Página 1 dos resultados de 1576 itens digitais encontrados em 0.007 segundos

Placental Transport in Response to Altered Maternal Nutrition

Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne; Powell, Theresa; Jansson, Thomas
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
The mechanisms linking maternal nutrition to fetal growth and programming of adult disease remain to be fully established. We review data on changes in placental transport in response to altered maternal nutrition, including compromised utero-placental blood flow. In human intrauterine growth restriction and in most animal models involving maternal under-nutrition or restricted placental blood flow the activity of placental transporters, in particular for amino acids, is decreased in late pregnancy. The effect of maternal over-nutrition on placental transport remains largely unexplored. However some, but not all, studies in women with diabetes giving birth to large babies indicate an up-regulation of placental transporters for amino acids, glucose and fatty acids. These data support the concept that the placenta responds to maternal nutritional cues by altering placental function to match fetal growth to the ability of the maternal supply line to allocate resources to the fetus. On the other hand, some findings in humans and mice suggest that placental transporters are regulated in response to fetal demand signals. These observations are consistent with the idea that fetal signals regulate placental function to compensate for changes in nutrient availability. We propose that the placenta integrates maternal and fetal nutritional cues with information from intrinsic nutrient sensors. Together these signals regulate placental growth and nutrient transport to balance fetal demand with the ability of the mother to support pregnancy. Thus...

Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Diseases

Jang, Hyeran; Serra, Carlo
Fonte: The Korean Society of Clinical Nutrition Publicador: The Korean Society of Clinical Nutrition
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.12%
Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental animal studies supports the role of epigenetics in disease susceptibility during critical developmental periods, including periconceptional period, gestation, and early postnatal period. The rapid improvements in genetic and epigenetic technologies will allow comprehensive investigations of the relevance of these epigenetic phenomena in human diseases.

Maternal nutrition and the risk of preeclampsia

Xu, Hairong
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
La prééclampsie est responsable du quart des mortalités maternelles et est la deuxième cause de décès maternels associés à la grossesse au Canada et dans le monde. L’identification d’une stratégie efficace pour la prévention de la prééclampsie est une priorité et un défi primordial dans les milieux de recherche en obstétrique. Le rôle des éléments nutritifs dans le développement de la prééclampsie a récemment reçu davantage d’attention. Plusieurs études cliniques et épidémiologiques ont été menées pour déterminer les facteurs de risque alimentaires potentiels et examiner les effets d’une supplémentation nutritive dans le développement de troubles hypertensifs de la grossesse. Pour déterminer les effets de suppléments antioxydants pris pendant la grossesse sur le risque d’hypertension gestationnelle (HG) et de prééclampsie, un essai multicentrique contrôlé à double insu a été mené au Canada et au Mexique (An International Trial of Antioxidants in the Prevention of Preeclampsia – INTAPP). Les femmes, stratifiées par risque, étaient assignées au traitement expérimental quotidien (1 gramme de vitamine C et 400 UI de vitamine E) ou au placebo. En raison des effets secondaires potentiels...

United Republic of Tanzania : Advancing Nutrition for Long-Term Equitable Growth

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.57%
This report explores the importance of nutrition for Tanzania. It demonstrates that the prevalence of malnutrition is very high. In fact, Tanzania appears to be affected by a double burden of malnutrition, with a very high incidence of undernourished children, but with a high prevalence of overweight and obese adults as well, particularly in urban areas. The report highlights the high (economic and welfare) costs associated to such high rates of malnutrition by discussing the consequence of malnutrition for infant mortality, education outcomes, the health system and labor productivity. For nutrition to be successfully advanced high level support is needed. Efforts to advance nutrition in Tanzania have made before, with the earliest attempts dating back to the late 1970s. Most have not been very successful. To enhance the likelihood of success this time, commitment from all stakeholders is needed. A social contract that is announced at a public event by a high level policy maker may be one way to commit the actors to change. Such a social contract would have to set clear objectives and a timeline...

Situational Analysis Improving Economic Outcomes by Expanding Nutrition Programming in Tajikistan

World Bank; UNICEF
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
Undernutrition in Tajikistan remains an important public health challenge, albeit a hidden problem. Stunting, iodine deficiency, and maternal and child anemia represent the largest burden of undernutrition in Tajikistan. In 2009, around 29 percent of children in all regions of the country were stunted. Iodine deficiency was observed in 53 percent of children and in 58.6 percent of women. The national prevalence of anemia in children was 28.8 percent; however, rates were as high as 39.8 percent in Ghorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province and in 32 percent directly ruled districts (DRD). The prevalence of anemia among mothers was 24.2 percent. The long-term effects of these conditions negatively affect the health of adults throughout their life, as well as their potential productivity in the work force and possible economic contribution to the nation. The highest priority interventions will improve infant and young child feeding. Strengthening and scaling up breastfeeding promotion will save lives and help to reduce stunting as would complementary feeding for babies six months and older. Promoting exclusive breastfeeding for infants under six months is the most efficacious intervention to save lives...

Community-based Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Interventions in Nigeria : A Comparative Case Study Analysis on Best Practices

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
This study discusses how to effectively engage in community-based nutrition and health programs aimed to improve maternal, newborn, and child nutrition and health outcomes, particularly in Northern Nigeria. It provides the comparative synthesis of four case studies, each of which included a community action component for improving nutrition and health outcomes. It provides a normative base for designing and planning government programs that support reforms in outcome-based programming for maternal, newborn, and child nutrition and health through program support and investment lending. Central to the report is the discussion on the roles played by various stakeholders - state and local government, NGOs, traditional and religious leaders, and communities themselves - in creating and sustaining community mobilization. The factors considered essential or useful contributors to community mobilization are analyzed. The history of government s role in Nigerian health care is discussed, as well as the current situation and future possibilities...

Gender-inclusive Nutrition Activities in South Asia : Volume 2. Lessons from Global Experiences

Lesser Blumberg, Rae; Dewhurst, Kara; Sen, Soham G.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
This paper examines promising approaches from a wide array of literatures to improve gender-inclusive nutrition interventions in South Asia. It is the second of a series on gender and nutrition in South Asia. The first paper explored why gender matters for undernutrition in the region and conducted a mapping of regional nutrition initiatives to find that gender is too narrowly addressed in most programs if at all. Adequately addressing gender2 requires nutrition programs to focus not only on health services and information for the mother and her children, but also on her autonomy and the support she receives from her partner, other household members, and the broader community. This focus is especially important for adolescent mothers in the region, who have very low status. The present study drew from the conceptual framework of the previous paper and investigated four types of innovations in nutrition initiatives that address gender. These entail promoting: (1) women s household autonomy; (2) household support for the woman and her own and her children s nutrition; (3) community support for the woman and her own and her children s nutrition; and (4) help for adolescent girls. Though the ideal "gender-inclusive nutrition interventions" package (GINI for short) was never found...

Institutional Arrangements for Nutrition in India : An Assessment of Capacity

Kathuria, Ashi Kohli; Orbach, Eliezer; Anand, Deepika
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
The report consists of the following seven chapters. The present chapter provides the context and the rationale for the study, and outlines the methodology. Chapter two describes the nutrition system in detail and discusses the capacity issues related to the division of labor (DoL) between the two primary programs of the nutrition system and within the Integrated Child Development Services, or ICDS. Chapter three delves into the factors that constrain leadership capacity at all levels chapter four discusses the key capacity constraints related to HR that limit the effective delivery of nutrition services. Chapter five discusses the training system as a sub-system of HR and its capacity constraints, and Chapter six covers the capacity assessment pertaining to monitoring, evaluation and management of information in the nutrition system. Chapter seven discusses the capacity constraints related to General Management Practices, or GMPs in the ICDS, especially focusing on supervision, accountability and work practices and procedures.

India : Maternal and Reproductive Health at a Glance

El-Saharty, Sameh; Ohno, Naoko; Sarker, Intissar; Secci, Federica; Rajan, Vikram
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.46%
India is the third largest economy and has the second largest population in the world. It achieved millennium development goal (MDG) on poverty reduction; however, gender inequality still persists. Maternal mortality rate is 190 deaths per 100,000 live births, representing a 65 percent decline from 1990. Fertility fell to 2.5, while contraceptive prevalence rate increased to nearly 55 percent. Seventy-four percent of women sought antenatal care (ANC) from a qualified provider and 52 percent of births were attended by qualified providers. Wide gaps in contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) and access to skilled-birth attendance remain by geography and wealth quintile. India will focus on preventing unwanted pregnancies especially among adolescents; improving demand-side strategies; strengthening access and quality in public and private sectors; improving antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care; strengthening monitoring and evaluation (M and E) systems and reducing inequities; and improving nutrition.

Variable maternal nutrition and growth hormone treatment in the second quarter of pregnancy in pigs alter semitendinosus muscle in adolescent progeny

Gatford, K.; Ekert, J.; Blackmore, K.; De Blasio, M.; Boyce, J.; Owens, J.; Campbell, R.; Owens, P.
Fonte: C A B International Publicador: C A B International
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.48%
Maternal nutrition and growth hormone (GH) treatment during early- to mid-pregnancy can each alter the subsequent growth and differentiation of muscle in progeny. We have investigated the effects of varying maternal nutrition and maternal treatment with porcine (p) GH during the second quarter of pregnancy in gilts on semitendinosus muscle cross-sectional area and fibre composition of progeny, and relationships between maternal and progeny measures and progeny muscularity. Fifty-three Large White×Landrace gilts, pregnant to Large White×Duroc boars, were fed either 2·2 kg (about 35 % ad libitum intake) or 3·0 kg commercial ration (13·5 MJ digestible energy, 150 g crude protein (N×6·25)/kg DM)/d and injected with 0, 4 or 8 mg pGH/d from day 25 to 50 of pregnancy, then all were fed 2·2 kg/d for the remainder of pregnancy. The higher maternal feed allowance from day 25 to 50 of pregnancy increased the densities of total and secondary fibres and the secondary:primary fibre ratio in semitendinosus muscles of their female progeny at 61 d of age postnatally. The densities of secondary and total muscle fibres in semitendinosus muscles of progeny were predicted by maternal weight before treatment and maternal plasma insulin-like growth factor-II during treatment. Maternal pGH treatment from day 25 to day 50 of pregnancy did not alter fibre densities...

Increased maternal nutrition alters development of the appetite-regulating network in the brain

Muhlhausler, B.; Adam, C.; Findlay, P.; Duffield, J.; McMillen, I.
Fonte: Federation of American Society of Experimental Biology Publicador: Federation of American Society of Experimental Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.4%
Individuals exposed to an increased nutrient supply before birth have a high risk of becoming obese children and adults. It has been proposed that exposure of the fetus to high maternal nutrient intake results in permanent changes within the central appetite regulatory network. No studies, however, have investigated the impact of increased maternal nutrition on the appetite regulatory network in species in which this network develops before birth, as in the human. In the present study, pregnant ewes were fed a diet which provided 100% (control, n =8) or ∼160% (well-fed, n=8) of metabolizable energy requirements. Ewes were allowed to lamb spontaneously, and lambs were sacrificed at 30 days of postnatal age. All fat depots were dissected and weighed, and expression of the appetite-regulating neuropeptides and the leptin receptor (OBRb) were determined by in situ hybridization. Lambs of well-fed ewes had higher glucose (Glc) concentrations during early postnatal life (F=5.93, P<0.01) and a higher relative subcutaneous (s.c.) fat mass at 30 days of age (34.9±4.7 g/kg vs. 22.8±3.3 g/kg; P<0.05). The hypothalamic expression of pro-opiomelanocortin was higher in lambs of well-fed ewes (0.48±0.09 vs. 0.28±0.04, P<0.05). In lambs of overnourished mothers...

Increased maternal nutrition stimulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, adiponectin, and leptin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in adipose tissue before birth; Increased maternal nutrition stimulates peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, adiponectin, and leptin messenger ribonucleic acid expression in adipose tissue before birth

Muhlhausler, B.; Duffield, J.; McMillen, I.
Fonte: Endocrine Soc Publicador: Endocrine Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.43%
During fetal life, adipose tissue is predominantly comprised of brown or thermogenic adipocytes and there is a transition to white, lipid-storing adipocytes after birth concomitant with the onset of suckling. In pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes, the fetus is hyperglycemic, has an increased fat mass, and is at increased risk of obesity in later life. In the present study, we have investigated the hypothesis that exposure to increased maternal nutrition during late gestation results in increased expression of genes that regulate adipogenesis and lipogenesis in perirenal fat in fetal sheep. Pregnant ewes were fed either at or approximately 55% above maintenance energy requirements during late pregnancy and quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , lipoprotein lipase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, adiponectin, and leptin mRNA expression. We report that exposure to metabolic and hormonal signals of increased nutrition before birth results in an increase in the expression of the adipogenic factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , and in lipoprotein lipase, adiponectin, and leptin mRNA expression in fetal perirenal fat. We propose that an increase in maternal, and hence fetal...

Increased maternal nutrition increases leptin expression in perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissue in the postnatal lamb

Muhlhausler, B.; Duffield, J.; McMillen, I.
Fonte: Endocrine Soc Publicador: Endocrine Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.27%
The present study tested the hypothesis that exposure to an increased level of maternal nutrition before birth results in altered expression of adipogenic, lipogenic, and adipokine genes in adipose tissue in early postnatal life. Pregnant ewes were fed either at or approximately 50% above maintenance energy requirements during late pregnancy, and quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glycerol-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G3PDH), adiponectin, and leptin mRNA expression in perirenal (PAT) and sc adipose tissue (SCAT) in the offspring on postnatal d 30. Relative SCAT mass was higher in lambs of well-fed ewes (40.0 ± 4.0 vs. 22.8 ± 3.3 g/kg, P < 0.05) and was directly related to plasma insulin in the first 24 h after birth and to G3PDH and LPL expression. The expression of leptin mRNA in both the SCAT and PAT depots was higher (P < 0.05) in lambs of well-fed ewes. PPAR adiponectin, LPL, and G3PDH mRNA expression were not, however, different between well-fed and control groups in either depot. Relative PPAR expression in SCAT was directly related to plasma insulin concentrations in the first 24 h after birth (r2 = 0.23; P < 0.05), and G3PDH and LPL expressions were also positively correlated with PPAR expression (r2 = 0.27; P < 0.05). We have demonstrated that exposure to increased prenatal nutrition increases leptin expression at 1 month of age in both PAT and SCAT. The results of this study provide evidence that the nutritional environment before and immediately after birth can influence the development of adipose tissue in early postnatal life.; B. S. Muhlhausler...

Nutrition; Coup d'oeil sur la nutrition

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.52%
Reducing malnutrition is a cornerstone of poverty reduction. General malnutrition and specific micronutrient deficiencies contribute to infant, child, and maternal morbidity; decreased learning capacity; lower productivity and higher mortality. Because malnutrition is often due to a combination of inadequate care of women and children, a comprehensive strategy that cuts across sector is required. This note summarizes proven effective core interventions, and suggests ways to choose a set of intervention.

Maternal Health, Child Health and Nutrition in Lao PDR : Evidence from a Household Survey in Six Central and Southern Provinces

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.56%
Despite being on-track on the child- and maternal-health Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Lao PDR continues to have some of the worst maternal and child health (MCH) and nutrition outcome indicators, both globally as well as in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) region. This report presents results from a household, village, and facility survey on Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and nutrition in mostly rural areas of six central and southern provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). The information in this report localizes MCH and nutrition-related information that are typical for sampled catchment areas of selected health centers in six central and southern provinces of the country. In addition, the report summarizes data on service availability and readiness of health centers in terms of their ability to provide key MCH & nutrition-related services. The results from this survey thus shed light on what it would take to attain the health-related MDGs. In order to improve the level and equity of maternal and child health indicators...

The Potential for Integrating Community-Based Nutrition and Postpartum Family Planning : Review of Evidence and Experience in Low-Income Settings

Alvesson, Helle M.; Mulder-Sibanda, Menno
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
The objective of this review was to study where community-based family planning and nutrition programs have been integrated, how this has been accomplished, and what the results have been. Although family planning is a nontraditional intervention in community-based nutrition programs, it can have profound effects on maternal and child health and nutrition. When family planning does not occur, short intervals between pregnancies deplete mothers' reserves of nutrients needed for pregnancy and later for breastfeeding. As a result, short birth intervals are associated with higher maternal and neonatal mortality and malnutrition rates of infants. Family planning, which promotes contraceptive use and the lactational amenorrhea method, can thus improve nutrition outcomes in both mothers and babies. The authors identified a few studies on integrated services in the published literature; thus the main part of the review is built on operational research studies and unpublished smaller scale intervention studies. However...

Brazil : Maternal and Child Health; Brasil - Saude Materno Infantil

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Pre-2003 Economic or Sector Report; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.54%
The health care system in Brazil has established the important principle of universal coverage, yet, it faces several key challenges: its expenditure patterns favor the regions that are already better off, and healthier, and, needs to take into account diverse practices, and cultures, in addition to considerations for the weak referral system. The report focuses on the health care system, particularly on enhancing maternal and prenatal health, certain health care interventions, such as immunizations, oral rehydration therapy, and case management. Chapter 1 argues that the major reason for the maternal and child health risks is the concentration of illness and death among the poor : infant mortality rates jump 80-100 percent from the next to lowest income quintile, to the lowest. Several interventions, such as strategies to promote productivity, increase economic opportunities, and enhance maternal education among the poor, could help reduce inequalities. Chapter 2 uses estimates of avoidable child deaths to prioritize health interventions in the country...

Gender-Inclusive Nutrition Activities in South Asia : Mapping Report

Sen, Soham; Hook, Mikael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Social Analysis; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.51%
This report is the first of a series that will explore how gender can be more comprehensively incorporated into nutrition interventions in the South Asia Region in order to improve the effectiveness these programs. The first section presents the rationale for considering gender in nutrition programs in the first place, moving beyond traditional services for mothers and children. It draws from the literature to describe why gender is an important factor for the high under-nutrition rates in South Asia and how a broad range of gender issues, rooted in a mother's capacity to care for herself and her child, affect nutritional outcomes of children. The second section presents the results of a mapping of nutrition programs in the South Asia Region. The mapping primarily finds that, despite its importance, gender is too narrowly addressed in most interventions. Existing programs typically focus on the first two approaches mentioned above: imparting nutritional knowledge and skills to the caregiver and improving physical health through food or micronutrient supplements and health services. The third section identifies several nutrition and health projects that have adopted promising approaches to include gender more comprehensively. To improve household support for the mother in providing child care...

The Gambia Impact Evaluation Baseline Report; Maternal Health and Nutrition

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
The Government of The Gambia is implementing the Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health Results Project (MCNHRP) to increase the utilization of community nutrition and primary maternal and child health services. In collaboration with the Government, the World Bank is conducting an impact evaluation (IE) to assess the impact of the project on key aspects of maternal and child nutrition and health. The baseline survey for the MCNHRP IE took place between November 2014 and February 2015. It collected both quantitative and qualitative data and covered three regions: Central River Region (CRR), North Bank Region West (NBR-W) and Upper River Region (URR). Its purpose was to establish a baseline against which project performance will be assessed in the future. This technical brief specifically summarizes the findings of the baseline report related to maternal health and nutrition.

Coenzyme Q?? (CoQ) prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative-stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth

Tarry-Adkins, Jane L.; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S.; McConnell, Josie M.; Ozanne, Susan E.
Fonte: American Society for Nutrition Publicador: American Society for Nutrition
Tipo: Article; accepted version
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.37%
This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently embargoed pending publication.; BACKGROUND: It is well-established that low birth-weight and accelerated postnatal growth increases risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well-characterised and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) would prevent this programmed phenotype. DESIGN: A rat model of maternal protein-restriction was utilised to generate low birth-weight offspring that underwent suboptimal in-utero nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth (recuperated). These were compared to controls. Offspring were weaned onto standard chow with or without dietary CoQ (1mg/kg of bodyweight/day) supplementation. At 12 months, hepatic fibrosis, indices of inflammation, oxidative-stress, and insulin signalling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA and RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hepatic collagen thickness was increased in recuperated offspring (12 ? 2?m) compared with controls (5 ? 0.5?m) (p<0.001). This was associated with increased inflammation [Interleukin-6 [(138 ? 24% vs. 100 ? 7%)...