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Interação de paredes em alvenaria estrutural cerâmica sob ações verticais ; The interaction of ceramic structural masonry walls under vertical loads

Capuzzo Neto, Valentim
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/07/2005 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
O objetivo do presente trabalho é esclarecer, sob o ponto de vista estrutural, a interação de paredes em alvenaria estrutural cerâmica com amarração direta submetidas a ações verticais, por meio de análises experimentais e numéricas. Para permitir a execução de ensaios complexos, empregam-se as técnicas de modelos físicos reduzidos. São realizados estudos sobre os temas relacionados: interação de paredes de alvenaria estrutural não-armada, modelos físicos reduzidos e modelagem numérica da alvenaria. Realiza-se a caracterização dos materiais na escala reduzida e natural para determinar suas propriedades mecânicas e correlação entre as escalas. É desenvolvido numericamente e testado experimentalmente um corpo-de-prova para a determinação da resistência ao cisalhamento da alvenaria no plano vertical. Estuda-se, numérica e experimentalmente, a influência das características geométricas dos painéis de alvenaria, da presença de lajes e de cintas de amarração e do número de pavimentos. Verifica-se uma boa correlação entre os modelos reduzidos e em escala natural, quanto às principais propriedades da alvenaria, demonstrando a viabilidade de sua utilização, desde que se considere uma correta análise de semelhança. A modelagem numérica representa de forma adequada o comportamento global dos painéis de alvenaria. A cinta de amarração na fiada intermediária produz um prolongamento do comportamento linear dos painéis de alvenaria. Conclui-se...

Projeto para produção de vedações verticais em alvenaria em uma ferramenta CAD-BIM.; Masonry design for production in a BIM-CAD tool.

Monteiro, Ari
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/05/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
Este trabalho propõe uma metodologia para representar o PPVVA (Projeto para Produção de Vedações Verticais em Alvenaria) em ferramentas CAD-BIM de maneira a não degradar significativamente o desempenho de manipulação do modelo BIM devido à grande quantidade de componentes. Ao mesmo tempo, propõe uma linguagem computacional para descrever modulações de alvenaria e a especificação de novas funcionalidades nos CAD-BIM para automatizar algumas atividades do PPVVA. A pesquisa foi organizada adotando-se a seguinte metodologia: (i) avaliação dos principais CAD-BIM do mercado; (ii) levantamento de requisitos de representação dos objetos do PPVVA; (iii) especificação do modelo de representação; (iv) implementação do modelo e (v) definição de um fluxo de trabalho para utilização do modelo proposto. A avaliação dos principais CAD-BIM possibilitou verificar as limitações destas aplicações no atendimento dos requisitos de representação do PPVVA e a necessidade de adequação destas aplicações para esse uso. A partir de entrevistas com projetistas de vedações foi possível coletar e sistematizar regras, que serviram de base à elaboração do modelo de representação proposto. Uma das idéias chave deste modelo de representação é a especificação de uma linguagem de descrição para modulações de alvenaria chamada de MMDL (Masonry Modulation Description Language). A utilização da MMDL mostrou-se uma alternativa interessante para representar implicitamente os elementos do PPVVA. Uma abordagem de representação explícita...

Estudo do efeito do não preenchimento das juntas verticais e eficiência do graute na resistência da alvenaria estrutural de blocos cerâmicos; Study of the effect of unfilled vertical joints and efficiency of grout in the strength of structural masonry of clay bricks

Miranda, Larissa de Almeida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/10/2012 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.43%
No contexto do crescimento do processo construtivo em alvenaria estrutural, destaca-se o uso do bloco cerâmico consolidado com a criação de sua norma específica de projeto, execução e controle de obras, a NBR 15812, partes 1 e 2 (ABNT, 2010). Desde a difusão da alvenaria estrutural, mudanças nas técnicas construtivas vêm ocorrendo, como por exemplo, o não preenchimento das juntas verticais de assentamento dos blocos. Outra prática que tem sido utilizada é o grauteamento da alvenaria. No entanto, ainda não está estabelecido se o não preenchimento da junta vertical compromete o desempenho da alvenaria ou qual a resistência necessária ao graute para aumentar a resistência da alvenaria. Diante disto, o trabalho objetiva contribuir com o estudo do não preenchimento das juntas verticais avaliando o seu efeito na resistência à compressão e ao cisalhamento de pequenas paredes e também pesquisar a influência do graute em prismas e pequenas paredes submetidos à compressão. Com as análises dos resultados pode-se concluir que o não preenchimento das juntas verticais não exerceu influência nos valores de resistência à compressão e também nos módulos de elasticidade longitudinal das pequenas paredes ensaiadas. No entanto...

An anisotropic linear elastic boundary element formulation for masonry wall analysis

Oliveira Neto, Luttgardes de; John Masia, Mark; Taguti, Yzumi; Carlos Rigitano, Antonio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 434-440
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.43%
This work presents an application of a Boundary Element Method (BEM) formulation for anisotropic body analysis using isotropic fundamental solution. The anisotropy is considered by expressing a residual elastic tensor as the difference of the anisotropic and isotropic elastic tensors. Internal variables and cell discretization of the domain are considered. Masonry is a composite material consisting of bricks (masonry units), mortar and the bond between them and it is necessary to take account of anisotropy in this type of structure. The paper presents the formulation, the elastic tensor of the anisotropic medium properties and the algebraic procedure. Two examples are shown to validate the formulation and good agreement was obtained when comparing analytical and numerical results. Two further examples in which masonry walls were simulated, are used to demonstrate that the presented formulation shows close agreement between BE numerical results and different Finite Element (FE) models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Validation of a simplified model for the design of masonry infilled frames

Lourenço, Paulo B.; Alvarenga, Rita de Cássia S. S.; Silva, Roberto Márcio da
Fonte: British Masonry Society (BMS) Publicador: British Masonry Society (BMS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.3%
The design of masonry infills is an issue that has attracted the attention of several researchers in the past, both from the experimental and analytical points of view. Nevertheless, the results are often questionable due to the large variability of masonry properties, the limited number of tests carried out and the large number of influencing factors. This paper addresses this limitation by using numerical analysis as a simulation of an experimental laboratory, and by performing a sensitivity analysis about the influence of the different influence factors. The modelling approach has been validated using the experimental results of two masonry walls subjected to horizontal loading. The parametric study subsequently carried out allowed to propose a strut-and-tie model that provides a novel simplified expression for the failure of infill walls belonging to frames subjected to horizontal loading. The proposed model is compared with other models available in the literature exhibiting superior performance and constituting a simple and versatile tool for design.; CAPES.; UFV.

Behavior of masonry infill panels in RC frames subjected to in plane and out of plane loads

Pereira, Manuel Fernando Paulo; Pereira, M. F. Neto; Ferreira, J. E. Dias; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.43%
The building envelope in Europe is usually made of masonry walls, with enclosure and infill functions. Masonry walls have a major economical importance and contribute significantly to the building performance. Even if infill walls have no load-bearing function, they contribute significantly to the seismic behavior of buildings. Therefore, their adequate structural performance is needed, avoiding the occurrence of severe in-plane damage, with very large economical losses, and the out-of-plane expulsion, which additionally represents a large risk for human life. Recent earthquake codes in Europe require the safety assessment of non-structural elements (parapets, veneer masonry walls, infill walls, etc.), when their collapse entails risks for people or for the main structure. The Eurocode standards, entering the mandatory stage now, incorporate new requirements to be fulfilled by buildings or their parts. Such is the case of masonry infilled RC frames whose panels, according to Eurocode 8, are explicitly required to withstand the out-of-plane movement induced by earthquakes. Appropriate measures should be taken to avoid brittle failure and premature disintegration of the infill walls, as well as the partial or total out-of-plane collapse of slender masonry panels. This paper presents the experimental work and results achieved by applying cyclic out-ofplane loads to damaged masonry infilled RC frames. The masonry panels were previously damaged by applying an in-plane cyclic load after which the cyclic out-of- plane loads were applied. The frames and panels tested follow the traditional Portuguese RC structure construction system to which different types of reinforcement have been introduced in the panels.

Characterization of the cyclic behavior of dry masonry joints

Lourenço, Paulo B.; Ramos, Luís F.
Fonte: ASCE Publicador: ASCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
Dry masonry mechanics received little attention from research community, when compared with resources invested in traditional (mortar joint) masonry. Nevertheless, a large number of historical stone constructions use dry masonry joints, while, in constructions originally built with weak lime mortar, mortar deterioration leads to a behavior similar to dry masonry. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of the behavior of dry masonry joints under cyclic loading, which is a key aspect for seismic actions. The work focuses on the characterization of Coulomb failure criterion and the load-displacement behavior of dry masonry joints under cyclic loading, including aspects as surface roughness, dilatancy and inelastic behavior. A displacement controlled test set-up using masonry couplets is used for this purpose. Besides providing a basis for understanding the behavior of masonry joints in tension, the experiments contribute also to the definition and parameterization of advanced non-linear numeric models.

Finite element modelling of deformation characteristics of historical stone masonry shear walls

Senthivel, Ramakrishnan; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.43%
Two dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis based on experimental test data has been carried out to model deformation characteristics, such as load-displacement envelope diagrams and failure modes of historical stone masonry shear walls subjected to combined axial compression and lateral shear loading. An experimental research work was carried out on three different types of historical stone masonry shear walls that can be considered representative of ancient stone masonry constructions. Those three types of masonry are: i) sawn dry-stack or dry-stone masonry without bonding mortar, ii) irregular stone masonry with bonding mortar, and iii) rubble masonry with irregular bonding mortar thickness. Plasticity theory based micro modelling techniques has been used to carry out the analysis. The stone units were modelled using an eight node continuum plane stress elements with full Gauss integration. The joints and unit-joint interfaces were modelled using a six node zero thickness line interface elements with Lobatto integration. This paper outlines the experimental research work, details of numerical modelling carried out and report the numerical lateral load-displacement diagrams and failure modes. The numerical analysis results were compared with the experimental test results and good agreement was found.

Metodologias inovadoras no cálculo sísmico de estruturas em alvenaria simples e confinada; New methodologies for seismic design of unreinforced and confined masonry structures

Marques, Rui Filipe Pedreira
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 22/02/2013 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Civil (área de especialização em Estruturas); As construções em alvenaria representam uma parte importante do legado construído e cultural do passado, mas também uma solução sustentável para o futuro. Esta é a principal premissa que motivou este trabalho, assim como o desenvolvimento significativo verificado na indústria de produtos para alvenaria nos últimos anos, apesar do panorama atual em que o material alvenaria é essencialmente usado em paredes de preenchimento das estruturas. Neste trabalho estudam-se as possibilidades de construção e o cálculo moderno de estruturas em alvenaria. É apresentado o estado da arte de procedimentos de cálculo sísmico, os quais derivaram sobretudo da experiência acumulada na observação pós-sismo na ex-Jugoslávia e em Itália. Nestes países verificou-se uma grande preocupação na avaliação sísmica de estruturas existentes e na continuidade da construção com alvenaria estrutural, através da realização de amplos estudos experimentais, do desenvolvimento de ferramentas de simulação analítica, da elaboração de normas para cálculo e da disponibilização de software apelativo. Os procedimentos e ferramentas desenvolvidos para aplicação baseiam-se...

Direct sonic and ultrasonic wave velocity in masonry under compressive stress

Manning, Elizabeth; Ramos, Luís F.; Fernandes, Francisco M.
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
Sonic Pulse Velocity Testing and Ultrasonic Testing are widely accepted non-destructive testing techniques that can be used to investigate historical masonry structures. Sonic pulse velocity tests have been used with various set-up configurations to investigate the interior consistency of masonry walls and columns and to assess the effectiveness of grout injection; and ultrasonic tests have been used on masonry materials to estimate their elasticity. The velocity at which a wave passes through the masonry can be influenced by many variables such as the mechanical characteristics of the materials, arrangement of constituents, joints and voids. Due to the irregularity of historical masonry and the large number of variables that can influence the wave velocity, only qualitative results from these tests can be obtained. This paper presents the results of a laboratory test plan aimed at investigating the relationship between wave velocity and the variable of masonry compressive stress. Ultrasonic tests were performed on the constituent materials, granite and mortar blocks, while they were loaded in compression. Then direct sonic tests were performed on small masonry wallets constructed of the same materials while they were loaded in compression. Test results of the masonry are discussed in relation to those of the constituent materials.

Infill masonry : simple analytical methods for seismic design

Pereira, Manuel Fernando Paulo; Pereira, M. F. Neto; Ferreira, J. E. Dias; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: International Masonry Society Publicador: International Masonry Society
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.35%
The latest earthquake codes in Europe require the safety assessment of no-structural elements (parapets, masonry wall’s veneer, infill walls, etc.), as their collapse entails risks for people or for the main structure stability. This work made possible th e development of a design method, supported by previous experimental researches by applying cyclic out-of-plane loads to damaged masonry infill in RC frames. Panels tested reproduce Portuguese traditional RC structure construction system and two reinforced solutions were created as innovative solutions. The experimental campaign was carried out in order to determine: masonry properties; out-of-plane panel behaviour with previous in-plane damage; building behaviour subjected to dynamic tests performed in shaking table. Using finite element method to reproduce experimental tests and to broaden the range of samples it was possible to figure out equations according to parametric analysis which was able to reproduce in-plane and out-plane behaviour leading to an estimated load bearing capacity of each model and to determine frame strength and its stiffness. Those equations permit to design or verify the masonry infill panels in RC frames subjected to seismic loads.

Earth-based mortars for masonry plastering

Faria, Paulina; Santos, Tânia; Silva, Vitor
Fonte: Universidade do Minho/Instituto para Sustentabilidade em Engenharia Estrutural (ISISE)/International Masonry Society (IMS) Publicador: Universidade do Minho/Instituto para Sustentabilidade em Engenharia Estrutural (ISISE)/International Masonry Society (IMS)
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /07/2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.3%
9th International Masonry Conference 2014, 7-9 July, Universidade do Minho, Guimarães; Earth mortars have been applied since unknown times. Their advantages are ecological but also cover several technical aspects, in terms of compatibility with masonries, reversibility, comfort, aesthetic and health. Some requirements of a recent German standard, which focus on non-stabilized earth plastering mortars, are presented. A commercial premixed Portuguese earth mortar was made within an ECVET workshop and applied as plasters on four different experimental masonry walls, at exterior environmental conditions. The plasters were observed during six months and characterized in situ by non destructive techniques, namely by ultra-sounds and for surface hardness. The same mortar used for the plasters was characterized in laboratory in fresh state and samples of mortar (only mortar and mortar layer applied on brick) were produced and characterized after drying. The characterization of the earth plasters applied on the walls and of the mortar samples is presented and discussed, showing the viability of their use as plaster for different masonry walls.

Numerical simulation of strengthened unreinforced masonry (URM) walls by new retrofitting technologies for blast loading.

Su, Yu
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.55%
Terrorism has become a serious threat in the world, with bomb attacks carried out both inside and outside buildings. There are already many unreinforced masonry buildings in existence, and some of them are historical buildings. However, they do not perform well under blast loading. Aiming on protecting masonry buildings, retrofitting techniques were developed. Some experimental work on studying the effect of retrofitted URM walls has been done in recent years; however, these tests usually cost a significant amount of time and funds. Because of this, numerical simulation has become a good alternative, and can be used to study the behaviour of masonry structures, and predict the outcomes of experimental tests. This project was carried out to find efficient retrofitting technique under blast loading by developing numerical material models. It was based on experimental research of strengthening URM walls by using retrofitting technologies under out-of-plane loading at the University of Adelaide. The numerical models can be applied to study large-scaled structures under static loading, and the research work is then extended to the field of blast loading. Aiming on deriving efficient material models, homogenization technology was introduced to this research. Fifty cases of numerical analysis on masonry basic cell were conducted to derive equivalent orthotropic material properties. To study the increasing capability in strength and ductility of retrofitted URM walls...

Seismic performance of masonry buildings in the Christchurch earthquakes 2010-2011: A progress report

Moon, L.; Dizhur, D.; Griffith, M.; Ingham, J.
Fonte: Australian Earthquake Engineering Society; Australia Publicador: Australian Earthquake Engineering Society; Australia
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
Following the Christchurch earthquake of 22 February 2011 a number of researchers were sent to Christchurch, New Zealand to document the damage to masonry buildings as part of “Project Masonry”. Coordinated by the Universities of Auckland and Adelaide, researchers came from Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Italy, Portugal and the US. The types of masonry investigated were unreinforced clay brick masonry, unreinforced stone masonry, reinforced concrete masonry, residential masonry veneer and churches; masonry infill was not part of this study. This paper focuses on the progress of the unreinforced masonry (URM) component of Project Masonry. To date the research team has completed raw data collection on over 600 URM buildings in the Christchurch area. The results from this study will be extremely relevant to Australian cities since URM buildings in New Zealand are similar to those in Australia.; Lisa M. Moon, Dmytro Dizhur, Jason M. Ingham & Michael C. Griffith

Out-of-plane strengthening of unreinforced masonry walls using FRP.

Kashyap, Jaya
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.56%
Unreinforced masonry (URM) structures constitute both a significant portion of the world’s heritage buildings and a significant component of the modern residential building stock, and are particularly susceptible to damage from out-of-plane loads such as those generated by earthquakes (Ingham and Griffith 2011). Consequently, there is a considerable need for the development of economical and effective seismic strengthening techniques for URM construction. This study investigates the performance of near surface mounted (NSM) carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strengthened clay brick masonry walls under monotonic and cyclic out-of-plane bending with particular attention to the FRP-to-masonry joint behaviour. Fourteen NSM carbon FRP-to-masonry pull tests were conducted to study the FRP-to-masonry bond behaviour and to investigate the effect that variables such as cyclic loading and FRP strip dimensions have on the debonding resistance of a NSM FRP-to-masonry joint. The pull tests results were then incorporated into a large database of FRP retrofitted masonry pull test results by various researchers over the past 10 years. An empirical model was derived for the intermediate crack (IC) debonding resistance of FRP-to-masonry joints using a large set of test data from the open literature (Kashyap et al. 2012). Further...

In-situ airbag testing of unreinforced masonry walls

Derakhshan, H.; Lumantarna, R.; Dizhur, D.; Ingham, J.M.
Fonte: International Masonry Society Publicador: International Masonry Society
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.22%
A field testing programme was developed to investigate the out-of-plane behaviour of as-built unreinforced masonry (URM) walls of four different buildings. The buildings were between approximately 80 to 130 years old, and had different masonry materials and construction forms. The objective of the testing programme was to compare the as-built wall behaviour with that studied using laboratory-based samples and to provide data with which to evaluate current seismic assessment guidelines. In total, 10 tests were performed on seven URM walls, with the out-of-plane force being uniformly applied to the wall surface. Several tests were repeated with original and modified support conditions, and the results from different tests were analysed to identify the effect of different wall boundary conditions. In particular, the effects of a concrete ring beam used at the floor levels of a URM building and the effects of wall anchorage to the building diaphragms by means of grouted steel rods were investigated. A behavioural model previously obtained through laboratory testing was proven to be effective for prediction of the cracked wall behaviour. Out-of-plane wall resistance was compared to the appropriate seismic demand of each site, and the results of the comparison were used to evaluate the NZSEE 2006 out-of-plane wall seismic evaluation method. The study showed that the evaluation method was conservative in most cases...

Through-bolt push out effects on the behavior of hybrid masonry systems

Nistor, Mihaela; Gao, Zhenjia; Stanciulescu, Ilinca
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Journal article; Text; post-print
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
This paper provides specifications necessary for designing hybrid masonry systems that resist through-bolt push out effects. Hybrid masonry is a relatively new structural system that can be used in seismic areas and comprises masonry panels connected to frames through steel plate connectors. However, masonry break-out at the connection between the steel plates and the masonry panel requires further analysis to better understand the load transfer mechanism of the hybrid masonry system. Therefore, we use a computational framework to model the hybrid masonry that uses a typical plasticity model with hardening for the steel components and a nonlocal two-scalar damage model that accounts for tension and compression for the masonry panel. Based on parametric studies conducted using this framework we provide recommendations for the through-bolt location and for the reinforcement percentage and location within the masonry panel to achieve best results in the load transfer mechanism of the hybrid masonry system during a seismic event.

A semi-random field finite element method to predict the maximum eccentric compressive load for masonry prisms

Moradabadi, Ehsan; Laefer, Debra F.; Clarke, Julie A.; Lourenço, Paulo B.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
An accurate prediction of the compressive strength of masonry is essential both for the analysis of existing structures and the construction of new masonry buildings. Since experimental material testing of individual masonry components (e.g. masonry unit and mortar joints) often produces highly variable results, this paper presents a numerical modelling based approach to address the associated uncertainty for the prediction of the maximum compressive load of masonry prisms. The method considers numerical model to be semi-random for a masonry prism by adopting a Latin Hyper cube simulation method used in conjunction with a parametric finite element model of the individual masonry prism. The proposed method is applied to two types of masonry prisms (using hollow blocks and solid clay bricks), for which experimental testing was conducted as part of the 9th International Masonry Conference held at Guimarães in July 2014. A Class A prediction (presented before the tests were conducted) was generated for the two masonry prisms according to the proposed methodology, and the results were compared to the final experimental testing results. The root mean square deviation of the method for prediction of eccentric compressive strength of both types of prisms differed by only 2.2KN...

THE EVOLUTION OF THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN THE UNITED STATES

Klingner, Richard E.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Arquitetura e Urbanismo Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Arquitetura e Urbanismo
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Avaliado Por Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/12/2012 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
In this paper, the process used to develop building codes in the United States of America (USA) is summarized, with emphasis on masonry. Masonry materials used in the USA are discussed. Types of masonry construction in the USA are reviewed, addressing historical as well as modern masonry. Current non-structural and structural applications of masonry in the USA are reviewed. Historical development of masonry codes in the USA is summarized, with emphasis on the current Masonry Standards Joint Committee (MSJC) Code and Specification. Future trends in that document are predicted. The paper closes with a list of challenges to the masonry industry, and a list of focused research topics intended to meet those challenges.

Masonry components

Vasconcelos, Graça
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.46%
Masonry is a non-homogeneous material, composed of units and mortar, which can be of different types, with distinct mechanical properties. The design of both masonry units and mortar is based on the role of the walls in the building. Load-bearing walls relate to structural elements that bear mainly vertical loads, but can serve also to resist to horizontal loads. When a structural masonry building is submitted to in-plane and out-of-plane loadings induced by an earthquake for example, the masonry walls are the structural elements that ensure the global stability of the building. This means that the walls should have adequate mechanical properties that enable them to resist to different combinations of compressive, shear and tensile stresses.The boundary conditions influence the resisting mechanisms of the structural walls under in-plane loading and in a buildings the connection at the intersection walls are of paramount importance for the out-of-plane resisting mechanism. However, it is well established that the masonry mechanical properties are also relevant for the global mechanical performance of the structural masonry walls. Masonry units for load-bearing walls are usually laid so that their perforations are vertically oriented...