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Uniformidade na aplicação localizada de fertilizantes à taxa variada: estudo de caso; Uniform application of fertilizers located at variable rates: a case study

Barreto Junior, Erik Augusto
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/11/2013 PT
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46.37%
A operação de adubação responde por parte significativa dos custos de produção agrícola. Melhorar a qualidade dessa operação acarreta benefícios econômicos e ambientais. O processo de adubação normalmente é realizado a uma taxa média, representativa de uma área, no entanto, propriedades químicas do solo podem variar consideravelmente dentro dessa área. Desse modo, alguns locais poderão receber fertilizantes e/ou corretivos em excesso, enquanto outros poderão receber quantidades insuficientes. A alternativa à taxa média é a realizar a aplicação à taxa variada, que se caracteriza por aplicar os insumos de acordo com as necessidades específicas dentro da área. Para que essa aplicação aconteça, mecanismos dosadores controlam a aplicação. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os mecanismos dosadores de uma carreta adubadora de arrasto, comportas e esteiras, atendem as prescrições de doses previstas no mapa de recomendação de adubação. Para avaliar a uniformidade da operação utilizou-se o controle estatístico do processo. De acordo com os resultados obtidos pode-se afirmar que os mecanismos dosadores não atenderam a condição de realizar a aplicação à taxa variável de maneira uniforme.; The operation fertilization accounts for a significant portion of the costs of agricultural production. Improve the quality of this operation entails economic and environmental benefits. The process of fertilization is usually performed at an average rate representative of an area...

Desenvolvimento de um mecanismo articulado para reproduzir a passada humana para teste de conforto em calçados; Development of an articulated mechanism to reproduce the human walking pattern for footwear comfort test

Markus, André Tura
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Este trabalho visa a concepção de um mecanismo articulado para reproduzir a passada humana em testes de conforto de calçados. Para tal, a posição linear de pontos-chave da geometria do pé são capturados através de técnicas de cinemetria. A partir desses dados é realizada uma análise cinemática, criando-se assim três propostas de configuração para a geometria do mecanismo, cujas características de movimentação são avaliadas por meio de simulação numérica. A comparação dos resultados das simulações com os dados experimentais permite constatar que um movimento dos mecanismos propostos é similar ao de um pé real, mas que ainda há a necessidade de melhorias tanto no processo de medição como na estrutura dos mecanismos propostos, diminuindo os valores de desvio, para que os níveis de fidelidade de movimentação sejam considerados plenamente satisfatórios.; This work aims to develop an articulated mechanism to reproduce the human walking pattern for footwear comfort test. To this end, the linear position of key points of the geometry of the foot are captured through cinemetry methods. From this data, a kinematic analysis is performed, creating three configuration proposals of the geometry of the mechanism...

Danos em sementes de milho em função do mecanismo dosador de semeadora-adubadora

Serrano, Aline Cristina
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: x, 39 p : il.
POR
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25.96%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Agronomia (Produção Vegetal) - FCAV; Programas de controle de qualidade de sementes são cada vez mais importantes, visto que o mercado é cada vez mais competitivo. O processo de semeadura deve acontecer de forma a evitar que danificações mecânicas ocorram e venham a prejudicar a qualidade da semente. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito dos danos mecânicos causados pelos mecanismos dosadores de sementes, sobre a qualidade física e fisiológica de sementes de milho de formatos diferentes e seu desempenho na produtividade. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão da Unesp/Jaboticabal, SP, e no laboratório de Controle da Qualidade na unidade da Syngenta Seeds na cidade de Matão, SP. Utilizou-se esquema fatorial 2x3 sob delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com tratamentos sob dois tipos de mecanismos dosadores de sementes (mecânico e pneumático), em função de três formatos de sementes de milho (chata, espessa e redonda), com quatro repetições, perfazendo um total de 24 parcelas. As amostras de sementes foram coletadas após a passagem pelos sistemas dosadores. Foram analisadas as variáveis referentes a qualidade física e fisiológica: teor de água...

Estudo de mecanismo dosador de manivas para plantadora de mandioca

Mazute, Juliano
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: xxii, 263 p. | il., tabs., grafs.
POR
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26.51%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica, Florianópolis, 2014.; Este trabalho foi focado na aplicação e na adequação da metodologia PRODIP para o desenvolvimento do Mecanismo Dosador para Plantio de Mandioca. O Mecanismo Dosador é um equipamento importante para a tecnificação da atividade de plantio do órgão de propagação(maniva) da cultura da mandioca, do ponto de vista da automação do processo, da diminuição do esforço humano na atividade, da precisão do plantio, do aumento da produtividade da área plantada e da diminuição dos custos de produção. O Mecanismo dosador é o "coração" da máquina de plantio. Para suprir as necessidades identificadas, estudou-se os métodos para o desenvolvimento do produto, em cada uma de suas fases, cujos requisitos do consumidor e do projeto, fundamentaram-se na pesquisa primária de "avaliação das características físicas das manivas para desenvolvimento de mecanismos dosadores", e de "identificação de atributos que influenciam na aquisição de uma plantadora de mandioca" e na pesquisa secundária feita na literatura técnica requerida para o desenvolvimento do projeto. Este trabalho apresenta todas as fases do desenvolvimento do dosador...

Comparison of metering mechanisms of corn seed

Weirich Neto,Pedro H.; Justino,Altair; Namur,Rodrigo T.; Domingues,José; Garcia,Luiz C.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2012 EN
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46.46%
It was compared the performance of the metering mechanism of corn seeds (Zea mays) in direct seeding in an area of ​​200 ha, a property in Piraí do Sul, State of Paraná - PR, in Brazil. It was seeded 4 maize hybrids, 50 ha of each, with seeds of different sieves. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design (RBD), with 3 treatments and 9 repetitions for each corn hybrid. The treatments were the pneumatic seed of metering mechanisms, horizontal perforated disc with and without ramp®. The plots were 40 m² and were distributed at the early, middle and late sowing. The variables analyzed in each corn hybrid were initial population, faulty spacing, multiple spacing, acceptable spacing, and yield components. As there were no significant differences in the variables, it was concluded that the quality of seeding with different systems of distribution was similar in the different sieves of distributed corn seeds.

India - Improving Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Services : Lessons from Business Plans for Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Haryana and International Good Practices

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The purpose of this report is to distill lessons learnt for improving Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services in India, by reference to the recent WSS business plans prepared for the three states of Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Haryana and from various studies carried out by the World Bank on international good practices in urban water service delivery. The report culls out the core elements of the WSS reform program and proposes how such reforms might be implemented. The intended audience for this report is policy makers at the national and state levels, sector professionals and practitioners. The report identifies the key elements of a state-wide program for improving WSS services and accountability on the basis of the following three pillars: i) policies and institutions: appropriate policies and institutional arrangements that clarify the roles and responsibilities of key actors, and which create service providers that are efficient, accountable and customer focused with sufficient autonomy to manage their affairs in a professional manner; ii) infrastructure and financing: medium term infrastructure development program with appropriate financial frameworks that encourage service providers to rely increasingly on user fees and...

Improving Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Services : Advisory Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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The purpose of this report is to distill lessons learnt for improving Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) services in India, by reference to the recent WSS business plans prepared for the three states of Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Haryana and from various studies carried out by the World Bank on international good practices in urban water service delivery. The report culls out the core elements of the WSS reform program and proposes how such reforms might be implemented. The intended audience for this report is policy makers at the national and state levels, sector professionals and practitioners. The report identifies the key elements of a state-wide program for improving WSS services and accountability on the basis of the following three pillars: i) policies and institutions: appropriate policies and institutional arrangements that clarify the roles and responsibilities of key actors, and which create service providers that are efficient, accountable and customer focused with sufficient autonomy to manage their affairs in a professional manner; ii) infrastructure and financing: medium term infrastructure development program with appropriate financial frameworks that encourage service providers to rely increasingly on user fees and...

A Review in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan : Benchmarking for Performance Improvement in Urban Utilities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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Performance benchmarking is a powerful tool to make service providers more accountable, and to measure progress while improving performance. This review examines the introduction of performance benchmarking in over 30 urban water utilities across Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan since 2003, with the support of their respective governments and the Water and Sanitation Program - South Asia. It focuses on the process of building systems for performance measurement, monitoring and analysis, and institutionalizing benchmarking as an integral part of operational practice in utilities and government, to support broader sector reforms. The findings reveal that most utilities are performing poorly, and just how dire the state of service provision really is across the towns and cities of South Asia: 1) no water utility in Bangladesh, India or Pakistan provides its customers with continuous water; the average is five hours a day; 2) water utilities do not serve at least a third of urban residents; 3) high nonrevenue water-frequently estimated above 40 percent-means a large volume of water is being lost through leaks...

Análisis del balance neto fotovoltaico

Arribas González, César
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/masterThesis Formato: application/pdf
SPA
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El presente documento tiene como objeto principal llevar a cabo un análisis del autoconsumo fotovoltaico a través del balance neto, así como de la normativa que lo regula. En el desarrollo de este estudio se analizarán los objetivos que pretende la nueva ley, que será previsiblemente aprobada en pocos meses en nuestro país. Además, se recogerán los beneficios e inconvenientes que conlleva, los mecanismos y el equipamiento técnico necesarios para su implantación y el potencial impacto de este cambio regulador en el suministro de energía eléctrica. Además, se estudiarán los distintos modelos de generación de energía: el centralizado y el distribuido o embebido en el que se basa el autoconsumo, reflejando su evolución a lo largo del tiempo. Se introducirá el concepto de autoconsumo y se explicará en qué consiste y los cambios que conlleva para el modelo actual. No se puede evaluar el impacto de una medida sin ser conocedores del contexto en el que se produce. Por ello, se hará un breve recorrido por la historia reciente de las energías renovables en nuestro país y su contribución al sector de la electricidad, especialmente en el caso de la energía solar fotovoltaica. Se pondrá especial atención en los recientes cambios normativos; desde el Real Decreto-ley 1/2012...

Republic of Belarus : Municipal Water Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Infrastructure Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This paper offers a diagnostic of the water and wastewater sector for the Republic of Belarus, addressing the sector's institutional, organizational, technical, and economic aspects, with a specific focus on urban areas. Significant national investment programs have enabled Belarus to significantly improve the quality of water and wastewater services, but major challenges remain. Water utilities show an overall acceptable performance that could be improved upon, especially in small towns. The sector's legal and institutional framework is well-defined and functional, but an insufficient operational regulation undermines the efficiency of services. The water and wastewater sector in Belarus urgently requires modernization. This review recommends that utilities be regionalized to generate economies of scale; the capacities, means, and resources be pooled; and access to funds be facilitated. Utility regulation needs to be reinforced by the introduction of benchmarking or yardstick competition, and by the set-up of performance-based contracts with their asset-owners. Key recommendations to improve the efficiency of utility operations include the development of a performance-oriented management culture and the involvement of the private sector.

A Water Sector Assessment Report on the Countries of the Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The main objective of the Water Sector Review in the member countries the Cooperation Council of the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) is to (1) conduct a diagnosis of the current situation of the water sector, identify issues in the GCC region, evaluate the GCC governments' current water policies, and propose recommendations for improved Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Phase I of the study; (2) present key findings and recommendations at the GCC Water Conference in Bahrain, September 19-20, 2005, where Government officials, academic specialists and technical experts from the region would provide inputs to this study; and (3) if amenable to the GCC governments, conduct Phase II of the study to develop specific policies and action plans for more sustainable water resources management in individual GCC states.

Egypt : Operational Framework for Integrated Rural Sanitation Service Delivery

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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The Framework presented in this report links - for the first time in the Egyptian context - access to investment in rural sanitation services to quantifiable water quality (and health) improvements, in a given hydrologic basin. The Framework provides an integrated, institutional structure of relevant Government agencies and of serviced communities, which is built on integrated water resources management (IWRM) principles: treating water as a holistic resource, management at the lowest appropriate level, and inclusive stakeholder participation. The Framework's specific objectives include: 100% coverage of all houses within each project village with access to improved sanitation services; effective facilities for wastewater disposal; discontinued practice of discharging untreated domestic wastewaters into irrigation drains, canals, or storm drains; and, cost-effective measures for solid waste management. This Framework uses the hydrologic basin as the basic geographical unit to manage the quality of water in irrigation drains and canals, while envisaging a Strategic Management Unit at the national level, accountable to a Framework Advisory Board. The Management Unit will define water quality and other national goals for each hydrologic basin...

Empowering Rural India - Expanding Electricity Access by Mobilizing Local Resources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Rural Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This document intends to facilitate further discussion of the necessary steps to implement and institutionalize the proposed business models and to introduce the necessary policy and regulatory changes. The remainder of the report is presented in four chapters. Chapter two presents the options available to the utility to address the issue of making electricity accessible to rural areas. It further develops the economic framework for identifying markets that are attractive to distributed generation and supply (DG&S) and the financial mechanisms for ensuring that the model becomes commercially viable for investors as well as utilities. The financial analysis has been undertaken based on the primary and secondary data collected from selected districts in the states of Maharashtra and Haryana. Chapter three summarizes the national and international precedents for enhancing electricity access though various models that involve distributed generation in off-grid or grid-connected mode private-sector participation in the form of franchisees. Chapter four describes the framework for implementing the DG&S model described in chapter one. It explains how the model will work and discusses such issues as selecting a DG&S operator and the position's relevant responsibilities...

Do Pro-Poor Policies Increase Water Coverage? An Analysis of Service Delivery in Kampala's Informal Settlements

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Uganda is one of the poorest countries in Africa with a gross national income (GNI) per capita in 2010 of United States (U.S.) $500 compared with the Sub-Saharan regional average of $1,170. Uganda's population growth of over 3 percent per year, one of the highest in the world, puts a considerable strain on public sector service delivery, not just for water and sanitation but also in other areas such as health, education, and transport. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the pro-poor policies introduced by the National Water and Sewerage Corporation (NWSC) between 2004 and 2010, by analyzing the effectiveness, efficiency, and equity of these policies and strategies implemented by the Government of Uganda (GoU) and NWSC to increase coverage of urban water supply services in poor settlements. The study focuses exclusively on the area of Kampala city, the capital of Uganda, as this constitutes the largest service area of the NWSC - with approximately 60 percent of its connections and 64 percent of its revenues. The assessment of the impact of the pro-poor policies on the poor in Kampala is based on an analysis of the effectiveness...

A Transitory Regime : Water Supply in Conakry, Guinea

Menard, Claude; Clarke, George
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
EN_US
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Both consumers and the government benefited from reform of the water system in Conakry, Guinea, whose deterioration since independence had become critical by the mid-1980s. Less than 40 percent of Conakry's population had access to piped water - low even by regional standards - and service was intermittent, at best, for the few who had connections. The public agency in charge of the sector was inefficient, overstaffed, and virtually insolvent. In several ways, the reform introduced to the sector in 1989 under a World Bank-led project was remarkable. It showed that even in a weak institutional environment, where contracts are hard to enforce and political interference is common, private sector participation can improve sector performance. The authors discuss the mechanisms that made progress possible and identify factors that inhibit the positive effects of reform. Water has become very expensive, the number of connections has increased very slowly, and conflicts have developed between SEEG (the private operator) and SONEG (the state agency). Among the underlying problems: a) The lack of strong, stable institutions. b) The lack of an independent agency capable of restraining arbitrary government action, regulating the private operator...

Western Balkans : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
ENGLISH; EN_US
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Within the six countries of the Western Balkans, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia, energy efficiency (EE) is increasingly seen as a key pillar in national energy strategies, helping to enhance energy security, contribute to economic growth, and ensure environmental sustainability. This is for several reasons. EE can reduce the region's heavy reliance on expensive imports, enhance competitiveness and job creation, and reduce the impact of widespread fossil fuel use. EE can also bring important social benefits, helping to improve local air quality (mitigating related adverse health impacts), improve indoor comfort levels through improved heating, and make energy more affordable for low-income families. Finally, EE is seen as a critical tool in helping to mitigate the effects of necessary and planned tariff reforms by offsetting the higher energy costs to the entire economy. To realize these benefits, the Western Balkans countries will have to shift from broad policies and small-scale pilots to scaled-up financing and implementation. There is an urgent need to develop viable financing models in all sectors...

The Adaptive Aerosol Delivery (AAD) Technology: Past, Present, and Future

Denyer, John; Dyche, Tony
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Conventional aerosol delivery systems and the availability of new technologies have led to the development of “intelligent” nebulizers such as the I-neb Adaptive Aerosol Delivery (AAD) System. Based on the AAD technology, the I-neb AAD System has been designed to continuously adapt to changes in the patient's breathing pattern, and to pulse aerosol only during the inspiratory part of the breathing cycle. This eliminates waste of aerosol during exhalation, and creates a foundation for precise aerosol (dose) delivery. To facilitate the delivery of precise metered doses of aerosol to the patient, a unique metering chamber design has been developed. Through the vibrating mesh technology, the metering chamber design, and the AAD Disc function, the aerosol output rate and metered (delivered) dose can be tailored to the demands of the specific drug to be delivered. In the I-neb AAD System, aerosol delivery is guided through two algorithms, one for the Tidal Breathing Mode (TBM), and one for slow and deep inhalations, the Target Inhalation Mode (TIM). The aim of TIM is to reduce the treatment time by increasing the total inhalation time per minute, and to increase lung deposition by reducing impaction in the upper airways through slow and deep inhalations. A key feature of the AAD technology is the patient feedback mechanisms that are provided to guide the patient on delivery performance. These feedback signals...

Reengineering GSM/GPRS Towards a Dedicated Network for Massive Smart Metering

Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanović, Čedomir; Popovski, Petar
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/10/2014
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GSM is a synonym for a major success in wireless technology, achieving widespread use and high technology ma- turity. However, its future is questionable, as many stakeholders indicate that the GSM spectrum should be refarmed for LTE. On the other hand, the advent of smart grid and the ubiquity of smart meters will require reliable, long-lived wide area connections. This motivates to investigate the potential of GSM to be evolved into a dedicated network for smart metering. We introduce simple mechanisms to reengineer the access control in GSM. The result is a system that offers excellent support for smart metering, as well as the other massive machine-to-machine traffic patterns that are envisioned in 3GPP.; Comment: SmartGridComm 2014

Heavy traffic on a controlled motorway

Kelly, F. P.; Williams, R. J.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/02/2010
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Unlimited access to a motorway network can, in overloaded conditions, cause a loss of capacity. Ramp metering (signals on slip roads to control access to the motorway) can help avoid this loss of capacity. The design of ramp metering strategies has several features in common with the design of access control mechanisms in communication networks. Inspired by models and rate control mechanisms developed for Internet congestion control, we propose a Brownian network model as an approximate model for a controlled motorway and consider it operating under a proportionally fair ramp metering policy.We present an analysis of the performance of this model.; Comment: 30 pages. To appear in "Probability and Mathematical Genetics: Papers in Honour of Sir John Kingman" (Editors N.H. Bingham, N.H. and C.M. Goldie), Cambridge University Press, 2010

Renewable electricity policies an analysis of quotas, feed-in laws and a proposal for EU harmonization of feed-in laws : tesis doctoral /

Muñoz Cabré, Miquel
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 ENG; ENG
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A portada: Departament de Física ; Departament d'Economia i Història; Consultable des del TDX; Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada; Les dues principals contribucions d'aquesta tesis son: 1. una comparació entre els dos instruments per a la promoció de l'electricitat renovable, és a dir, feed-in laws I quotes. 2. una proposta per a l'harmonització de feed-in laws a la Unió europea La tesis està estructurada en cinc parts. La Part I explica el sector elèctric liberalitzat, així com les tecnologies existents per electricitat renovable. D'aquestes tecnologies, les que tenen ritmes de creixement majors Durant la última dècada son la solar fotovoltaica i l'energia eòlica. La Part I també explica els principals atributs i impactes de les energies renovables. La Part II descriu els sistemes, polítiques, mesures i estratègies de finançament per a la promoció de l'electricitat renovable. Els dos instruments més importants són les quotes i els feed-in laws, també coneguts com a tarifes. En un sistema de quotes, s'estableix un objectiu (la quota) d'energies renovable, i es crea un mercat per certificats d'electricitat renovable, de manera que s'aconsegueixi l'objectiu establer d'una manera eficient. En un sistema de tarifes...