Página 1 dos resultados de 2084 itens digitais encontrados em 0.022 segundos

Uncertainty estimation to evaluate mass balances on a combustion system 

Teixeira, P. Alexandra; Lopes, M. Helena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Lapa, N.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1%
Mass balances of ash and potassium for a fluidized bed combustor were performed incorporating measurement uncertainties. The total output mass of ash or a chemical element should be equal to the mass in the input fuel; however, this is not often achieved. A realistic estimation of recovery uncertainty can support the reliability of a mass balance. Estimation of uncertainty helps to establish a reliable evaluation of the recovery ratio of ash mass and elemental mass. This may clarify whether any apparent lack in closing the mass balance can be attributed to uncertainties. The evaluation of measurement uncertainty for different matrices, namely coal, biomass, sand and ashes from different streams was based on internal quality control data and external quality control data, namely analysis of samples from proficiency tests or use of a certified reference material. The evaluation of intermediate precision and trueness allowed the estimation of measurement uncertainty. Due to the different physic and chemical characteristics of the studied matrices, the uncertainty of precision was evaluated using R-charts of data obtained from the analysis of duplicates for the majority of samples. This allowed evaluating sample heterogeneity effects. The instrumental acceptance criterion was also considered and included in the combined uncertainty. The trueness was evaluated using data from several proficiency tests and from analysis of a certified reference material or sample spiking. Statistically significant bias was included.

Skeletal Correlates for Body Mass Estimation in Modern and Fossil Flying Birds

Field, Daniel J.; Lynner, Colton; Brown, Christian; Darroch, Simon A. F.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/11/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.08%
Scaling relationships between skeletal dimensions and body mass in extant birds are often used to estimate body mass in fossil crown-group birds, as well as in stem-group avialans. However, useful statistical measurements for constraining the precision and accuracy of fossil mass estimates are rarely provided, which prevents the quantification of robust upper and lower bound body mass estimates for fossils. Here, we generate thirteen body mass correlations and associated measures of statistical robustness using a sample of 863 extant flying birds. By providing robust body mass regressions with upper- and lower-bound prediction intervals for individual skeletal elements, we address the longstanding problem of body mass estimation for highly fragmentary fossil birds. We demonstrate that the most precise proxy for estimating body mass in the overall dataset, measured both as coefficient determination of ordinary least squares regression and percent prediction error, is the maximum diameter of the coracoid’s humeral articulation facet (the glenoid). We further demonstrate that this result is consistent among the majority of investigated avian orders (10 out of 18). As a result, we suggest that, in the majority of cases, this proxy may provide the most accurate estimates of body mass for volant fossil birds. Additionally...

Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods

Brassey, Charlotte A.; Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Barrett, Paul M.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.04%
Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082–2256 kg) for this individual. By contrast, bivariate equations based on limb dimensions predict values between 2355 and 3751 kg and require implausible amounts of soft tissue and/or high body densities. When corrected for ontogenetic scaling, however, volumetric and linear equations are brought into close agreement. Our results raise concerns regarding the application of predictive equations to extinct taxa with no living analogues in terms of overall morphology and highlight the sensitivity of bivariate predictive equations to the ontogenetic status of the specimen. We emphasize the significance of rare, complete fossil skeletons in validating widely applied mass estimation equations based on incomplete skeletal material and stress the importance of accurately determining specimen age prior to further analyses.

Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

Clark, Richard V.; Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.
Fonte: American Physiological Society Publicador: American Physiological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36%
Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868...

Mass Estimation of Native Proteins by Blue Native Electrophoresis: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICAL HINTS*

Wittig, Ilka; Beckhaus, Tobias; Wumaier, Zibiernisha; Karas, Michael; Schägger, Hermann
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.03%
Blue native electrophoresis is one of the most popular techniques for mass estimation of native membrane proteins, but the use of non-optimal mass markers and acrylamide gels can compromise accuracy and reliability of the results. We present short protocols taking 10–30 min to prepare optimal sets of membrane protein markers from chicken, rat, mouse, and bovine heart. Especially heart materials from local supermarkets or butcher's shops, e.g. chicken or bovine heart, are ideal sources of high mass membrane protein standards. Considerable discrepancies between the migration behavior of membrane and soluble markers suggest using membrane protein markers for mass estimation of membrane proteins. Soluble standard proteins can be used, with some limitations, when soluble proteins are the focus. Principles and general rules for the determination of mass and oligomeric state of native membrane and soluble proteins are elaborated, and potential pitfalls are discussed.

Whole Body Center of Mass Estimation with Portable Sensors: Using the Statically Equivalent Serial Chain and a Kinect

González, Alejandro; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Bonnet, Vincent; Fraisse, Philippe
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.01%
The trajectory of the whole body center of mass (CoM) is useful as a reliable metric of postural stability. If the evaluation of a subject-specific CoM were available outside of the laboratory environment, it would improve the assessment of the effects of physical rehabilitation. This paper develops a method that enables tracking CoM position using low-cost sensors that can be moved around by a therapist or easily installed inside a patient's home. Here, we compare the accuracy of a personalized CoM estimation using the statically equivalent serial chain (SESC) method and measurements obtained with the Kinect to the case of a SESC obtained with high-end equipment (Vicon). We also compare these estimates to literature-based ones for both sensors. The method was validated with seven able-bodied volunteers for whom the SESC was identified using 40 static postures. The literature-based estimation with Vicon measurements had a average error 24.9 ± 3.7 mm; this error was reduced to 12.8 ± 9.1 mm with the SESC identification. When using Kinect measurements, the literature-based estimate had an error of 118.4 ± 50.0 mm, while the SESC error was 26.6 ± 6.0 mm. The subject-specific SESC estimate using low-cost sensors has an equivalent performance as the literature-based one with high-end sensors. The SESC method can improve CoM estimation of elderly and neurologically impaired subjects by considering variations in their mass distribution.

Do Anomalous Narrow Line Quasars Cast Doubt on Virial Mass Estimation?

Steinhardt, Charles L.; Silverman, John D.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/09/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.89%
Anomalous Narrow-Line Quasars (ANLs) are a population of quasars with narrow H\beta, and sometimes [O III] broader than ~1000 km/s, in total comprising \sim 10-30% (most likely ~25%) of Type I quasars at 0.2 < z < 0.8. We find that virial masses using the H\beta and Mg II lines systematically differ for ANLs by an average of as much as 0.5 dex. Because the broad H\beta component width increases in ANLs but Mg II does not, we might suspect H\beta-based virial masses for ANLs are wrong but Mg II masses are correct. If this is due to an outflow reaching the lower-ionization potential H\beta line, C IV masses will be similarly flawed. However, we cannot be certain of this explanation without followup work, and may be unable to identify which quasars are ANLs at z > 0.8. Therefore, it is essential that ANLs be well-understood and well-modeled in order to allow the use of virial mass estimators on large optical spectroscopic catalogs, particularly at z < 0.4 and z > 2.0 where only one broad line is available for use in mass estimation.; Comment: 5 pages, submitted

Precision cluster mass determination from weak lensing

Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Baldauf, Tobias; Smith, Robert E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Weak gravitational lensing has been used extensively in the past decade to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, and is the most promising observational technique for providing the mass calibration necessary for precision cosmology with clusters. There are several challenges in estimating cluster masses, particularly (a) the sensitivity to astrophysical effects and observational systematics that modify the signal relative to the theoretical expectations, and (b) biases that can arise due to assumptions in the mass estimation method, such as the assumed radial profile of the cluster. All of these challenges are more problematic in the inner regions of the cluster, suggesting that their influence would ideally be suppressed for the purpose of mass estimation. However, at any given radius the differential surface density measured by lensing is sensitive to all mass within that radius, and the corrupted signal from the inner parts is spread out to all scales. We develop a new statistic that is ideal for estimation of cluster masses because it completely eliminates mass contributions below a chosen scale (which we suggest should be about 20 per cent of the virial radius), and thus reduces sensitivity to systematic and astrophysical effects. We use simulated and analytical profiles to quantify systematic biases on the estimated masses for several standard methods of mass estimation...

ASCA Observations of NLS1s: BH Mass Estimation from X-ray Variability and X-ray Spectra

Hayashida, K.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/05/2000
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
ASCA observations of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) are presented. We focus on the black hole size of the NLS1 sources by employing two independent methods for the mass estimation; one is using X-ray variability, the other is using a blackbody fit to the soft component. Although the coincidence is not good for some sources, the mass estimated by these methods ranges from 1e5 to 1e7 solar masses, systematically smaller than those for typical (broad line) Seyfert 1. We consider the small mass black hole to be the principal cause of the several extreme characteristics of the NLS1s.; Comment: Contributed talk presented at the Joint MPE,AIP,ESO workshop on NLS1s, Bad Honnef, Dec. 1999, to appear in New Astronomy Reviews; also available at http://wave.xray.mpe.mpg.de/conferences/nls1-workshop

Mass Estimation of Merging Galaxy Clusters

Takizawa, Motokazu; Nagino, Ryo; Matsushita, Kyoko
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/04/2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.15%
We investigate the impact of mergers on the mass estimation of galaxy clusters using $N$-body + hydrodynamical simulation data. We estimate virial mass from these data and compare it with real mass. When the smaller subcluster's mass is larger than a quarter of that of the larger one, virial mass can be larger than twice of the real mass. The results strongly depend on the observational directions, because of anisotropic velocity distribution of the member galaxies. We also make the X-ray surface brightness and spectroscopic-like temperature maps from the simulation data. The mass profile is estimated from these data on the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. In general, mass estimation with X-ray data gives us better results than virial mass estimation. The dependence upon observational directions is weaker than in case of virial mass estimation. When the system is observed along the collision axis, the projected mass tends to be underestimated. This fact should be noted especially when the virial and/or X-ray mass are compared with gravitational lensing results.; Comment: 21 pages, 13 figures, accepted for publication in PASJ

Systematic Uncertainties in Stellar Mass Estimation for Distinct Galaxy Populations

Kannappan, Sheila J.; Gawiser, Eric
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/01/2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
We show that different stellar-mass estimation methods yield overall mass scales that disagree by factors up to ~2 for the z=0 galaxy population, and more importantly, relative mass scales that sometimes disagree by factors >~3 between distinct classes of galaxies (spiral/irregular types, classical E/S0s, and E/S0s whose colors reflect recent star formation). This comparison considers stellar mass estimates based on (a) two different calibrations of the correlation between K-band mass-to-light ratio and B-R color (Bell et al., Portinari et al.) and (b) detailed fitting of UBRJHK photometry and optical spectrophotometry using two different population synthesis models (Bruzual-Charlot, Maraston), with the same initial mass function in all cases. We also compare stellar+gas masses with dynamical masses. This analysis offers only weak arguments for preferring a particular stellar-mass estimation method, given the plausibility of real variations in dynamical properties and dark matter content. These results help to calibrate the systematic uncertainties inherent in mass-based evolutionary studies of galaxies, including comparisons of low and high redshift galaxies.; Comment: 5 pages including 2 enlarged figures, ApJ Letters, accepted

The Civ line width distribution for quasars and its implications for broad-line region dynamics and virial mass estimation

Fine, S.; Croom, S. M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Ross, N. P.; Schneider, D. P.; Shanks, T.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2010
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.96%
We perform an extensive analysis of the Civ line in three large spectroscopic surveys of quasars. Differing approaches for fitting the Civ line can be found in the literature, and we compare the most common methods to highlight the relative systematics associated with each. We develop a line fitting procedure and apply it to the Civ line in spectra from the SDSS, 2QZ and 2SLAQ surveys. Our results are compared with a previous study of the Mgii line in the same sample. Civ tends to be broader than the Mgii line in spectra that have both, and the average ratio between the lines is consistent with a simplistic model for a photoionised, virialised and stratified broad-line region. There is a statistically significant correlation between the widths of the Civ and Mgii lines. However, the correlation is weak, and the scatter around a best fit is only marginally less than the full dynamic range of line widths. Motivated by previous work, we examine the dispersion in the distribution of Civ line widths. We find that the dispersion in Civ line widths is essentially independent of both redshift and luminosity. This is in stark contrast to the Mgii line, which shows a strong luminosity dependence. Finally we consider our results in terms of their implications for virial black hole mass estimation. The inconsistency between Mgii and Civ line widths in single spectra...

Supermassive Black Hole Mass Estimates Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Spectra at 0.7 < z < 2

Rafiee, Alireza; Hall, Patrick B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/04/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.06%
We present MgII-based black hole mass estimates for 27,602 quasars with rest-frame UV spectra available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Three. This estimation is possible due to the existence of an empirical correlation between the radius of the broad line region and the continuum luminosity at 3000 Angstroms. We regenerate this correlation by applying our measurement method to UV spectra of low-redshift quasars in the HST/IUE databases which have corresponding reverberation mapping estimates of the Hbeta broad line region's radius. Our mass estimation method uses the line dispersion rather than the full width at half maximum of the low-ionization MgII emission line. We measure MgII line dispersions for quasars whose spectra have been reconstructed using the most significant eigenspectra produced through Principal Component Analysis. We have tested the reliability of using reconstructed spectra in black hole mass estimation using a Monte Carlo simulation and by comparing the results from original and reconstructed Data Release Three spectra. We show that using reconstructed spectra not only makes bias-free mass estimation possible for quasars with low spectroscopic signal-to-noise ratio, but also reduces the intrinsic scatter of the distribution of the black hole masses to lower than 0.15 dex.; Comment: 38 Pages...

Chandra Spectroscopy and Mass Estimation of the Lensing Cluster of Galaxies CL0024+17

Ota, Naomi; Hattori, Makoto; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/09/2002
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.92%
We present the X-ray analysis and the mass estimation of the lensing cluster of galaxies CL0024+17 with Chandra. We found that the temperature profile is consistent with being isothermal and the average X-ray temperature is 4.47 (+0.83, -0.54) keV. The X-ray surface brightness profile is represented by the sum of emissions associated with the central three bright elliptical galaxies and the emission from intracluster medium (ICM) which can be well described by a spherical beta-model. Assuming the ICM to be in the hydrostatic equilibrium, we estimated the X-ray mass and found it is significantly smaller than the strong lensing mass by a factor of 3.; Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures. Submitted to the proceedings of the 8th IAU Asian-Pasific Regional Meeting Volume 1

Effects of Biases in Virial Mass Estimation on Cosmic Synchronization of Quasar Accretion

Steinhardt, Charles L.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/04/2011
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.06%
Recent work using virial mass estimates and the quasar mass-luminosity plane has yielded several new puzzles regarding quasar accretion, including a sub-Eddington boundary on most quasar accretion, near-independence of the accretion rate from properties of the host galaxy, and a cosmic synchronization of accretion among black holes of a common mass. We consider how these puzzles might change if virial mass estimation turns out to have a systematic bias. As examples, we consider two recent claims of mass-dependent biases in MgII masses. Under any such correction, the surprising cosmic synchronization of quasar accretion rates and independence from the host galaxy remain. The slope and location of the sub-Eddington boundary are very sensitive to biases in virial mass estimation, and various mass calibrations appear to favor different possible physical explanations for feedback between the central black hole and its environment. The alternative mass estimators considered do not simply remove puzzling quasar behavior, but rather replace it with new puzzles that may be more difficult to solve than those using current virial mass estimators and the Shen et al. (2008) catalog.; Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures

Galaxy Cluster Mass Reconstruction Project: I. Methods and first results on galaxy-based techniques

Old, L.; Skibba, R. A.; Pearce, F. R.; Croton, D.; Muldrew, S. I.; Muñoz-Cuartas, J. C.; Gifford, D.; Gray, M. E.; von der Linden, A.; Mamon, G. A.; Merrifield, M. R.; Müller, V.; Pearson, R. J.; Ponman, T. J.; Saro, A.; Sepp, T.; Sifón, C.; Tempel, E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/03/2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.03%
This paper is the first in a series in which we perform an extensive comparison of various galaxy-based cluster mass estimation techniques that utilise the positions, velocities and colours of galaxies. Our primary aim is to test the performance of these cluster mass estimation techniques on a diverse set of models that will increase in complexity. We begin by providing participating methods with data from a simple model that delivers idealised clusters, enabling us to quantify the underlying scatter intrinsic to these mass estimation techniques. The mock catalogue is based on a Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) model that assumes spherical Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) haloes truncated at R_200, with no substructure nor colour segregation, and with isotropic, isothermal Maxwellian velocities. We find that, above 10^14 M_solar, recovered cluster masses are correlated with the true underlying cluster mass with an intrinsic scatter of typically a factor of two. Below 10^14 M_solar, the scatter rises as the number of member galaxies drops and rapidly approaches an order of magnitude. We find that richness-based methods deliver the lowest scatter, but it is not clear whether such accuracy may simply be the result of using an over-simplistic model to populate the galaxies in their haloes. Even when given the true cluster membership...

Using member galaxy luminosities as halo mass proxies of galaxy groups

Lu, Yi; Yang, Xiaohu; Shen, Shiyin
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/03/2015
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.02%
Reliable halo mass estimation for a given galaxy system plays an important role both in cosmology and galaxy formation studies. Here we set out to find the way that can improve the halo mass estimation for those galaxy systems with limited brightest member galaxies been observed. Using four mock galaxy samples constructed from semi-analytical formation models, the subhalo abundance matching method and the conditional luminosity functions, respectively, we find that the luminosity gap between the brightest and the subsequent brightest member galaxies in a halo (group) can be used to significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimation based on the luminosity of the brightest galaxy alone. Tests show that these corrections can significantly reduce the scatter in the halo mass estimations by $\sim 50\%$ to $\sim 70\%$ in massive halos depending on which member galaxies are considered. Comparing to the traditional ranking method, we find that this method works better for groups with less than five members, or in observations with very bright magnitude cut.; Comment: ApJ accepted

Variação radial e longitudinal da densidade aparente e estimativa de massa de Toona ciliata; Longitudinal and radial variation of apparent density and mass estimation of Toona ciliata

Silva, Tatiane Antunes da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia da Madeira; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Ciências Florestais Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia da Madeira; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Ciências Florestais
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em 22/12/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.07%
Australian Cedar (Toona ciliata), belongs to the Meliaceae family and has been cultivated in many Brazilian sites. When compared to natural forest species it has fast growth and has been used as an option to substitute native woods, such as mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and cedar (Cedrella odorata). The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the variation in apparent density and propose a model for stem mass estimation this study used trees with 52 months old, from plantation areas, in Campo Belo county, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Two distinct progenies were chosen and had wood discs removed in the following positions from the tree base: 0.15 m, 0.70 m, 1.30 m and 30%, 50%, 70% and 85% of the total height. Wood samples from the disks were collected in order to conduct X-ray densitometry. The X-ray densitometry allowed us to know density variation from pit to bark and from base to top of trees. The density increases from pit to bark. From base to top of the tree, the density decreases up to DBH position and, after that, increases until the top of the tree. The estimated value for mean apparent density was 0.422 g/cm³. Based on the longitudinal variation of apparent density it was possible to propose a model for mass estimation. The model...

Dry mass estimation of tropical aquatic insects using different short-term preservation methods

Cressa,Claudia
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1999 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.85%
Relationships of body mass and head capsule width were calculated for Thraulodes sp., Haplohyphes sp. (Ephemeroptera), Leptonema sp. and Nectopsyche sp. (Trichoptera), and Anacroneuria sp. (Plecoptera) using different preservatives (Freezing, Formaldehyde 4% and Kahle). The organisms were collected monthly during a year on the Orituco river, Venezuela with a Surber net (0. 1296 m² and 0.286 mm mesh size). The data presented here are representative of the organism conditions year around. No attempt was made to quantify intersample variation. Regression analysis indicated that all relationships were highly correlated for any of the fixatives used. Changes in dry mass per unit change of head capsule width, vary among species and preservatives with no clear relationship among them. Changes in dry mass calculated as the difference between dry mass of preserved samples to those of unpreserved ones, indicate that all fixatives underestimate dry mass by as much as 85.4%, except for Nectopsyche sp. whose dry mass was always overestimated. These results provide further evidence on the effect of preservatives on dry mass losses. Even when working with tropical species, any study in which biomass is going to be determined should consider the effect of preservatives on dry mass.

A comparison of fat mass and skeletal muscle mass estimation in male ultra-endurance athletes using bioelectrical impedance analysis and different anthropometric methods

Knechtle,B.; Wirth,A.; Knechtle,P.; Rosemann,T.; Rüst,C. A.; Bescós,R.
Fonte: Nutrición Hospitalaria Publicador: Nutrición Hospitalaria
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
45.97%
Two hundred and fifty seven male Caucasian ultraendurance athletes were recruited, pre-race, before different swimming, cycling, running and triathlon races. Fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and anthropometric methods in order to investigate whether the use of BIA or anthropometry would be useful under field conditions. Total body fat estimated using BIA was significantly high (P < 0.001) compared with anthropometry. When the results between BIA and anthropometry were compared, moderate to low levels of agreement were found. These results were in accordance with the differences found in the Bland-Altman analysis, indicating that the anthropometric equation of Ball et al. had the highest level of agreement (Bias = -3.0 ± 5.8 kg) with BIA, using Stewart et al. (Bias = -6.4 ± 6.3 kg), Faulkner (Bias = -4.7 ± 5.8 kg) and Wilmore-Siri (Bias = -4.8 ± 6.2 kg). The estimation of skeletal muscle mass using BIA was significantly (P < 0.001) above compared with anthropometry. The results of the ICC and Bland-Altman method showed that the anthropometric equation from Lee et al. (Bias = -5.4 ± 5.3 kg) produced the highest level of agreement. The combined method of Janssen et al. between anthropometry and BIA showed a lower level of agreement (Bias = -12.5 ± 5.7 kg). There was a statistically significant difference between the results derived from the equation of Lee et al. and Janssen et al. (P < 0.001). To summarise...