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Public participation in medical policy-making and the status of consumer autonomy: the example of newborn-screening programs in the United States.

Hiller, E H; Landenburger, G; Natowicz, M R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1997 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
OBJECTIVES: State newborn-screening programs collectively administer the largest genetic-testing initiative in the United States. We sought to assess public involvement in formulating and implementing medical policy in this important area of genetic medicine. METHODS: We surveyed all state newborn-screening programs to ascertain the screening tests performed, the mechanisms and extent of public participation, parental access to information, and policies addressing parental consent or refusal of newborn screening. We also reviewed the laws and regulations of each state pertaining to newborn screening. RESULTS: Only 26 of the 51 state newborn-screening programs reported having advisory committees that include consumer representation. Fifteen states reported having used institutional review boards, another venue for public input. The rights and roles of parents vary markedly among newborn-screening programs in terms of the type and availability of screening information as well as consent-refusal and follow-up policies. CONCLUSIONS: There is clear potential for greater public participation in newborn-screening policy-making. Greater public participation would result in more representative policy-making and could enhance the quality of services provided by newborn-screening programs.

Addressing geriatric oral health concerns through national oral health policy in India

Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M
Fonte: Kerman University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Kerman University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/11/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
There is an escalating demand for geriatric oral healthcare in all developed and developing countries including India. Two-thirds of the world’s elderly live in developing countries. This is a huge population that must receive attention from policy-makers who will be challenged by the changing demands for social and health services including oral health services. Resources are limited thus rather than being aspirational in wanting to provide all treatment needed for everybody, this critique presents a road map of how we might answer the present and future geriatric oral health concerns in a most efficient manner in a developing country. Viewing the recent Indian demographic profile and the trends in oral health, pertinent policy subjects have been discussed concerning the oral health needs of the elderly and also the associated challenges which include strategies to improve quality of life, strategies to train and educate the dental workforce and above all the role of healthcare systems towards realization of better aged society in India and other developing countries.

Making medical records more resilient

Rudin, Robert (Robert Samuel)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Hurricane Katrina showed that the current methods for handling medical records are minimally resilient to large scale disasters. This research presents a preliminary model for measuring the resilience of medical records systems against public policy goals and uses the model to illuminate the current state of medical record resilience. From this analysis, three recommendations for how to make medical records more resilient are presented. The recommendations are: 1) Federal and state governments should use the preliminary resilience model introduced here as the basis for compliance requirements for electronic medical record technical architectures. 2) Regional Health Information Organizations (RHIOs) should consider offering services in disaster management to healthcare organizations. This will help RHIOs create sustainable business models. 3) Storage companies should consider developing distributed storage solutions based on Distributed Hash Table (DHT) technology for medical record storage. Distributed storage would alleviate public concerns over privacy with centralized storage of medical records. Empirical evidence is presented demonstrating the performance of DHT technology using a prototype medical record system.; by Robert Rudin.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

A Practical Approach to Pharmaceutical Policy

Seiter, Andreas
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.13%
This book discusses the wide range of challenges faced by policy makers in the pharmaceutical sector, presents the current know-how in terms of policy measures, and provides specific examples of policy packages that can be used in defined circumstances, even if one assumes a certain degree of political resistance and capacity limits on the side of the implementing agency. This book focuses on developing countries and tries to address the issues faced by both low- and middle-income countries. The book does not cover the vaccines market and its respective policies because too many differences exist between the markets for vaccines and pharmaceuticals to cover both subsectors in one publication of this type. The book ends with an outlook on how things might evolve in the longer term. It assumes that some form of convergence will take place toward "models that work," thus reducing the fragmentation of policies and enhancing regulatory and economic efficiencies over time-one hopes to the benefit of all stakeholders in the sector and...

Health Policy Research in South Asia : Building Capacity for Reform

Yazbeck, Abdo S.; Peters, David H.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
The richness of the research papers in this volume makes it difficult to quickly capture the main themes and implications of their research. But three repeated themes can be highlighted: equality of public spending, the role of the private sector, and the role of consumers. On the theme of equality in public expenditures, research in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka shows that in some parts of South Asia-such as south India and Sri Lanka-governments do a much better job of distributing subsidies in the health sector than other regions. The research overwhelmingly documents the dominance of the private sector in Bangladesh and India and finds a very strong private sector in Sri Lanka. The research also highlights different policy instruments available to the government for working with the private sector to achieve health sector outcomes. A third general theme is the role of consumers and the mechanisms available to them to influence health services delivery. The authors in this volume have supported the belief that individuals and households can make a difference in how health services are delivered. While the three themes summarized above cut across several of the chapters in this volume...

Medical knowledge, medical power : doctors and health policy in Australia / Peter John Backhouse.

Backhouse, Peter
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 302314 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1994 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Examines the influence of the medical profession on health policy in Australia. Case studies of policy struggles under Federal Labor governments since 1983 illustrate both the nature and scope of that influence.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Politics and Dept. of Community Medicine, 1994; Bibliography: leaves 494-519.; ix, 519 leaves ; 30 cm.

The amateur writes back : new theoretical directions for progressive left politics and social policy.

Goodwin-Smith, Ian
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
This work develops an opportunity for transgressive resistance to discursively formed structures of material and theoretical power and closure, based on a methodology of amateurism. The concept of amateurism draws heavily on the writing of Edward Said. This work synthesises Said with a broader corpus of postcolonial theory, following a theoretically postcolonial trajectory which applies the lessons from that referent to an engagement with traditional theoretical and cultural closure. The central thesis of the engagement follows a critique of strong ontology and vertical epistemology, or of expertise. Through an examination of health policy around birth, and sociological approaches to health, that critique is deployed to invigorate a new critical direction for the Left with a focus on subjectivity, social policy, social democracy and substantive citizenship.; Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Adelaide, School of History and Politics, 2008

RETENTION ELASTICITY AND PROJECTION MODEL FOR U.S. NAVY MEDICAL CORPS OFFICERS

Alshehri, Abdullah S.; Brossard, Hyrum T.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
See a presentation from this author for this work: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/39528; Retaining skilled doctors in the Navy's Medical Corps has become increasingly difficult due to the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) and lucrative positions outside the military. This thesis estimates probit models to evaluate the effect that the civilian-military pay gap has on the overall Medical Corps retention rate across 19 specialties using data gathered from Bureau of Medicine and Surgery and Medical Group Management Association for Fiscal Year (FY) 2002 to FY2011. In particular, this study measures the overall retention elasticity and elasticity estimates for three main specialty groups (primary care, surgical specialties, and other specialties) and 19 individual specialties. Furthermore, projection models are employed to predict the Medical Corps future retention rates. Finally, this study seeks to understand if the protracted GWOT has an effect on the retention behavior of the Navys Medical Corps. The results indicate that a 1% increase in the pay gap reduces the overall retention probability by 0.24%. The surgical group shows the highest retention elasticity (0.31), while the other specialties group exhibits the least responsiveness (0.19). The projection models estimate that the aggregate retention probability for FY2012 will be one percentage point lower than the actual retention rate of FY2011 (58%). Finally...

The medical profession and the state in South Australia, 1836-1975 / Reece Jennings.

Jennings, Reece
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 234044 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
Primarily a study of the reasons for the rise, after 1840, of the medical profession in South Australia. The principal argument is that the basic power and influence of the medical practitioner derived from statute. Of almost equal importance was the organised profession's adoption of, and association with, science and technology.; Thesis (M.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Public Health, 1998; Includes bibliographical references.; 2 v. ;; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

Political Economy of Health Workforce Policy : The Chhattisgarh Experience with a Three-year Course for Rural Health Care Practitioners

Raha, Shomikho; Bossert, Thomas; Vujicic, Marko
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
This case study analyzes the reasons for adoption and the implementation process of a key policy in Chhattisgarh state, India, to create a rural cadre of trained physicians in order to address the acute shortage of doctors in the state's primary health facilities. It documents the experience specific to Chhattisgarh state, but with its attention to the policy processes and implementation challenges associated, it also highlights the necessity of a political economy perspective currently missing in much of the published literature on human resources for health. A principal lesson of this case concerns why it matters how interests of various stakeholders who had interests in the three-year course are included early in the policy process, namely the anticipated opposition of the medical doctor community represented by the Indian Medical Association (IMA) and the interests of the students themselves and their desire to be given appropriate status as medical doctors. This case study addresses the legal hurdles faced and the importance of institutional support structures to maintain quality standards and provide for grievance procedures. Through this case study...

General practice career intentions among graduate-entry students: a cross-sectional study at Ireland’s newest medical school

Lane, G; Dunne, Colum; English, A; Finucane, Paul; O'Connor, Ray; Griffin, M; O'Sullivan, B; Hanrahan, C; McGrath, D; O'Donovan, N; Cullen, Walter
Fonte: Irish Medical Organization Publicador: Irish Medical Organization
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.82%
peer-reviewed; Increased care provision and clinical activity in general practice in Ireland will have important manpower implications. Recent developments in medical education policy including the introduction of graduate-entry medical degree programmes may help address this issue. The aim of this study was to determine GP career intentions among students on an Irish graduate-entry medical degree programme and to identify factors that influence these. An electronic cross-sectional study of students at University of Limerick Graduate-Entry Medical School (UL-GEMS) was undertaken. We received 139 replies (78% response rate). 41(29%) reported GP was their current preferred career choice, while 29(19%) reported it was their preferred career choice on entry to medical school. This first study to present data on GP career intentions among graduate-entry students in Ireland highlights the specialty as a popular preferred career choice among students, both on entry to, and during medical school. The study also identifies factors which are likely to be important in determining career intentions. Further research to examine this issue at other graduate-entry medical schools in Ireland and to determine whether our findings are pursued over time amongst graduates is a priority.

The implications of being an international medical graduate (IMG) in Canadian society : a qualitative study of foreign-trained physicians' resettlement, sense of identity and health status

de Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Junqueira.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.76%
This qualitative research study used grounded theory methodology to explore the settlement experiences and changes in professional identity, self esteem and health status of foreign-trained physicians (FTPs) who resettled in Canada and were not able to practice their profession. Seventeen foreign-trained physicians completed a pre-survey and rated their health status, quality of life, self esteem and stress before and after coming to Canada. They also rated changes in their experiences of violence and trauma, inclusion and belonging, and racism and discrimination. Eight FTPs from the survey sample were interviewed in semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore their experiences with the loss of their professional medical identities and attempts to regain them during resettlement. This study found that without their medical license and identity, this group of FTPs could not fully restore their professional, social, and economic status and this affected their self esteem and health status. The core theme of the loss of professional identity and attempts to regain it while being underemployed were connected with the multifaceted challenges of resettlement which created experiences of lowered selfesteem, and increased stress...

Religion and healthcare in the European Union : policy issues and trends

Petrova, Dimitrina; Clifford, Jarlath
Fonte: London : Alliance Publishing Trust, [Brussels] : NEF Initiative on Religion and Democracy in Europe. 2009. Publicador: London : Alliance Publishing Trust, [Brussels] : NEF Initiative on Religion and Democracy in Europe. 2009.
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.11%
92 p. ; 24 cm.; Libro Electrónico; The impact of religious doctrine on the law, policy and practice of healthcare is becoming increasingly significant for a whole range of issues – from euthanasia to fertility treatment; from belief-based exemption from performing abortion for doctors to the medication and dietary needs of religious patients; from organ donation to contraception; from circumcision to suicide. The relationship between religion and healthcare has a long history of evoking tension and debate in Europe. While developments in medical technologies and techniques question the religious beliefs of policy-makers, practitioners and patients across the European Union, research into the legal and policy responses by EU member states on such issues remains underdeveloped. The challenge of health policy, which is common across the European Union, is to balance fundamental human rights such as the right to equality, the right to health and the right to freedom of religion while adhering to secular principles. This report aims to map out the major issues at stake and to initiate a broader discussion on how the religious needs of the community, religious doctrine and religious practices across the European Union affect public health policy.; Preface: The ‘Religion and Democracy in Europe’ initiative 7 About the authors 8 Introduction 9 Background 9 Purpose and conceptual framework 10 Terms...

Marrying foreign policy and health: feasible or doomed to fail?

Harris, Stuart
Fonte: Australasian Medical Association Publicador: Australasian Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
■ Although there appears to be no Australian foreign policy statement on health, much of our existing foreign policy has health implications, ranging across security, economic, political and humanitarian objectives. ■ Humanitarian motives have influen

Preparation for a medical mission to Jamaica - pharmacy's perspective

Borja-Hart,N; Douglas,SM; Marino,J; Garcia,A; Anderson-Worts,P
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.81%
OBJECTIVES: To describe preparation of a medical mission from a pharmacy team's perspective. METHODS: Essential components of the medication planning process include the development of a separate medication budget, a medication formulary (based on needs assessment and availability) and acquisition of medications and medical supplies. RESULTS: For the medical mission to Jamaica, medications are often purchased or donated from various locations, including retail pharmacies, drug wholesalers, medication drives, pharmaceutical companies, and medication assistance programmes specific to medical missions. It is essential to understand the policy associated with the importation of medications which can be found in the Approval Process for Food, Drugs, Cosmetics, Medical devices, Precursor Chemicals and Narcotics, a paper developed by the Ministry of Health, Jamaica. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of planning and preparation are required for the medical mission to Jamaica to be a success; assistance and cooperation is necessary from all members of the interdisciplinary medical mission team. It is imperative to plan ahead, be organized and equipped to handle unexpected situations so that quality care can be delivered to the patients to be served.

Mental health policy and service system development in the English-speaking Caribbean

Abel,WD; Kestel,D; Eldemire-Shearer,D; Sewell,C; Whitehorne-Smith,P
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
The countries and territories comprising the English-speaking Caribbean (ESC) have made some strides in the development of mental health policy, services and systems with the expenditure in mental health as a percentage of health budgets ranging from 1% to 7%. The ESC countries have well developed primary healthcare systems. However, mental health legislations in many countries are in need of reform. Some countries have developed an innovative community based, secondary care treatment model: treatment in the medical wards of general hospitals. These countries have made progress in integrating mental health into primary healthcare and have made psychotropic medication widely available at the primary care level. Notwithstanding the progress in some countries, greater effort is required in phasing out mental hospitals and integrating mental health into primary care in other ESC countries.

National health surveys and health policy: impact of the Jamaica health and lifestyle surveys and the reproductive health surveys

Ferguson,TS; Tulloch-Reid,MK; Gordon-Strachan,G; Hamilton,P; Wilks,RJ
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.86%
Over the last six decades, comprehensive national health surveys have become important data-gathering mechanisms to inform countries on their health status and provide information for health policy and programme planning. Developing countries have only recently begun such surveys and Jamaica has been at the forefront of this effort. Jamaica's Reproductive Health Surveys and programme response to their findings have resulted in an almost 50% reduction in fertility rates over three decades as well as a 40% reduction in unmet contraceptive needs and a 40% reduction in unplanned preg-nancies over the last two decades. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Surveys have served to reinforce the major burden that non-communicable diseases place on the society and the extent to which these are driven by unhealthy lifestyles. These surveys have shown that obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidaemia affect approximately 50%, 25%, 10% and 10% of the adult population, respectively. These surveys have documented low rates of treatment and control for these chronic non-communicable diseases despite two major policy initiatives, the National Programme for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles and the creation of the National Health Fund which subsidizes healthcare provision for chronic diseases. In order to maximize the uptake of the findings of future surveys into effective health policy...

An unassuming revelation: Cuba's social policy toward the AIDS epidemic

Binns,LA
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.79%
The thrust of this essay is nestled in Cuba's complimentary approach to the treatment of the HIV/AIDS virus. In a comprehensive and comparative fashion, the contents herein give credence to a developing nation that demonstrates expedience and emphasizes a history of continuity with remarkable results. Underlying the report is a journey that enlightens the reader to a process rich in application and outcome during a period in which the plague of HIV has transformed the Caribbean and Latin America community. Meanwhile, it also speaks to a collaborative effort inclusive of government, medical agencies, laboratories, international organizations and the public toward a common good. The country, nonetheless, is not without its shortcomings and therefore monetary constraints and matters of confidentiality and discrimination are pivotal to the presentation. In fact, an elaborate characterization accentuates a 50-year old commercial interdiction as a deterrent that contributes to the disruption of affordability and accessibility to the exchange of goods, services and information. Against all likelihood, a contrasting analysis of regional states inclusive of the United States of America documents Cuba's astonishing success in restricting HIV/AIDS. The Cuban model as described is an exemplary work in progress but likewise the fulfilment of the socialist philosophy toward humanity.

The impact of a no-user-fee policy on the quality of patient care/service delivery in Jamaica

Haye,W De La; Alexis,S
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
This paper is a submission to the Sessional Select Committee on Human Resources and Social Development by the Medical Association of Jamaica on September 25, 2011, and presented orally by both authors on October 20, 2011. It explores the impact of the no-user-fee policy on the quality of patient care/service delivery in Jamaica and makes recommendations for reform.

Population-level approaches to universal health coverage in resource-poor settings: lessons from tobacco control policy in Vietnam

Higashi,Hideki; Khuong,Tuan A.; Ngo,Anh D.; Hill,Peter S.
Fonte: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Publicador: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.8%
Population-based health promotion and disease prevention approaches are essential elements in achieving universal health coverage; yet they frequently do not appear on national policy agendas. This paper suggests that resource-poor countries should take greater advantage of such approaches to reach all segments of the population to positively affect health outcomes and equity, especially considering the epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated modifiable risk factors. Tobacco control policy development and implementation in Vietnam provides a case study to discuss opportunities and challenges associated with such strategies.