miriam Alexandra
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
DE_DE
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Die Medikation der adulten Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-Hyperaktivitäts-Störung wird kontrovers diskutiert. Die Psychostimulanzien, für Erwachsene zu diesem Zweck nicht zugelassen und möglicherweise mit Missbrauchspotenzial behaftet, bilden trotzdem den Standard. Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Evaluation der Effektivität des Methylphenidates, eines Stimulans, im Vergleich mit Atomoxetin, einem noradrenergen Antidepressivum (vom FDA (Food and Drug Administration) für die Behandlung adulter ADHS zugelassen), anhand vorhandener Literatur. Es wurden über Medline, Pubmed, Web Of Science, PsycINFO und die Referenzen jeder gefundenen Publikation randomisierte, kontrollierte Therapiestudien zu beiden Medikamenten identifiziert und systematisch ausgewertet. Zehn Studien (insgesamt 524 Patienten) mit Methylphenidat und drei mit Atomoxetin (558 Patienten) entsprachen den Einschlusskriterien. Die Ergebnisse der Methylphenidatstudien sind inkonsistent, möglicherweise aufgrund methodischer Mängel, geben aber Hinweise auf die Effektivität des Medikamentes. Die Studien zu Atomoxetin liefern einheitlichere Daten und dokumentieren verlässlicher die Effektivität. Die verfügbare Literatur zeigt positive Wirkung beider Medikamente für die Behandlung der adulten ADHS. Für Atomoxetin lässt sich diese besser belegen. Es fehlen aber qualitativ hochwertige Langzeitstudien sowie direkte Vergleichsstudien zwischen den beiden Medikamenten. Es muss eine Ablösung des Methylphenidates als 1st-line Medikation der adulten ADHS durch Atomoxetin in Erwägung gezogen werden.; The medication of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has been under controversal discussion. Psychostimulant medication...

Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

Cubero-Mill??n, Isabel; Molina-Carballo, Antonio; Machado-Casas, Irene; Fern??ndez-L??pez, Luisa; Mart??nez-Serrano, Sylvia; Tortosa-Pinto, Pilar; Ruiz-L??pez, Aida; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Uberos, Jos??; Mu??oz-Hoyos, Antonio
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1) the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2) the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria) were divided into subgroups using the ???Children???s Depression Inventory??? (CDI). Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ?? 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD) of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile...

Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Machado,Felipe Salles Neves; Caetano,Sheila Cavalcante; Hounie,Ana Gabriela; Scivoletto,Sandra; Muszkat,Mauro; Gattás,Ivete Gianfaldoni; Casella,Erasmo Barbante; Andrade,Ênio Roberto de; Polanczyk,Guilherme Vanoni; Rosário,Maria Conceição do
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
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A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS) article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

Examining discourses on the ethics and public understanding of cognitive enhancement with methylphenidate

Forlini, Cynthia
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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L’émergence de l’utilisation du méthylphénidate (MPH; Ritalin) par des étudiants universitaires afin d’améliorer leur concentration et leurs performances universitaires suscite l’intérêt du public et soulève d’importants débats éthiques auprès des spécialistes. Les différentes perspectives sur l’amélioration des performances cognitives représentent une dimension importante des défis sociaux et éthiques autour d’un tel phénomène et méritent d’être élucidées. Ce mémoire vise à examiner les discours présents dans les reportages internationaux de presse populaire, les discours en bioéthique et en en santé publique sur le thème de l’utilisation non médicale du méthylphénidate. Cette recherche a permis d’identifier et d’analyser des « lacunes » dans les perspectives éthiques, sociales et scientifiques de l’utilisation non médicale du méthylphénidate pour accroître la performance cognitive d’individus en santé. Une analyse systématique du contenu des discours sur l’utilisation non médicale du méthylphénidate pour accroître la performance cognitive a identifié des paradigmes divergents employés pour décrire l’utilisation non médicale du méthylphénidate et discuter ses conséquences éthiques. Les paradigmes « choix de mode de vie »...

Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato; Side effects of methylphenidate

Pastura, Giuseppe; Mattos, Paulo
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto de Psiquiatria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2004 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.23%
OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.; OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH). FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo...

Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Machado,Felipe Salles Neves; Caetano,Sheila Cavalcante; Hounie,Ana Gabriela; Scivoletto,Sandra; Muszkat,Mauro; Gattás,Ivete Gianfaldoni; Casella,Erasmo Barbante; Andrade,Ênio Roberto de; Polanczyk,Guilherme Vanoni; Rosário,Maria Conceição do
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.34%
A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS) article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate.

Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

Perini,Edson; Junqueira,Daniela Rezende Garcia; Lana,Lorena Gomes Cunha; Luz,Tatiana Chama Borges
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.41%
OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note...