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A reinvenção da prisão: a expansão prisional no Estado de São Paulo e as consequências do encarceramento massivo (1985-2010)

Barros, Rodolfo Arruda Leite de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: vi, 220 f. : il. color.
POR
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26.15%
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Pós-graduação em Ciências Sociais - FFC; Este trabalho discute o rápido crescimento do sistema prisional no Estado de São Paulo ocorrido nas três últimas décadas (1985 – 2010) buscando compreender quais foram as dinâmicas sociais e políticas que impulsionaram a construção das unidades prisionais e de que maneira as decisões que coordenaram essa expansão prisional podem ser vistas como uma política pública problemática. Desta maneira, o trabalho retoma a história e os principais acontecimentos que marcaram o funcionamento do sistema prisional no Estado e as políticas públicas diretamente relacionadas a sua administração. Neste ponto, foi dado destaque às crescentes instabilidades no sistema prisional (caracterizadas pelo teor das rebeliões e da ação de grupos organizados no interior das prisões) e no modo pelo qual essas pressões impulsionaram políticas públicas que priorizaram a expansão de vagas no sistema. Para qualificar essa investigação, também realizamos uma retomada do debate mais amplo que envolve as tendências da prisão na época contemporânea e sobre as interpretações acerca do revigoramento das medidas penais ocorrida na maioria dos países ocidentais...

Closed circuits : kinship, neighborhood and incarceration in urban Portugal

Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.36%
The notion that prisons are a ‘world apart’, with their walls severing prisoners from their external relationships, and incarceration an interruption, ‘time away’ spent in a separate social universe, has provided an adequate framework for understanding the social realities of imprisonment in the past. But it has also created an analytical dead angle that prevents us from identifying the ramifying social effects of concentrated incarceration upon both the prison and heavily penalized lower-class neighborhoods. This article addresses these effects with data from an ethnographic revisit of a major women’s prison in Portugal, where the recomposition of the inmate population that has accompanied the rapid inflation of the country’s carceral population is especially pronounced and entails the activation of wide-ranging carceralized networks bringing kinship and neighborhood into the prison as well as the prison into the domestic world. The analysis focuses on the ways whereby these constellations have transformed the experience of confinement and the texture of correctional life, calling for a reconsideration of the theoretical status of the prison as a ‘total institution’ and for exploring anew the boundary that separates it (or not) from outside worlds.; Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research.

Mass incarceration can explain population increases in TB and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries

Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
Several microlevel studies have pinpointed prisons as an important site for tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB in European and central Asian countries. To date, no comparative analyses have examined whether rises in incarceration rates can account for puzzling differences in TB trends among overall populations. Using longitudinal TB and cross-sectional multidrug-resistant TB data for 26 eastern European and central Asian countries, we examined whether and to what degree increases in incarceration account for differences in population TB and multidrug-resistant TB burdens. We find that each percentage point increase in incarceration rates relates to an increased TB incidence of 0.34% (population attributable risk, 95% C.I.: 0.10–0.58%, P < 0.01), after controlling for TB infrastructure; HIV prevalence; and several surveillance, economic, demographic, and political indicators. Net increases in incarceration account for a 20.5% increase in TB incidence or nearly three-fifths of the average total increase in TB incidence in the countries studied from 1991 to 2002. Although the number of prisoners is a significant determinant of differences in TB incidence and multidrug-resistant TB prevalence among countries, the rate of prison growth is a larger determinant of these outcomes...

Parental Incarceration and Gender-based Risks for Increased Body Mass Index: Evidence From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in the United States

Roettger, Michael E.; Boardman, Jason D.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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26.71%
Although recent studies suggest that 13% of young adults, including at least one-fourth of African Americans, experience parental incarceration, little research has examined links between parental incarceration and physical health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994–2008) and gender-based theories of stress, the authors examined whether parental incarceration is associated with increased body mass index among women but not men. Panel analysis spanning adolescence and adulthood, controlling for stressful life events, internalizing behaviors, and a range of individual, familial, and neighborhood characteristics, reveals that body mass index for women who have experienced parental incarceration is 0.49 units (P < 0.004) higher than that for women whose parents have never been incarcerated. This association is not evident among men. Similarly, in change score models between waves II and IV, women experiencing parental incarceration have a 0.92-unit increase in body mass index (P < 0.026) relative to women who did not have a parent undergo incarceration. In supplemental analysis examining if gender differences in incarceration stress response (externalizing vs. internalizing) explain these findings...

Roe v Wade and the New Jane Crow: Reproductive Rights in the Age of Mass Incarceration

Paltrow, Lynn M.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.24%
All pregnant women, not just those who seek to end a pregnancy, have benefited from Roe v Wade. Today’s system of mass incarceration makes it likely that if Roe is overturned women who have abortions will go to jail.

Controversies in Knowledge Translation for Community-Based Drug Treatment: The Need to the End Policies of the War on Drugs and Mass Incarceration of Drug Offenders to Achieve Health Equity

Wallace, Barbara C.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.24%
The purpose of this article was to discuss significant challenges to the achievement of urban health, specifically acknowledging numerous controversies in knowledge translation for community-based drug treatment that prevent the achievement of health equity. Seven specific controversies are analyzed in this article. The results of the analysis are recommendations for moving toward the resolution of each controversy. Among the most important recommendations is a call to end the policies of the war on drugs and mass incarceration of drug offenders—as policies reflecting how politics and the misuse of power may derail knowledge translation. The article provides justification for evidence-based policy that supports community-based drug treatment as a public health approach consistent with the goals of health equity, ethical practice, and effective knowledge translation.

Rehabilitation in the Punitive Era: The Gap between Rhetoric and Reality in U.S. Prison Programs

Phelps, Michelle S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2011 EN
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26.15%
Scholars of mass incarceration point to the 1970s as a pivotal turning point in U.S. penal history, marked by a shift towards more punitive policies and a consensus that “nothing works” in rehabilitating inmates. However, while there has been extensive research on changes in policy-makers’ rhetoric, sentencing policy, and incarceration rates, we know very little about changes in the actual practices of punishment and prisoner rehabilitation. Using nationally representative data for U.S. state prisons, this article demonstrates that there were no major changes in investments in specialized facilities, funding for inmate services-related staff, or program participation rates throughout the late 1970s and the 1980s. Not until the 1990s, more than a decade after the start of the punitive era, do we see patterns of inmate services change, as investments in programming switch from academic to reentry-related programs. These findings suggest that there is a large gap between rhetoric and reality in the case of inmate services and that since the 1990s, inmate “rehabilitation” has increasingly become equated with reentry-related life skills programs.

The Paradox of Probation: Community Supervision in the Age of Mass Incarceration

PHELPS, MICHELLE S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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46.67%
After four decades of steady growth, U.S. states’ prison populations finally appear to be declining, driven by a range of sentencing and policy reforms. One of the most popular reform suggestions is to expand probation supervision in lieu of incarceration. However, the classic socio-legal literature suggests that expansions of probation instead widen the net of penal control and lead to higher incarceration rates. This article reconsiders probation in the era of mass incarceration, providing the first comprehensive evaluation of the role of probation in the build-up of the criminal justice system. The results suggest that probation was not the primary driver of mass incarceration in most states, nor is it likely to be a simple panacea to mass incarceration. Rather, probation serves both capacities, acting as an alternative and as a net-widener, to varying degrees across time and place. Moving beyond the question of diversion versus net widening, this article presents a new theoretical model of the probation-prison link that examines the mechanisms underlying this dynamic. Using regression models and case studies, I analyze how states can modify the relationship between probation and imprisonment by changing sentencing outcomes and the practices of probation supervision. When combined with other key efforts...

Punishment and Welfare: Paternal Incarceration and Families’ Receipt of Public Assistance

Sugie, Naomi F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.28%
The United States criminal justice and welfare systems are two important government institutions in the lives of the poor. Despite many theoretical discussions about their relationship, their operation at the level of offenders and families remains poorly understood. This paper utilizes Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing data to examine how recent paternal incarceration is associated with families’ receipt of TANF, food stamps, and Medicaid/SCHIP. Results robust to multiple tests find that incarceration is not related to subsequent TANF receipt but is significantly associated with increased receipt of food stamps and Medicaid/SCHIP. The findings suggest that greater government involvement among poor families is an unexpected consequence of mass imprisonment; however, increased participation does not include TANF—the cash assistance program of most concern to theorists.

The Effect of Incarceration on Adult Male BMI Trajectories, United States, 1981–2006

Houle, Brian
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2014 EN
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26.41%
The prevalence of obesity and overweight is socially patterned, with higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities, and those with lower socio-economic status. Contextual factors also affect obesity risk. However, an omitted factor has been incarceration, particularly since it disproportionately affects minorities. This study examines the effects of incarceration on adult male body mass index (BMI) in the United States over the life course, and whether effects vary by race/ethnicity and education. BMI trajectories were analyzed over age using growth curve models of men ages 18–49 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel study. BMI was based on self-reported height/weight (kg/m2). Being currently incarcerated increased BMI, but the effect varied by race/ethnicity and education: blacks experienced the largest increases, while effects were lowered for men with more education than a high school diploma. Cumulative exposure to prison increased BMI for all groups. These results suggest a differential effect of incarceration on adult male BMI among some racial/ethnic-education minority groups. Particularly given that these groups are most commonly imprisoned, incarceration may help structure obesity disparities and disadvantage across the life course.

Appendicitis in a Spigelian hernia: an unusual cause for a tender right iliac fossa mass

Thomas, MP; Avula, SK; England, R; Stevenson, L
Fonte: Royal College of Surgeons Publicador: Royal College of Surgeons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
26%
Spigelian hernias are a rare type of hernia through the Spigelian aponeurosis, whose contents commonly include omentum or small bowel. In the absence of incarceration or strangulation, they can be difficult to diagnose clinically. In the emergency setting, they can present rarely as a painful abdominal mass and computed tomography provides a reliable diagnostic imaging modality. We report an emergency presentation of a Spigelian hernia containing the appendix.

Incarceration, Prisoner Reentry, and Communities

Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; Harding, David J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Since the mid-1970s the United States has experienced an enormous rise in incarceration and accompanying increases in returning prisoners and in post-release community correctional supervision. Poor urban communities are disproportionately impacted by these phenomena. This review focuses on two complementary questions regarding incarceration, prisoner reentry, and communities:(1) whether and how mass incarceration has affected the social and economic structure of American communities, and (2) how residential neighborhoods affect the social and economic reintegration of returning prisoners. These two questions can be seen as part of a dynamic process involving a pernicious “feedback” loop, in which mass incarceration undermines the structure and social organization of some communities, thus creating more criminogenic environments for returning prisoners and further diminishing their prospects for successful reentry and reintegration.

The US Crime Puzzle: A Comparative Perspective on US Crime & Punishment

Spamann, Holger
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
EN_US
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26.45%
This paper compares actual US crime and incarceration rates to predicted rates from cross-country regressions. Global cross-country regressions of crime and incarceration on background characteristics explain much of the variation between other countries. But the estimated models predict only one-fourth of US incarceration and not all of US crime. The coincidence of the non-negative US crime residuals with the very large positive US incarceration residual constitutes a puzzle. The two pieces fit together only if the residual US incarceration does not contribute to a reduction in crime, except to the extent an omitted criminogenic factor pushes up US crime. The paper quantifies this relationship. Drawing on additional evidence from comparative and US-specific data, it argues that the puzzle's most plausible solution combines low effectiveness of mass incarceration with omitted criminogenic factors such as neighborhood segregation.

Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: An HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal✩

Draine, Jeffrey; McTighe, Laura; Bourgois, Philippe
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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36.15%
In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on the inside, and continuing on the outside of jail where individuals continue to be challenged and supported toward positive health and social choices. The intervention also seeks to foment community activism in the communities to which jail detainees return, thus aiming to have a structural impact. This paper examines both the intervention model and the challenges of examining the effectiveness claims for the intervention at multiple levels.

Develpment of crime, social change, mass media, crime policy, sanctioning practice and thier impact on prison population rates

Cid Moliné, Josep; Larrauri, Elena
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 ENG
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Spain has suffered a big increase of imprisonment between 1980 and 2006, passing from an average prison population of 17,000 prisoners in 1980 to 63,000 in 2006, meaning a growth of 266% in average prison population in 26 years. In order to explore the reasons for this increase in prison population, this paper proposes that is useful to distinguish two main periods: a) 1980-1994 (increase in prison population, followed by stability between 1995 and 2000, and b) 2001-2006 (a second increase in prison population). During these two periods, the growth of incarceration rates is higher in the first period (12% average increase per year) than in the second (6% average increase per year). More recent trends seem to announce an even more pronounced escalation of imprisonment in the foreseeable future. Authors proposes that the two trends that in Spain contribute to the enlargement of the prison incarceration rates, the larger time served by prisoners and the criminalization of new phenomena, will continue in the future.; A Espanha sofreu um grande aumento das taxas de encarceramento entre 1980 e 2006, passando de uma população carcerária média de 17.000 presos em 1980 para 63.000 em 2006, significando um crescimento de 266% na população carcerária média em 26 anos. A fim de explorar as razões para este aumento da população prisional...

Wildcat of the Streets: Race, Class and the Punitive Turn in 1970s Detroit

Stauch, Michael
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015
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36.28%

This dissertation is a social history of the city of Detroit in the 1970s. Using archives official and unofficial - oral histories and archived document collections, self-published memoirs and legal documents, personal papers and the newspapers of the radical press - it portrays a city in flux. It was in the 1970s that the urban crisis in the cities of the United States crested. Detroit, as had been the case throughout the twentieth century, was at the forefront of these changes. This dissertation demonstrates the local social, political, and economic circumstances that contributed to the dramatic increase in prison populations since the 1970s with a focus on the halls of government, the courtroom, and city streets. In the streets, unemployed African American youth organized themselves to counteract the contracted social distribution allocated to them under rapidly changing economic circumstances. They organized themselves for creative expression, protection and solidarity in a hostile city, and to pursue economic endeavors in the informal economy. They sometimes committed crimes. In the courts, Wayne County Juvenile Court Judge James Lincoln, a liberal Democrat long allied with New Deal political alliances, became disenchanted with rehabilitative solutions to juvenile delinquency and embraced more punitive measures...

O encarceramento em massa em São Paulo; Mass incarceration in São Paulo

Sinhoretto, Jacqueline; Silvestre, Giane; Melo, Felipe Athayde Lins de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2013 POR
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46.5%
São Paulo's prison population has grown sharply. More than 30% of the country's prisoners are found in the 154 prison establishments in the state. The policy of decentralizing prisons and mass incarceration focuses on people accused of property and drug-related crimes, typically young, male and living in urban peripheries. The article explores the repercussions of mass incarceration resulting from the norms and moralities governing prison life, especially the collaboration between prison administrations, inmates and their families in managing the daily life of the prison. This collaboration extends beyond the physical limits of the prisons, influencing the mechanisms determining incarceration and the increase in prison populations. The study observed negotiations between the administrations and organized groups of inmates and their families towards the shared goal of maintaining internal order to enable the work involved in penitentiary practices. The intensification of centralized forms of repressive social control is counterbalanced by the complementary opposition of a diffuse social control, grounded in the security procedures shared among the agents participating in the management of prison life.; A população prisional de São Paulo cresce acentuadamente. Mais de 30% dos presos do país se distribui pelas 154 unidades prisionais paulistas. A política de descentralização das prisões e encarceramento em massa focaliza acusados por crimes patrimoniais e de drogas...

The Economic Impacts of the Penal System Performance: virtual life, isolation and mass incarceration; ; Os impactos econômicos da atuação do sistema penal: vida virtual, isolamento e encarceramento em massa

Graziano Sobrinho, Sergio Francisco Carlos; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
Fonte: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux Publicador: Fundação José Arthur Boiteux
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/12/2014 POR
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46.41%
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2014v35n69p133This article aims to understand the role of the criminal justice system from the incarceration rates of the past 20 years, interacting economic concept of profit maximization with the criminological discourse of selectivity of the penal system. The discourse transformations in the field of criminal policy, characterized by a constant and strong prosecution, passing “penal welfarism” (correction) the increase in punishment, suffer significant interference from the economic model, in particular modulating the practices of incarceration with private interests, producing a significant increase in incarceration rates, permanent selectivity of action of the penal system and the changes in both the contemporary way of life as the action of the organs and structures of control and criminal justice.; ; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2014v35n69p133Este artigo objetiva compreender a atuação do sistema penal brasileiro a partir dos índices de encarceramento dos últimos 20 anos, interagindo o conceito econômico da maximização dos lucros com o discurso criminológico da seletividade do sistema penal. As transformações discursivas no campo das políticas criminais...

Despite signs of less punitive policing and incarceration policies, 2014 will be remembered for Michael Brown and Eric Garner

Newburn, Tim
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/12/2014 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
This year saw the trend away from mass incarceration continue and signs of what might be the emergence of an end to the ‘War on Drugs’. In his review of the year in criminal justice and policing policy, Tim Newburn writes that while there have been some encouraging signs of a less punitive and exclusionary means of dealing with crime, the killings of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and Eric Garner in New York by police, and the protests that followed, are likely to be the most memorable events of 2014.

The politics of punishment in America are slowly moving away from the mass incarceration policies of the past

Newburn, Tim
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/09/2013 EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.15%
Decades of punitive crime policies, frequently linked with the ‘war on drugs’, have given the US the highest incarceration rate in the world, with African Americans vastly overrepresented in the prison population. Tim Newburn argues, however, that there may be some small cause for optimism. In a recent speech, the US Attorney-General, Eric Holder, announced changes to the way offenders would be punished, including a desire to reduce the prison population. In addition to Holder’s speech,, the declining use of the death penalty, falling state-level prison populations, and gradual changes to drugs laws, appear to indicate that the politics of punishment in America are beginning to shift.