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Proposal of a test specimen to evaluate the shear strength of vertical interfaces of running bond masonry walls

CAPUZZO NETO, Valentim; CORREA, Marcio R. S.; RARNALHO, Marcio A.
Fonte: NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA-N R C RESEARCH PRESS Publicador: NATL RESEARCH COUNCIL CANADA-N R C RESEARCH PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.81%
There is no normalized test to assess the shear strength of vertical interfaces of interconnected masonry walls. The approach used to evaluate this strength is normally indirect and often unreliable. The aim of this study is to propose a new test specimen to eliminate this deficiency. The main features of the proposed specimen are failure caused by shear stress on the vertical interface and a small number of units (blocks). The paper presents a numerical analysis based on the finite element method, with the purpose of showing the theoretical performance of the designed specimen, in terms of its geometry, boundary conditions, and loading scheme, and describes an experimental program using the specimen built with full- and third-scale clay blocks. The main conclusions are that the proposed specimen is easy to build and is appropriate to evaluate the sheaf strength of vertical interfaces of masonry walls.

Parametrical study of masonry walls subjected to in-plane loading through numerical modeling

HAACH, Vladimir G.; VASCONCELOS, Graca; LOURENCO, Paulo B.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.06%
This paper deals with the numerical assessment of the influence of parameters such as pre-compression level, aspect ratio, vertical and horizontal reinforcement ratios and boundary conditions on the lateral strength of masonry walls under in-plane loading. The numerical study is performed through the software DIANA (R) based on the Finite Element Method. The validation of the numerical model is carried out from a database of available experimental results on masonry walls tested under cyclic lateral loading. Numerical results revealed that boundary conditions play a central role on the lateral behavior of masonry walls under in-plane loading and determine the influence of level of pre-compression as well as the reinforcement ratio on the wall strength. The lateral capacity of walls decreases with the increase of aspect ratio and with the decrease of pre-compression. Vertical steel bars appear to have almost no influence in the shear strength of masonry walls and horizontal reinforcement only increases the lateral strength of masonry walls if the shear response of the walls is determinant for failure, which is directly related to the boundary conditions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; European Commission[COOP-CT-2005-018120]; Programme Alssan...

Estudo da resistência e da deformabilidade da alvenaria de blocos de concreto submetida a esforços de compressão ; Study of strength and curved stress/strain relationship of blockwork masonry walls under compression

Juste, Andrea Elizabeth
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/08/2001 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.89%
O estudo da resistência à compressão e da deformabilidade de paredes de alvenaria de blocos de concreto é de fundamental importância para a caracterização desse material e o desenvolvimento de análises de estruturas compostas por esse tipo de painel. Este trabalho trata desse tema, objetivando prever com maior acuidade os principais parâmetros de deformação e de resistência de paredes de alvenaria de blocos de concreto, a saber: resistência à compressão e módulo de elasticidade longitudinal nas direções paralela e perpendicular à junta de assentamento. Foi desenvolvido um trabalho experimental para estimar a influência da resistência dos blocos, da resistência da argamassa e da direção de aplicação de forças no comportamento mecânico da alvenaria de blocos de concreto não-grauteada, quando submetida a esforços de compressão. Para tanto, realizaram-se ensaios de laboratório em blocos, argamassas, prismas de três blocos e paredinhas com dimensões de 80 cm x 80 cm. Por inferência estatística não foram obtidas correlações aceitáveis entre as variáveis estudadas. Porém, obtiveram-se tendências de comportamento dos corpos de prova estudados, confirmando a influência das características da argamassa e do bloco no comportamento estrutural da alvenaria quando submetida a esforços de compressão; The study of strength and the curved stress/strain relationship of blockwork masonry walls is basic for the material characterization and the development of structural analysis of blockwork walls. This work deals with that subject...

Interação de paredes em alvenaria estrutural cerâmica sob ações verticais ; The interaction of ceramic structural masonry walls under vertical loads

Capuzzo Neto, Valentim
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/07/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.92%
O objetivo do presente trabalho é esclarecer, sob o ponto de vista estrutural, a interação de paredes em alvenaria estrutural cerâmica com amarração direta submetidas a ações verticais, por meio de análises experimentais e numéricas. Para permitir a execução de ensaios complexos, empregam-se as técnicas de modelos físicos reduzidos. São realizados estudos sobre os temas relacionados: interação de paredes de alvenaria estrutural não-armada, modelos físicos reduzidos e modelagem numérica da alvenaria. Realiza-se a caracterização dos materiais na escala reduzida e natural para determinar suas propriedades mecânicas e correlação entre as escalas. É desenvolvido numericamente e testado experimentalmente um corpo-de-prova para a determinação da resistência ao cisalhamento da alvenaria no plano vertical. Estuda-se, numérica e experimentalmente, a influência das características geométricas dos painéis de alvenaria, da presença de lajes e de cintas de amarração e do número de pavimentos. Verifica-se uma boa correlação entre os modelos reduzidos e em escala natural, quanto às principais propriedades da alvenaria, demonstrando a viabilidade de sua utilização, desde que se considere uma correta análise de semelhança. A modelagem numérica representa de forma adequada o comportamento global dos painéis de alvenaria. A cinta de amarração na fiada intermediária produz um prolongamento do comportamento linear dos painéis de alvenaria. Conclui-se...

Estudo teórico e experimental do comportamento das interfaces verticais de paredes interconectadas de alvenaria estrutural; Numerical and experimental study of the behaviour of vertical interfaces of interconnected structural masonry walls

Oliveira, Luciane Marcela Filizola de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/06/2014 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.89%
A ação estrutural monolítica de paredes interconectadas é dependente da resistência ao cisalhamento da interface, que por sua vez, depende do tipo de ligação entre elas. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar o comportamento mecânico das interfaces verticais entre paredes de alvenaria conectadas por amarração direta e por amarração indireta com grampos de barras de aço CA-50 com 10 mm de diâmetro. Para compreensão do mecanismo de funcionamento das ligações foram realizados ensaios de caracterização dos materiais, dos componentes e da alvenaria, além de ensaios de cisalhamento direto em quatro séries de seis corpos de prova de cinco fiadas, em formato H e em escala natural. Nas séries ensaiadas foi variado o tipo de ligação e o material do bloco, sendo a primeira produzida com blocos de concreto e amarração direta, a segunda com blocos cerâmicos com amarração direta, a terceira com blocos de concreto e amarração indireta e a quarta com blocos cerâmicos e amarração indireta. Todos os corpos de prova foram assentados com argamassamento lateral e argamassa de traço 1:1:6 em volume. Na análise experimental foi investigada a força de ruptura, a relação tensão-deformação específica...

An anisotropic linear elastic boundary element formulation for masonry wall analysis

Oliveira Neto, Luttgardes de; John Masia, Mark; Taguti, Yzumi; Carlos Rigitano, Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 434-440
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.96%
This work presents an application of a Boundary Element Method (BEM) formulation for anisotropic body analysis using isotropic fundamental solution. The anisotropy is considered by expressing a residual elastic tensor as the difference of the anisotropic and isotropic elastic tensors. Internal variables and cell discretization of the domain are considered. Masonry is a composite material consisting of bricks (masonry units), mortar and the bond between them and it is necessary to take account of anisotropy in this type of structure. The paper presents the formulation, the elastic tensor of the anisotropic medium properties and the algebraic procedure. Two examples are shown to validate the formulation and good agreement was obtained when comparing analytical and numerical results. Two further examples in which masonry walls were simulated, are used to demonstrate that the presented formulation shows close agreement between BE numerical results and different Finite Element (FE) models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Evaluation of the in-plane seismic performance of stone masonry walls

Vasconcelos, Graça; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2005 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.96%
Although traditional historic masonry walls can be viewed as unsuitable structures to undergo seismic actions, they, in fact, exist and frequently represent the major structural elements of ancient buildings. Brick unreinforced masonry walls have been widely studied both from experimental and numerical point of view, but scarce experimental information is available for stone masonry walls. Therefore, the present work aims at increasing the insight about the behavior of typical ancient masonry walls under cyclic loading. Besides the strength and stiffness characterization, information about nonlinear deformation capacity is provided in terms of ductility factor and lateral drifts, which represent a step forward for the new concepts of performance based design.

Experimental behaviour of three-leaf stone masonry walls

Oliveira, Daniel V.; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.98%
A major part of historical structures, currently in European urban centres, is built with stone masonry walls, often constituted by multiple leaves. A common typology encountered is the three-leaf stone masonry wall, which is characterized by a substantial presence of voids in the inner leaf and prone to brittle collapse mechanisms. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of three-leaf masonry walls and guidelines for proper design and control ofthe interventions are limited. A comprehensive experimental study on the structural behaviour of three-leaf stone masonry walls has been planned at University of Minho, considering different strengthening techniques using GFRP (glass fibre reinforced polymer) materials, pozzolana-lime based mortar and lime-based grout. In the paper the first experimental results on materials and three-leaf stone masonry walls are presented and discussed.; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia POCI/ECM/58987/2004

Experimental investigations on dry stone masonry walls

Vasconcelos, Graça; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Mouzakis, H.; Karapitta, L.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.92%
Brick unreinforced masonry walls have been widely studied both from experimental and numerical point of view, but scarce experimental information is available for dry stone masonry walls that constitute the material more frequently used in the construction of ancient historical constructions. Therefore, the present work aims at increasing the insight about the behavior of typical ancient masonry walls under cyclic loading. To attain such goal, different experimental approaches are considered: static cyclic and dynamic tests. Besides the considerable out-of-plane movements of the stones, it was found that flexural response of the walls prevails in both experimental approaches.

Modeling the dynamic behaviour of masonry walls as rigid blocks

Peña, Fernando; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Lemos, José V.
Fonte: ECCOMAS Publicador: ECCOMAS
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.68%
This paper addresses the numerical modeling of masonry walls as rigid blocks. Models based on rigid block assemblies provide a suitable frame work for understanding their dynamic behavior under seismic actions. In this context, the problem is primarily concerned with Rocking Motion dynamics. The numerical tool is based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) specially effective for the numerical modeling of rigid blocks. Some authors have been used successfully the DEM in the study of block structures. However, they have used experimental test to calibrate their models and to obtain the parameters used in the DEM; because these parameters cannot be obtained directly form the characteristics of the stones. In this context, a new methodology is proposed to find the parameters of the DEM by using the parameters of the classical theory. Special attention regards about the damping factor, since in the DEM a viscous damping is considered, but in reality the damping is due to impulsive forces that they can be considered as a type of Dirac-б forces. An extensive comparison between numerical and experimental data has been carried out to verified the proposed methodology. Very good agreement between the numerical model and experimental data is achieved.; Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) - SFRH/BPD/17449/2004.

Blast analysis of enclosure masonry walls using homogenization approaches

Milani, G.; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.89%
A simple rigid-plastic homogenization model for the analysis of enclosure masonry walls sub- jected to blast loads is presented. The model is characterized by a few material parameters, is numerically inexpensive and very stable, and allows full parametric studies of entire walls subject to blast pressures. With the aim of considering the actual brickwork strength along vertical and horizontal axes, masonry out-of-plane anisotropic failure surfaces are obtained by means of a compatible homogenized limit analysis approach. In the model, a 3D system of rigid infinitely strong bricks connected by joints reduced to interfaces is identified with a 2D Kirchhoff-Love plate. For the joints, which obey an associated flow rule, aMohr-Coulomb fail- ure criterion with a tension cutoff and a linearized elliptic compressive cap is considered. In this way, the macroscopic masonry failure surface is obtained as a function of the macroscopic bending, torque, and in-plane forces by means of a linear programming problem in which the internal power dissipated is minimized. Triangular Kirchhoff-Love elements with linear in- terpolation of the displacements field and constant moment within each element are used at a structural level. In this framework, a simple quadratic programming problem is obtained to analyze entire walls subjected to blast loads. The multiscale strategy presented is adopted to predict the behavior of a rectangular wall supported on three sides (left...

A numerical study of non structural masonry walls with bed joint reinforcement subject to flexure

Oliveira, E. A.; Silva, R. M.; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.95%
This paper presents a numerical investigation of a non structural small masonry wall submitted to a flexion effort in its plan and constructed with ceramic blocks. The effort is due to an excessive deformation of the structural elements. The small walls of ceramic blocks (named here mini-walls) were analyzed under two different situations: without bed joint reinforcement (for reference) and with bed joint reinforcement. In order to evaluate the improvement of structural performance with the proposed strengthening (reinforcement masonry walls) the arrows were measured in the middle of the mini-walls, cracking degree and the steel bars deformation. The program employed to carry out the numerical analyses was DIANA (version 9.1), that uses Finet Element Method (FEM). The strategy adopted was macromodelling and non linear phisical behaviour. The results obtained from the numerical research proved that masonry walls with bed joint showed an increased load at first cracking, better performance in service, increased capacity and more resistant arrow at break. Improvements also in relation to the ultimate limit state, which indicates that it is profit and that bed joint reinforcement can be used in non structural and structural mansory walls.

Parametrical study of masonry walls subjected to in-plane loading through numerical modeling

Haach, V.; Vasconcelos, Graça; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Elsevier, Ltd Publicador: Elsevier, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.03%
This paper deals with the numerical assessment of the influence of parameters such as pre-compression level, aspect ratio, vertical and horizontal reinforcement ratios and boundary conditions on the lateral strength of masonry walls under in-plane loading. The numerical study is performed through the software DIANA® based on the Finite Element Method. The validation of the numerical model is carried out from a database of available experimental results on masonry walls tested under cyclic lateral loading. Numerical results revealed that boundary conditions play a central role on the lateral behavior of masonry walls under in-plane loading and determine the influence of level of pre-compression as well as the reinforcement ratio on the wall strength. The lateral capacity of walls decreases with the increase of aspect ratio and with the decrease of pre-compression. Vertical steel bars appear to have almost no influence in the shear strength of masonry walls and horizontal reinforcement only increases the lateral strength of masonry walls if the shear response of the walls is determinant for failure, which is directly related to the boundary conditions.

Tube-jack testing for irregular masonry walls : first studies

Ramos, Luís F.; Sharafi, Ziba
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 08/10/2010 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.89%
One of the most well-known non-destructive methods for inspection and diagnosis in historical masonry walls is the flat-jack testing. Although it gives qualitative and valuable results about the local stress level and the deformability of the masonry material, when testing on irregular masonry walls, or walls with larger stone units, experimental and practical problems might occur, leading to inaccurate or useless results. In addition, the testing apparatus is labor, with difficulties in sawing task. Another limitation is the difficulty to test multi-leaves walls. To overturn these problems and to achieve more reliable information, an enhanced type of jacks is proposed in the paper. The new testing system consists of tube-jacks instead of the usual flat-jacks. As part of the preliminary research, analyses with FE models to simulate the differences between the conventional and the enhanced method are presented in the paper. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed and further research steps are presented.

Failure mode, deformability and strength of masonry walls

Mohamad, Gihad; Lourenço, Paulo B.; Rizzatti, Eduardo; Roman, Humberto R.; Nakanishi, Elizabete Yukiko
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.92%
For materials such as concrete, the understanding of the failure mode, deformability and strength of block masonry walls are important to simulate the behaviour of the assembly. Still now, there are difficulties on determine experimentally results of the interaction between the materials, as concrete block, mortar and the interface between vertical and bedding joint. Because of this, experimental tests of masonry walls were built to get the deformability, failure modes and compressive strength of the masonry. Experimental tests of tensile and compression on blocks had been done. With the conclusion of experimental tests it is possible to verify that the vertical mortar joint was the main responsible for initiated the failure mechanisms of masonry and further studies of masonry built with high adherence mortar are necessary to improve the ratio between compressive strength of wall and blocks.

Out-of-plane in situ cyclic testing of unreinforced stone masonry walls with distributed loads

Costa, A.; Costa, A. A.; Arêde, A.; Garcia, F.; Ferreira, T.; Varum, H.
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.89%
The present paper reports an in situ experimental test campaign carried out on existing buildings, in order to investigate the seismic behaviour of traditional masonry walls subject to out-of-plane loads. For the testing proposes, an experimental test setup based on a selfequilibrated scheme was developed and optimized to be applied in situ in two specimens on original and strengthened conditions. The obtained results are presented and carefully discussed namely from the reinforcement solutions’ efficiency point-of-view, as well as compared to previous experimental data obtained for the same type of masonry walls. Additionally, a simplified linearized displacement-based procedure was adapted in order to characterize the nonlinear force-displacement relationship for unreinforced traditional masonry walls and to analytically predict the experimental test results. The confrontation between the experimental and the analytical results are presented and discussed.

Out-of-plane strengthening of unreinforced masonry walls using FRP.

Kashyap, Jaya
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.09%
Unreinforced masonry (URM) structures constitute both a significant portion of the world’s heritage buildings and a significant component of the modern residential building stock, and are particularly susceptible to damage from out-of-plane loads such as those generated by earthquakes (Ingham and Griffith 2011). Consequently, there is a considerable need for the development of economical and effective seismic strengthening techniques for URM construction. This study investigates the performance of near surface mounted (NSM) carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strengthened clay brick masonry walls under monotonic and cyclic out-of-plane bending with particular attention to the FRP-to-masonry joint behaviour. Fourteen NSM carbon FRP-to-masonry pull tests were conducted to study the FRP-to-masonry bond behaviour and to investigate the effect that variables such as cyclic loading and FRP strip dimensions have on the debonding resistance of a NSM FRP-to-masonry joint. The pull tests results were then incorporated into a large database of FRP retrofitted masonry pull test results by various researchers over the past 10 years. An empirical model was derived for the intermediate crack (IC) debonding resistance of FRP-to-masonry joints using a large set of test data from the open literature (Kashyap et al. 2012). Further...

Dry stone masonry walls in bending - Part I: static tests

Restrepo Velez, L.; Magenes, G.; Griffith, M.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.89%
A series of static 1:5-scale tests on dry stone masonry walls were performed with the main objective to verify existing analytical expressions for computation of resistance to horizontal loading proportional to the self-weight of masonry. The resistance is expressed by means of a collapse load multiplier, and the experiments were conceived to reproduce various out-of-plane bending failure mechanisms using an inclined plane machine built with steel profiles and with an aluminum platform. The collapse multiplier was calculated from the inclination angle of the platform that caused collapse. Since the walls were constructed without mortar, the shear strength along the joints was given purely by friction. The “bricks” were cut from marble—the selection criteria being the accuracy for the cutting, the hardness and durability of the material, and an appropriate friction coefficient. In total, 42 configurations were tested, varying the length of the walls, the presence and position of openings, the staggering ratio, the quality of the connection between walls, the existence of vertical overburden loads in the walls, and the number of stories. The test results are presented in terms of the measured collapse load multipliers and detailed descriptions of the associated collapse mechanisms.; Luis Fernando Restrepo Vélez...

Out-Of-Plane Bending Of Masonry Walls With Near-Surface-Mounted And Externally-Bonded Corrosion-Resistant Reinforcement

Mierzejewski, Wojciech
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
57%
Masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane loading, such as in a seismic event, require reinforcement to improve the ductility of the system. In current masonry construction practice, reinforcement is placed internally and fully grouted. For new construction this can make the wall unjustifiably heavy by not taking advantage of its light, hollow structure. For existing construction, it is difficult to retrofit using this technique. Additionally, the reinforcement is located close to the neutral axis which reduces its effectiveness. Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars, strips and sheets are becoming increasingly popular in construction applications due to their noncorrosive nature and ease of installation. Also, stainless steel bars are used where the structure is exposed to a corrosive environment but have not found wider application for masonry structures. This study is an experimental investigation of the structural performance of masonry walls reinforced with Near-Surface-Mounted (NSM) FRP and stainless steel reinforcement under out-of-plane bending. Additionally, walls with Externally Bonded (EB) FRP sheets were tested. The study simulates retrofitting applications and also proposes the NSM technique for new wall construction, using pre-grooved blocks...

Structure and architectural project: two examples with masonry walls.

Freire-Tellado, Manuel J.; Rosales Noves, José Manuel; Crecente, G.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Parte de Livro
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.77%
International Conference on Structures and Architecture(1ª.2010.Guimarães, Portugal); [Abstract] The paper presents two buildings solved with masonry walls: a family house in Betanzos and a multi-storey apartment building located at Lugo. The structure of the first one is solved by load-bearing walls of precast concrete blocks that arise from an elevated floor slab. The concrete block, though hidden, provides housing modulating, simplifying the tasks of construction, the wholeness of the building as well as guarantees other physical properties (fire resistance, thermal inertia, sound insulation). The second building is a residential building, which has four floors (the fourth one under the roof) built on a small site. There is a real ‘tour de force’ in this building project whose load-bearing walls of brickwork (perforated klinker) solve both structural requirement and thermal insulation of the façade with a reduced thickness. Through these examples, we offer an overview of various aspects relating to the materialization of the architecture