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Caracterização estatística de oito séries de precipitação pluvial máxima diária da secretaria de agricultura e abastecimento do Estado de São Paulo; Statistical characterization of eight maximum daily precipitation series of the State of São Paulo, Brazil

BLAIN, Gabriel Constantino; MORAES, Sergio Oliveira
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Meteorologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar as séries de valores máximos diários de precipitação pluvial, observados dentro de cada ano (Preabs) da Secretaria de Agricultura e Abastecimento do Estado de São Paulo, verificando o ajuste dessas distribuições empíricas a diferentes funções de densidade de probabilidade. O teste de aderência Kolmogorov-Smirnov/Lilliefors, os gráficos percentil-percentil e quantil-quantil indicaram bom ajuste dessa variável meteorológica à distribuição geral dos valores extremos nas localidades de Campinas, Cordeirópolis, Mococa, Monte Alegre do Sul, Ribeirão Preto e Ubatuba. Apenas na série de Pindorama foi detectada tendência de elevação nos valores de Preabs. As análises de Fourier e de ondaletas não indicaram marcantes periodicidades em nenhuma das séries analisadas.; The aim of the work was to characterize the series of maximum daily rainfall value, observed during each year (Preabs) on the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The characterization was carried out by using different probabilities density functions. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the percentiles-percentiles graphics and, the quantil-quantil graphics, indicate that the observed data converges to the general extreme value distribution (GEV) in the locations of Campinas-SP...

Non-stationary frequency analysis of extreme daily rainfall in Sao Paulo, Brazil

SUGAHARA, Shigetoshi; ROCHA, Rosmeri Porfirio da; SILVEIRA, Reinaldo
Fonte: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD Publicador: JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This work is an assessment of frequency of extreme values (EVs) of daily rainfall in the city of Sao Paulo. Brazil, over the period 1933-2005, based on the peaks-over-threshold (POT) and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) approach. Usually. a GPD model is fitted to a sample of POT Values Selected With a constant threshold. However. in this work we use time-dependent thresholds, composed of relatively large p quantities (for example p of 0.97) of daily rainfall amounts computed from all available data. Samples of POT values were extracted with several Values of p. Four different GPD models (GPD-1, GPD-2, GPD-3. and GDP-4) were fitted to each one of these samples by the maximum likelihood (ML) method. The shape parameter was assumed constant for the four models, but time-varying covariates were incorporated into scale parameter of GPD-2. GPD-3, and GPD-4, describing annual cycle in GPD-2. linear trend in GPD-3, and both annual cycle and linear trend in GPD-4. The GPD-1 with constant scale and shape parameters is the simplest model. For identification of the best model among the four models WC used rescaled Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) with second-order bias correction. This criterion isolates GPD-3 as the best model, i.e. the one with positive linear trend in the scale parameter. The slope of this trend is significant compared to the null hypothesis of no trend...

Extremos de precipitação diária em Belém, Pará, e estrutura vertical da atmosfera; Extreme daily rainfall in Belém, Pará, and vertical structure of atmosphere

Camponogara, Glauber
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/03/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.39%
Diversas atividades ligados ao gerenciamento de recursos hídricos necessitam da previsão de acumulados diários de chuva extremos. Entretanto, grande parte dos modelos utilizados operacionalmente apresentam uma tendência a subestimar os extremos de precipitação mesmo com apenas 24 horas de antecedência. Existem diversas razões para esse tipo de erro de previsão tais como, limitações nas parametrizações de convecção para modelos com resolução de dezenas de quilômetros e a não inclusão do efeito de aerossóis como núcleos de condensação de gotas de nuvens nos modelos de grande escala. Dentro desse contexto, este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar situações de eventos extremos de precipitação na região de Belém, Pará, onde o regime de precipitação é modulado, principalmente, pela brisa marítima, linhas de instabilidade, distúrbios ondulatório de leste, zona de convergência intertropical, alta da Bolívia e Vórtices Ciclônicos de Altos Níveis (VCAN). A abordagem será de identificação de perfis verticais cinemáticos e termodinâmicos típicos de eventos extremos de precipitação diária em Belém, Pará. Para esse fim, escolheu-se fazer uma análise de dados de radiossondagem e precipitação utilizando as Funções Ortogonais Empíricas (EOF - Empirical Orthogonal Functions combinadas e verificar como o Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) simula características básicas de chuva acumulada diária. A variância explicada das EOF calculadas a partir do conjunto de variáveis acumulado diário de precipitação (acpcp)...

Erosividade, coeficiente de chuva, padrões e período de retorno das chuvas de Quaraí, RS; Erosivity, rainfall coefficient and patterns and return period in Quarai, RS, Brazil

Bazzano, Marcos Gabriel Penãlva; Eltz, Flavio Luiz Foletto; Cassol, Elemar Antonino
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.22%
O conhecimento da potencialidade das chuvas em causar erosão é necessário para planejamento de atividades agrícolas e de engenharia civil. Para a localidade de Quaraí (RS), foram determinados a erosividade da chuva e a relação com a precipitação e o coeficiente de chuva, os padrões hidrológicos e o período de retorno das chuvas. Utilizaram-se dados pluviográficos diários do período 1966-2003. Para cada chuva erosiva, foram separados os segmentos do pluviograma com a mesma intensidade e registrados os dados em planilha. Com o programa Chuveros, foram calculadas as erosividades mensal, anual e média das chuvas pelo índice EI30, no Sistema Internacional de Unidades, e os padrões hidrológicos de chuva, bem como o coeficiente de chuva. Foram realizadas correlações de Pearson e regressões lineares simples entre o índice de erosividade EI30 e os valores médios mensais (p) e anuais (P) de precipitação e do coeficiente de chuva (Rc). Foi calculada a intensidade máxima da chuva pelo método da distribuição extrema tipo 1 para durações de chuva de 1/6, 1/3, 1/2, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 e 48 h e períodos de retorno da chuva de 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 e 100 anos. Foram ajustadas equações que relacionam a intensidade máxima e a duração da chuva para os períodos de retorno da chuva de 2...

Os areais do sudoeste do Rio Grande do Sul : estudo sobre as chuvas no Século XX e um possível cenário para o Século XXI

Sanches, Fabio de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
Na região da campanha gaúcha, no sudoeste do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, existem áreas que demonstram fragilidade em relação às características litológicas, pedológicas e da cobertura vegetal, principalmente, quando relacionadas às dinâmicas do clima. Os areais da região têm despertado especial atenção nas últimas décadas, devido a questões históricas, socioeconômicas e ambientais. O processo de arenização está relacionado à dinâmica de fenômenos naturais como as precipitações intensas e período de estiagens, estes associadas à dinâmica dos ventos. Contudo, frente aos estudos de simulação climática que projetam os possíveis cenários climáticos futuros, quais seriam as possíveis dinâmicas processuais na região dos areais? O presente trabalho tem por objetivo geral desenvolver um estudo observacional sobre a dinâmica das precipitações para a região no decorrer do século XX, buscando encontrar possíveis evidências de modificação na sua dinâmica em relação ao processo de arenização. O trabalho, também, analisou os dados de precipitação a partir do modelo downscaling Eta/CPTEC 40 km acoplado ao Modelo Climático Global HadCM3 para o cenário SRES A1B. Foram utilizados dados pluviométricos diários dos postos de Alegrete (RS) disponíveis pela Agência Nacional de Águas...

Non-stationary frequency analysis of extreme daily rainfall in São Paulo, Brazil

Sugahara, Shigetoshi; da Rocha, Rosmeri Porfirio; Silveira, Reinaldo
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1339-1349
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.25%
This work is an assessment of frequency of extreme values (EVs) of daily rainfall in the city of São Paulo. Brazil, over the period 1933-2005, based on the peaks-over-threshold (POT) and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) approach. Usually. a GPD model is fitted to a sample of POT Values Selected With a constant threshold. However. in this work we use time-dependent thresholds, composed of relatively large p quantities (for example p of 0.97) of daily rainfall amounts computed from all available data. Samples of POT values were extracted with several Values of p. Four different GPD models (GPD-1, GPD-2, GPD-3. and GDP-4) were fitted to each one of these samples by the maximum likelihood (ML) method. The shape parameter was assumed constant for the four models, but time-varying covariates were incorporated into scale parameter of GPD-2. GPD-3, and GPD-4, describing annual cycle in GPD-2. linear trend in GPD-3, and both annual cycle and linear trend in GPD-4. The GPD-1 with constant scale and shape parameters is the simplest model. For identification of the best model among the four models WC used rescaled Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) with second-order bias correction. This criterion isolates GPD-3 as the best model, i.e. the one with positive linear trend in the scale parameter. The slope of this trend is significant compared to the null hypothesis of no trend...

Spatial variability of maximum annual daily rain under different return periods at the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

Machado,Roriz Luciano; Ceddia,Marcos Bacis; Carvalho,Daniel Fonseca de; Cruz,Eleandro Silva da; Francelino,Marcio Rocha
Fonte: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas Publicador: Instituto Agronômico de Campinas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Knowledge of maximum daily rain and its return period in a region is an important tool to soil conservation, hydraulic engineering and preservation of road projects. The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial variability of maximum annual daily rain considering different return periods, at the Rio de Janeiro State. The data set was composed by historical series of 119 rain gauges, for 36 years of observation. The return periods, estimated by Gumbel distribution, were 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. The spatial variability of the return periods was evaluated by semivariograms. All the return periods presented spatial dependence, with exponential and spherical model fitted to the experimental semivariograms. The parameters of the fitted semivariogram model were very similar; however, it was observed the presence of higher nugget effects for semivariograms of longer return periods. The values of maximum annual daily average rain in all the return periods increased from north to south and from countryside to the coast. In the region between the Serra do Mar range and the coast, besides increasing in magnitude, an increase in the spatial variability of the studied values with increasing return periods was also noticed. This behavior is probably caused by the orographic effect. The interpolated maps were more erratic for higher return periods and at the North...

Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil

Back,Álvaro José; Henn,Alan; Oliveira,José Luiz Rocha
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.

Analysis of the relationship intensity, duration, frequency of disaggregated daily rainfall in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Damé,Rita de C. F.; Teixeira-Gandra,Claudia F. A.; Villela,Francisco A.; Santos,Jacira P. dos; Winkler,Antoniony S.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.29%
The intensity, duration, and frequency relationship (IDF) of rainfall occurrence may be done through continuous records of pluviographs or daily pluviometer values . The objective of this study was to estimate the intensity-duration-frequency relationships of precipitation, using the method of daily rainfall disaggregation, at weather stations located to the southern half of the state of Rio Grande do Sul; comparing them with those obtained by rain gauge records, in places considered homogeneous from the meteorological point of view. The IDF equation parameters were estimated from daily rainfall disaggregation data, using the method of nonlinear optimization. To validate the equations confidence indices and efficiency and the "t" Student test, among maximum intensity values obtained from the disaggregated daily rainfall durations of 10; 30; 60 min and 6; 12 and 24 h and those extracted from existing IDF equations. For all studied stations and return periods, the trust index values were regarded as "optimal", i.e., greater than 0.85. The maximal intensity of rainfall obtained by daily rainfall disaggregation have similarity with those obtained by relations IDF standards. Thus, the method constitutes a feasible alternative in obtaining the IDF relationships.

Performance of the probability distribution models applied to heavy rainfall daily events

Marques,Rosângela Francisca de Paula Vitor; Mello,Carlos Rogério de; Silva,Antônio Marciano da; Franco,Camila Silva; Oliveira,Alisson Souza de
Fonte: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras Publicador: Editora da Universidade Federal de Lavras
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.25%
Probabilistic studies of hydrological variables, such as heavy rainfall daily events, constitute an important tool to support the planning and management of water resources, especially for the design of hydraulic structures and erosive rainfall potential. In this context, we aimed to analyze the performance of three probability distribution models (GEV, Gumbel and Gamma two parameter), whose parameters were adjusted by the Moments Method (MM), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and L - Moments (LM). These models were adjusted to the frequencies from long-term of maximum daily rainfall of 8 rain gauges located in Minas Gerais state. To indicate and discuss the performance of the probability distribution models, it was applied, firstly, the non-parametric Filliben test, and in addition, when differences were unidentified, Anderson-Darlling and Chi-Squared tests were also applied. The Gumbel probability distribution model showed a better adjustment for 87.5% of the cases. Among the assessed probability distribution models, GEV fitted by LM method has been adequate for all studied rain gauges and can be recommended. Considering the number of adequate cases, MM and LM methods had better performance than ML method, presenting, respectively, 83% and 79.2% of adequate cases.

Análise da probabilidade de ocorrência de extremos de precipitação e estudo da tendência de classes de precipitação na região metropolitana de São Paulo; Analysis of the probability of occurrence of extreme precipitation and trend study of classes of rainfall in the metropolitan region of São Paulo

Raimundo, Clebson do Carmo
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Processos de superfície terrestre; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Meteorologia; UFAL Publicador: Universidade Federal de Alagoas; BR; Processos de superfície terrestre; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Meteorologia; UFAL
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.4%
Extreme rainfall events are responsible for social disorder and economic problems, especially in large urban centers. Densely populated areas suffer from flooding , landslide and building destruction that cause deaths and wide-spread diseases, such as malaria, dengue and leptospirosis. They are recurrent phenomena that wear down the life of the urban population, particularly the least privileged ones. The focal area of this work was the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, one of the largest cities in the world. Rainfall daily totals of 21 rain gage network in the MRSP were analyzed to i) estimate the annual maximum daily rainfall (PMDA), by means of the Gumbel distribution; II) group different rainfall rates into classes (from drizzle to extreme rates) and verify the similarity between seasons (clustering), that is annual and seasonal rain rates, for the period 1947 to 1998, making use of the technique known as Cluster Analysis, and III) identify possible trends of three rain rate classes (drizzle, moderate and above 30.0 mm / day) for the annual and seasonal periods, for the whole dataset length of each gage, using the Mann-Kendall trend test. The results showed that the maximum daily rainfall observed data fit the Gumbel distribution in the annual period...

Changes to sub-daily rainfall patterns in a future climate

Westra, S.; Evans, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sharma, A.
Fonte: Engineers Australia; Australia Publicador: Engineers Australia; Australia
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.47%
This paper describes an algorithm for disaggregating daily rainfall into sub-daily rainfall‘fragments’(continuous high temporal-resolution rainfall sequences whose total depth sums to the daily rainfall amount) under a future, warmer climate. The basis of the algorithm is to re-sample sub-daily fragments from the historical record conditional on the total daily rainfall amount and a range of temperature-based atmospheric predictors. The logic is that as the atmosphere warms, future rainfall patterns will be more reflective of historical rainfall patterns which occurred on warmer days at the same location, or at locations which have an atmospheric temperature profile more representative of expected future atmospheric conditions. It was found that the daily to sub-daily scaling relationship varied significantly by season and by location, with rainfall patterns on warmer seasons or at warmer locations typically exhibiting higher rainfall intensity occurring over shorter periods within a day, compared with cooler seasons and locations. Importantly, by regressing against temperature-based atmospheric covariates, this effect was substantially reduced, suggesting that the approach also may be valid when extrapolating to a future climate. An adjusted method of fragments algorithm was then applied to nine stations around Australia...

A conditional disaggregation algorithm for generating fine time-scale rainfall data in a warmer climate

Westra, S.; Evans, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sharma, A.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.47%
This paper describes an algorithm for disaggregating daily rainfall into sub-daily rainfall ‘fragments’ (fine-resolution rainfall sequences) under a future, warmer climate. The algorithm uses a combined generalised additive model (GAM) and method of fragments (MoFs) framework to resample sub-daily rainfall fragments from the historical record conditional on daily rainfall amount and a range of atmospheric covariates. The rationale is that as the atmosphere warms, future rainfall patterns will be more reflective of historical rainfall patterns corresponding to warmer days at the same location, or to locations which have an atmospheric profile more reflective of expected future climate. It was found that the daily to sub-daily scaling relationship varied significantly by season and by location, with rainfall patterns on warmer seasons or at warmer locations typically showing more intense rainfall occurring over shorter periods compared with cooler seasons and stations. Importantly, by regressing against atmospheric covariates such as temperature, this effect was substantially reduced, suggesting that the approach may also be valid when extrapolating to a future climate. The GAM–MoF algorithm was then applied to nine stations around Australia...

Global increasing trends in annual maximum daily precipitation

Westra, S.; Alexander, L.; Zwiers, F.
Fonte: Amer Meteorological Soc Publicador: Amer Meteorological Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
55.94%
This study investigates the presence of trends in annual maximum daily precipitation time series obtained from a global dataset of 8326 high-quality land-based observing stations with more than 30 years of record over the period from 1900 to 2009. Two complementary statistical techniques were adopted to evaluate the possible nonstationary behavior of these precipitation data. The first was a Mann–Kendall nonparametric trend test, and it was used to evaluate the existence of monotonic trends. The second was a nonstationary generalized extreme value analysis, and it was used to determine the strength of association between the precipitation extremes and globally averaged near-surface temperature. The outcomes are that statistically significant increasing trends can be detected at the global scale, with close to two-thirds of stations showing increases. Furthermore, there is a statistically significant association with globally averaged near-surface temperature, with the median intensity of extreme precipitation changing in proportion with changes in global mean temperature at a rate of between 5.9% and 7.7% K−1, depending on the method of analysis. This ratio was robust irrespective of record length or time period considered and was not strongly biased by the uneven global coverage of precipitation data. Finally...

Statistical modelling of extreme rainfall in Madeira Island

Réis, Délia Canha Gouveia
Fonte: Universidade da Madeira Publicador: Universidade da Madeira
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em /08/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Extreme rainfall events have triggered a significant number of flash floods in Madeira Island along its past and recent history. Madeira is a volcanic island where the spatial rainfall distribution is strongly affected by its rugged topography. In this thesis, annual maximum of daily rainfall data from 25 rain gauge stations located in Madeira Island were modelled by the generalised extreme value distribution. Also, the hypothesis of a Gumbel distribution was tested by two methods and the existence of a linear trend in both distributions parameters was analysed. Estimates for the 50– and 100–year return levels were also obtained. Still in an univariate context, the assumption that a distribution function belongs to the domain of attraction of an extreme value distribution for monthly maximum rainfall data was tested for the rainy season. The available data was then analysed in order to find the most suitable domain of attraction for the sampled distribution. In a different approach, a search for thresholds was also performed for daily rainfall values through a graphical analysis. In a multivariate context, a study was made on the dependence between extreme rainfall values from the considered stations based on Kendall’s τ measure. This study suggests the influence of factors such as altitude...

Estimating rainfall erosivity from daily precipitation records: a comparison among methods using data from the Ebro Basin (NE Spain)

Angulo-Martínez, Marta; Beguería, Santiago
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 968098 bytes; application/pdf
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
Among the major factors controlling soil erosion, as vegetation cover or soil erodibility, rainfall erosivity has a paramount importance since it is difficult to predict and control by humans. Accurate estimation of rainfall erosivity requires continuous rainfall data; however, such data rarely demonstrate good spatial and temporal coverage. Daily weather records are now commonly available, providing good coverage that better represents rainfall intensity behavior than do more aggregated rainfall data. In the present study annual rainfall erosivity was estimated from daily rainfall records, and compared to data obtained employing the RUSLE R factor procedure. A spatially-dense precipitation database of high temporal resolution (15 min) was used. Two methodologies were applied: (i) daily rainfall erosivity estimated using several parametric models, and, (ii) annual rainfall erosivity estimated by regression-based techniques employing several intensity precipitation indices and the modified Fournier index. To determine the accuracy of estimates, several goodness-of-fit and error statistics were computed in addition to a spatial distribution comparison. The daily rainfall erosivity models accurately predicted annual rainfall erosivity. Parametric models with few combined parameters and a periodic function simulating intra-annual rainfall behavior provided the best results. Where daily rainfall records were not available...

Regional frequency analysis of daily rainfall extremes using L-moments approach

MALEKINEZHAD,HOSSEIN; ZARE-GARIZI,ARASH
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.42%
Daily extreme precipitation values are among environmental events with the most disastrous consequences for human society. Information on the magnitudes and frequencies of extreme precipitations is essential for sustainable water resources management, planning for weather-related emergencies, and design of hydraulic structures. In the present study, regional frequency analysis of maximum daily rainfalls was investigated for Golestan province located in the northeastern Iran. This study aimed to find appropriate regional frequency distributions for maximum daily rainfalls and predict the return values of extreme rainfall events (design rainfall depths) for the future. L-moment regionalization procedures coupled with an index rainfall method were applied to maximum rainfall records of 47 stations across the study area. Due to complex geographic and hydro-climatological characteristics of the region, an important research issue focused on breaking down the large area into homogeneous and coherent sub-regions. The study area was divided into five homogeneous regions, based on the cluster analysis of site characteristics and tests for the regional homogeneity. The goodness-of-fit results indicated that the best fitting distribution is different for individual homogeneous regions. The difference may be a result of the distinctive climatic and geographic conditions. The estimated regional quantiles and their accuracy measures produced by Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the estimation uncertainty as measured by the RMSE values and 90% error bounds is relatively low when return periods are less than 100 years. But...

Multivariate delineation of rainfall homogeneous regions for estimating quantiles of maximum daily rainfall: A case study of northwestern Mexico

ARELLANO-LARA,FABIOLA; ESCALANTE-SANDOVAL,CARLOS A.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.21%
Lack of data in maximum daily rainfall frequency analysis can generate inefficient estimates for design purposes. An approach to diminish these errors is to apply regional estimation techniques, which require that all stations be located at the same homogeneous region. In this paper, a delineation of homogeneous precipitation regions was made based on the multivariate methods of principal component analysis and hierarchical ascending clustering. A region in northwestern Mexico was selected to apply this methodology. It was concluded that only the coefficients of variation of the L-moments, along with latitude, longitude and altitude at each climatological station are sufficient to define the homogeneous rainfall regions, and that either the inclusion or exclusion of information in the regional techniques has a direct impact on the estimation of events associated to different return periods.

Storms generator method that preserves their historical statistical characteristics: Application to Mexico City basin daily rainfall fields

Domínguez-Mora,R.; Arganis-Juárez,M. L.; Mendoza-Reséndiz,A.; Carrizosa-Elzondo,E.; Echavarría-Soto,B.
Fonte: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM Publicador: Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, UNAM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.34%
A first procedure to generate synthetic storms, which preserves the statistical characteristics of the historical daily precipitation events registered in 49 stations located within the basin of Mexico City is presented. This procedure (a variation of the Svanidze method) implicitly supposes that the correlation between the maximum rainfall and its spatial distribution is meaningless. However, the obtained results did not validate that hypothesis. For this reason a second procedure was developed, which allows to consider the correlation between maximum rainfall and spatial distribution. This second procedure allowed reproducing the statistical characteristics of the daily rainfall for each station and also its spatial distribution, as shown in this work.

Return period of extreme rainfall at George, South Africa

Mélice,Jean-Luc; Reason,Chris J.C.
Fonte: South African Journal of Science Publicador: South African Journal of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.25%
The torrential rains of August 2006 in the southern Cape of South Africa were the most intense observed in the region. Here we use the longest-available daily rainfall series at George (from 1941 to 2006), in the vicinity of which the most destructive floods were observed, together with an extreme value model to estimate the return period of such an extreme event. According to this model, the greatest annual maximum daily rainfall of 230 mm, observed at the town on 1 August 2006, has a return period of 1222 years, whereas the second-largest observed annual maximum daily rainfall (132 mm in September 1964) has a return period of 23 years. This shows that the August 2006 extreme rainfall at George can be considered as a particularly rare event.