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Preaortic Iliac Confluence (Marsupial Vena Cava): Report of 4 Cases

ROCHA, Allanoel de Souza; LOURENCO, Rafael Burgomeister; CHANG, Yoon Seung; GEBRIM, Eloisa Maria Mello Santiago; CERRI, Giovanni Guido
Fonte: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS Publicador: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) call represent a difficult for abdominal surgeries, and the radiologist must be aware even of the less common of these anatomical variations. Preaortic iliac venous confluence, also known as marsupial vena cava, is a rare congenital anomaly of the development of the IVC in which the IVC or the left common iliac vein is located anterior to the aortic bifurcation or the right common iliac artery. We report 4 cases of marsupial vena cava detected on multidetector computed tomography examinations in asymptomatic patients and discuss that this congenital anomaly can be recognized more frequently with the use of this new technique based on thinner images.

Evolução cromossômica em mamíferos: estudos comparativos por pintura cromossômica em duas espécies de preguiças da família Bradypodidae e em duas espécies de marsupiais da família Didelphidae; Mammalian chromosome evolution: comparative studies by chromosome painting on two sloth species of Bradypodidae family and two marsupial species

Azevedo, Nathália Fernandes de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/04/2009 PT
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Com o intuito de contribuir para a compreensão da evolução cariotípica em mamíferos, realizamos estudos comparativos, utilizando a pintura cromossômica, em dois grupos basais de mamíferos, as preguiças e os marsupiais. Realizamos comparações entre os cromossomos humanos e os cromossomos das preguiças de três dedos Bradypus torquatus e Bradypus variegatus, estabelecendo as homologias. A análise conjunta de nossos dados e daqueles da literatura sobre pintura cromossômica em outras espécies de Xenarthra permitiu identificar ou confirmar sinapomorfias cromossômicas dos grupos assim como características ancestrais. Também realizamos comparações entre os cromossomos X das duas espécies de preguiça e entre os cromossomos X dos marsupiais americanos Marmosops incanus e Metachirus nudicaudatus. Os principais resultados e conclusões estão resumidos a seguir. 1. Os cariótipos de B. torquatus e B. variegatus são semelhantes quanto à correspondência com os cromossomos humanos. As duas espécies apresentaram em comum (a) a presença das associações dos cromossomos humanos (HSA) 4/8, 7/10, 7/16, 12/22, 14/15 e 17/19, (b) a conservação de HSA 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20 e X, (c) dois pares compartilhando homologia com HSA 2...

Metabolic, ventilatory, and hygric physiology of a South American marsupial, the long-furred woolly mouse opossum

Cooper, C. E.; Withers, P. C.; Cruz-Neto, A. P.
Fonte: Alliance Communications Group Division Allen Press Publicador: Alliance Communications Group Division Allen Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1-10
ENG
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Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 00/09968-8; The physiology of the long-furred woolly mouse opossum (Micoureus paraguayanus) conformed to that of other marsupials Body temperature at thermoneutrality (all values reported as mean +/- SE) was 33.3 degrees C +/- 0.3 degrees C and basal metabolic rate was 0.760 +/- 0.074 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1) Opossums were thermolabile at low ambient temperature (T(a)) but still maintained a considerable differential between body temperature and T(a), with an increase in metabolic heat production as T(a) decreased This was accomodated by an increase in minute volume, mediated by an increase in both respiratory frequency and tidal volume at low T(a) Basal respiratory frequency was 34.2 +/- 3.8 breaths/min and tidal volume was 1.62 +/- 0.28 ml; minute volume was 53 +/- 7 ml/mm Oxygen extraction remained constant at 13.6% +/- 1.1% Wet thermal conductance was high (0.338 +/- 0.091 ml O(2) g(-1) h(-1) degrees C(-1), 185% of predicted) but conformed statistically to that of other marsupials. A positive relationship existed between ambient temperature and evaporative water loss; standard evaporative water loss was 2.03 +/- 0.21 mg H(2)O g(-1) h(-1). The point of relative water economy was 11 degrees C...

Avaliação do uso do espaço pelo marsupial Gracilinanus agilis em área de cerradão no Brasil Central

Ribeiro, Juliana Fernandes
Fonte: Universidade de Brasília Publicador: Universidade de Brasília
Tipo: Dissertação
POR
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37.16%
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade de Brasília, Departamento de Ecologia, 2011.; Os padrões de utilização do espaço por machos e fêmeas de mamíferos podem variar, de modo a garantir a otimização do sucesso reprodutivo de cada sexo e também devido à interações com outras espécies. No presente estudo, avaliamos o uso do espaço por machos e fêmeas do marsupial didelfídeo Gracilinanus agilis em fragmentos de cerradão no Brasil central em duas épocas do ano (seca e chuvosa). Utilizando armadilhas modelo “sherman” dispostas tanto no solo quanto no sub-bosque (1-2 m de altura) e com o auxílio do método de captura-marcação-recaptura, verificamos que a área de uso de G. agilis diverge em função do sexo e da época reprodutiva. Como as estratégias reprodutivas de cada sexo são diferentes, houve também diferenças nos padrões observados. Os machos aumentaram suas áreas de uso na época pré-reprodutiva (seca), provavelmente para procurar alimento nessa época de maior escassez e também, já no final desse período, para investir na procura por fêmeas disponíveis. Já as fêmeas, na época de amamentação (chuva), aumentaram suas áreas de uso, possivelmente para garantir seu alimento nessa fase de maior demanda energética proveniente da lactação e cuidado com a prole. Para ambos os sexos...

Frugivoria e potencial dispersão de sementes pelo marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Didelphidae: Didelphimorphia) em áreas de Cerrado no Brasil central

Camargo,Nícholas Ferreira de; Cruz,Ramatis Machado Scarponi; Ribeiro,Juliana Fernandes; Vieira,Emerson Monteiro
Fonte: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Botânica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2011 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
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No presente estudo, investigamos o consumo de frutos e viabilidade de sementes consumidas pelo marsupial Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854) em quatro áreas de cerradão do Brasil central. Análises fecais indicaram que este mamífero se alimenta de plantas pioneiras da família Melastomataceae (Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana, M. cuspidata Naudin, M. ferruginata DC., M. pepericarpa DC., M. pohliana Cogn. e Ossaea congestiflora (Naudin) Cogn.), Solanaceae (uma espécie não identificada) e Viscaceae (Phoradendron perrottetii (DC.) Eichler, erva-de-passarinho). Detectamos o maior índice de consumo de frutos já registrado para o gênero Gracilinanus, com cerca de 45% das fezes contendo sementes e 86% contendo itens derivados de frutos (N=422). Com exceção de O. congestiflora, o restante das sementes das espécies testadas não sofreram efeitos negativos na germinabilidade ao passarem pelo trato digestório deste marsupial. A avaliação da variação intraspecífica no número de sementes encontradas nas fezes indicou que fêmeas de G. agilis defecam maior quantidade de sementes de Miconia (média±EP = 21,7±3,8) em comparação com os machos (14,4±3,0) (F=26,32; P<0,0001). O fator estação do ano também foi significativo (F=452...

The marsupial and monotreme thymus, revisited

Haynes, J.
Fonte: Cambridge Univ Press Publicador: Cambridge Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 EN
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The anatomy and histology of the thymus in monotremes and marsupials were revisited and several new observations made. Tissues of the mediastinum and/or ventral neck of 134 animals altogether (12 Australian marsupial and monotreme species) were examined and the locations of thymic tissues documented. Descriptions not previously recorded include the gross anatomy of the thymus in monotremes, the bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus, Isoodon obesulus), the wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons), and koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), as well as light and electron microscopic features in all species examined. In monotremes, thymic tissue was diffusely spread in the mediastinum and extended over the ventral surface of the pericardium. In the bandicoot, a small, deep cervical thymus was persistently present as well as the expected thoracic thymus and contrary to previous observations, a thoracic thymus was found in the wombat but not the koala. Both species also have a cervical thymus. In the marsupial species examined, additional thymic tissue was often present in the vicinity of the carotid bifurcations, in the deep ventral regions of the neck. In many animals, thymic tissue of deep cervical origin as well as thoracic thymus was mingled with parathyroid tissue. In several specimens...

Characterizing the chromosomes of the Australian model marsupial Macropus eugenii (tammar wallaby)

Alsop, A.; Miethke, P.; Rofe, R.; Koina, E.; Sankovic, N.; Deakin, J.; Haines, H.; Rapkins, R.; Marshall Graves, J.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Marsupials occupy a phylogenetic middle ground that is very valuable in genome comparisons of mammal and other vertebrate species. For this reason, whole genome sequencing is being undertaken for two distantly related marsupial species, including the model kangaroo species Macropus eugenii (the tammar wallaby). As a first step towards the molecular characterization of the tammar genome, we present a detailed description of the tammar karyotype, report the development of a set of molecular anchor markers and summarize the comparative mapping data for this species.; Amber E. Alsop, Pat Miethke, Ruth Rofe, Edda Koina, Natasha Sankovic, Janine E. Deakin, Helen Haines, Robert W. Rapkins and Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

Morphogenesis of the fibrous sheath in the marsupial spermatozoon

Ricci, M.; Breed, W.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
The spermatozoon fibrous sheath contains longitudinal columns and circumferential ribs. It surrounds the axoneme of the principal piece of the mammalian sperm tail, and may be important in sperm stability and motility. Here we describe its assembly during spermiogenesis in a marsupial, the brush-tail possum, and compare its structural organization with that of eutherian mammals, birds and reptiles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that possum fibrous sheath assembly is a multistep process extending in a distal-to-proximal direction along the axoneme from steps 4 to 14 of spermiogenesis. For the most part, assembly of the longitudinal columns occurs before that of the circumferential ribs. Immunohistochemical and immunogold labelling showed that fibrous sheath proteins are first present in the spermatid cytoplasm; at least some of the proteins of the sheath precursors differ from those in the mature fibrous sheath. That immunoreactivity develops after initiation of chromatin condensation suggests that fibrous sheath proteins, or their mRNAs, are stored within the spermatid cytoplasmic lobule prior to their assembly along the axoneme. These findings are similar to those in laboratory rats, and thus suggests that the mode of fibrous sheath assembly evolved in a common ancestor over 125 million years ago...

Sex ratio theory applied to a macropod marsupial : Is reproduction by the Tammar Wallaby (Macropus eugenii) consistent with sex ratio theory?

Perryman, Aryn White
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.01%
Marsupial species provide an important research tool in attempts to unravel the complicated mechanisms of mammalian reproduction. Comparisons between metatherian and eutherian reproductive life history patterns used to achieve the same outcomes, illuminates processes that have been difficult to investigate in eutherian species alone. Adaptive sex allocation is one such area that has provided equivocal data that is much scrutinized and debated amongst scientists. The theory that has provided the most disparity in the literature, and lead to the most debate, is the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM) (Trivers & Willard, 1973). The TWM proposes that, in polygynous mammalian species where the male has increased variability in reproductive returns, mothers in ‘good condition’ should bias their offspring towards sons, to maximise their fitness. There are three main assumptions associated with the theory: 1) that sons will benefit more than daughters from increased maternal resource allocation, 2) that juvenile condition predicts adult condition and 3) that maternal quality is a predictor of offspring quality. Much of the previous support for the TWM has been based on research in eutherian species (e.g. ungulate species), which usually tests only one assumption at a time by a posteriori application of the theory to observed data. Macropod species fill similar niches to ungulate species in other ecosystems and provide easy access to pouch young at a very early stage of development...

Reptile and arboreal marsupial response to replanted vegetation in agricultural landscapes

Cunningham, Ross; Lindenmayer, David; Crane, Mason; Michael, Damian; MacGregor, Chris
Fonte: Ecological Society of America Publicador: Ecological Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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37.16%
We report reptile and arboreal marsupial responses to vegetation planting and remnant native vegetation in agricultural landscapes in southeastern Australia. We used a hierarchical survey to select 23 landscapes that varied in the amounts of remnant nativ

Family-level relationships among the Australasian marsupial "herbivores" (Diprotodontia: Koala, wombats, kangaroos and possums)

Phillips, Matthew; Pratt, Renae C.
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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37.16%
The marsupial order Diprotodontia includes 10 extant families, which occupy all terrestrial habitats across Australia and New Guinea and have evolved remarkable dietary and locomotory diversity. Despite considerable attention, the interrelations of these

Copper-induced conformational change in a marsupial prion protein repeat peptide probed using FTIR spectroscopy

Gustiananda, Marsia; Haris, Parvez I; Milburn, Peter J; Gready, Jill
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
We report the first Fourier transform infrared analysis of prion protein (PrP) repeats and the first study of PrP repeats of marsupial origin. Large changes in the secondary structure and an increase in hydrogen bonding within the peptide groups were evid

Investigations into the source of binocular input to the nucleus of the optic tract in an Australian marsupial, the wallaby Macropus eugenii

Ibbotson, Michael; Marotte, Lauren; Mark, R F
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Recordings from direction-selective neurons in the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) of the marsupial wallaby, Macropus eugenii, show that 53% of cells are sensitive to visual stimulation of both eyes. Anatomical tracing studies using horseradish peroxidase reveal many retinal terminals in the contralateral NOT but very few in the ipsilateral nucleus. There was no convincing evidence of cortical inputs to the ipsilateral NOT despite large injections of tracer into the visual cortex. During visual stimulation in the visual field of the contralateral eye with moving patterns, the excitatory responses in the NOT generated by ipsiversive motion (right-to-left when recording from the left NOT) were usually larger than the inhibitory responses produced by contraversive motion. Conversely, during ipsilateral eye stimulation, the negative motion components to contraversive motion were usually larger than the positive components to ipsiversive motion. This response pattern resembles that observed in the NOT of the American opossum, Didelphis aurita, where binocularity appears to arise through a commissural subcortical pathway that connects the two nuclei and inverts the directional tuning of the transmitted signals. We propose that the lack of significant input from the ipsilateral eye and cortex in the wallaby suggests that binocularity must arise from another pathway...

Antiherbivore Chemistry of Eucalyptus �Cues and Deterrents for Marsupial Folivores

Moore, Ben; Wallis, Ian; Pala-Paul, Jesus; Brophy, Joseph J; Willis, Richard H; Foley, William
Fonte: Plenum Publishing Corporation Publicador: Plenum Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
Formylated phloroglucinol compounds (FPCs) are the single most important factor determining the amount of foliage that marsupial folivores eat from individual Eucalyptus trees. Folivores need to recognize which trees contain FPCs if they are to avoid them and forage efficiently, they are challenged by great diversity in the types and quantities of FPCs present, even within eucalypt species. We investigated the relationship between FPCs and terpenoids in species with both simple and complex FPC profiles and found strong positive correlations between terpenes generally, and several monoterpenes in particular, and FPCs. Terpene cues also indicated qualitative differences in trees' FPC profiles. We describe significant qualitative and quantitative variation in FPCs in several species that are important food sources for marsupial folivores. New discoveries include the fact that macrocarpals occur as two major, distinct groups and several new dimeric acylphloroglucinols from Eucalyptus strzeleckii. These patterns add to the chemical complexity of the foraging environment for folivores.

Comparative and functional analyses of LYL1 loci establish marsupial sequences as a model for phylogenetic footprinting

Chapman, Michael A; Charchar, F; Kinston, Sarah; Bird, Catherina; Grafham, Darren; Rogers, Jane; Gruetzner, Frank; Graves, Jennifer; Green, Anne J; Gottgens, Berthold
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
Comparative genomic sequence analysis is a powerful technique for identifying regulatory regions in genomic DNA. However, its utility largely depends on the evolutionary distances between the species involved. Here we describe the screening of a genomic BAC library from the stripe-faced dunnart, Sminthopsis macroura, formerly known as the narrow-footed marsupial mouse. We isolated a clone containing the LYL1 locus, completely sequenced the 60.6-kb insert, and compared it with orthologous human and mouse sequences. Noncoding homology was substantially reduced in the human/dunnart analysis compared with human/mouse, yet we could readily identify all promoters and exons. Human/mouse/dunnart alignments of the LYL1 candidate promoter allowed us to identify putative transcription factor binding sites, revealing a pattern highly reminiscent of critical regulatory regions of the LYL1 paralogue, SCL. This newly identified LYL1 promoter showed strong activity in myeloid progenitor cells and was bound in vivo by Fli1, Elf1, and Gata2 - transcription factors all previously shown to bind to the SCL stem cell enhancer. This study represents the first large-scale comparative analysis involving marsupial genomic sequence and demonstrates that such comparisons provide a powerful approach to characterizing mammalian regulatory elements.

Isolation, X location and activity of the marsupial homologue of SLC16A2, an XIST-flanking gene in eutherian mammals

Koina, Edda; Wakefield, Matthew; Walcher, Cristina; Disteche, Christine M; Whitehead, Siobhan; Ross, Mark; Graves, Jennifer
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) achieves dosage compensation between males and females for most X-linked genes in eutherian mammals. It is a whole-chromosome effect under the control of the XIST locus, although some genes escape inactivation. Marsupial XCI differs from the eutherian process, implying fundamental changes in the XCI mechanism during the evolution of the two lineages. There is no direct evidence for the existence of a marsupial XIST homologue. XCI has been studied for only a handful of genes in any marsupial, and none in the model kangaroo Macropus eugenii (the tammar wallaby). We have therefore studied the sequence, location and activity of a gene SLC16A2 (solute carrier, family 16, class A, member 2) that flanks XIST on the human and mouse X chromosomes. A BAC clone containing the marsupial SLC16A2 was mapped to the end of the long arm of the tammar X chromosome and used in RNA FISH experiments to determine whether one or both loci are transcribed in female cells. In male and female cells, only a single signal was found, indicating that the marsupial SLC16A2 gene is silenced on the inactivated X.

Characterizing the chromosomes of the Australian model marsupial Macropus eugenii (Tammar wallaby)

Alsop, Amber; Miethke, Patricia; Rofe, Ruth; Koina, Edda; Sankovic, Natasha; Deakin, Janine; Haines, Helen; Rapkins, Robert; Graves, Jennifer
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Marsupials occupy a phylogenetic middle ground that is very valuable in genome comparisons of mammal and other vertebrate species. For this reason, whole genome sequencing is being undertaken for two distantly related marsupial species, including the model kangaroo species Macropus eugenii (the tammar wallaby). As a first step towards the molecular characterization of the tammar genome, we present a detailed description of the tammar karyotype, report the development of a set of molecular anchor markers and summarize the comparative mapping data for this species.

Chromosomal painting detects non-random chromosome arrangment in dasyurid marsupial sperm

Greaves, Ian; Svartman, Martina; Wakefield, Matthew; Taggert, M; De Leo, D; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Rens, M; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Voullaire, P; Westerman, M; Graves, Jennifer
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
Chromosome arrangements have been studied in metaphase and interphase somatic cells and in sperm of many animal species, but there are conflicting data and it is still not clear whether chromosomes are arranged randomly or non-randomly. We used chromosome painting to reveal the positions of chromosomes in marsupial sperm. Marsupials are ideally suited for these studies because they have only a few large chromosomes. Here, we show that chromosomes occupy fixed positions in the immature and mature sperm of Sminthopsis crassicaudata. We suggest that the non-random arrangement of chromosomes in marsupial sperm may be important in establishing chromosome arrangement and patterns of gene activity within the developing embryo.

SOX9 has both conserved and novel roles in marsupial sexual differentiation

Pask, Andrew J; Harry, Jenny L; Graves, Jennifer; O'Neill, Rachel; Layfield, Sharon; Shaw, Geoffrey; Renfree, Marilyn B
Fonte: Wiley-Liss Inc Publicador: Wiley-Liss Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.27%
In addition to an essential role in chondrogenesis, SOX9 is a highly conserved and integral part of the testis determining pathway in human and mouse. To determine whether SOX9 is involved in sex determination in noneutherian mammals we cloned a marsupial orthologue and studied its expression. The tammar wallaby SOX9 gene proved to be highly conserved, and maps to a region of the tammar genome syntenic to human chromosome 17. Marsupial SOX9 transcripts were detected by RT-PCR in the developing limb buds and both the developing ovary and testis from the first sign of gonadal development through to adulthood. Northern blot, in situ hybridisation, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that SOX9 reaches high levels of expression in the developing testis, where it is confined to the Sertoli cell nuclei, and the brain. This is similar to the expression pattern seen in human and mouse embryos and is consistent with a conserved role for SOX9 in vertebrate brain, skeletal, and gonadal development. In addition, SOX9 was expressed in the developing scrotum and mammary gland primordium regions of the tammar up to the time of birth. SOX9 protein was also detected in the developing Wolffian duct epithelium in the male mesonephros. These previously undescribed locations of SOX9 expression suggest that SOX9 may play additional roles in the differentiation of the marsupial reproductive system.

Construction of a marsupial bacterial artificial chromosome library from the model Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii)

Sankovic, Natasha; Bawden, Wayne; Martyn, John; Graves, Jennifer; Zuelke, Kurt
Fonte: CSIRO Publishing Publicador: CSIRO Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
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With the accelerating recognition of the power of comparative genomics, there is now enormous interest in sequencing the genomes of a broad range of species. Marsupials diverged at an important evolutionary time. The model Australian marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), has long been a resource for biological and genetic studies of marsupials, and the availability of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library will be a valuable resource in these studies. A tammar wallaby BAC library was constructed using pRazorBAC vector. It contains 55 296 clones with an average insert size of 108 kb, representing 2.2 times coverage of the wallaby genome (based on an estimated 2.7 × 109 bp haploid genome size). The library was arrayed in 384-well plates, and spotted in duplicate onto nylon membranes. Screening these membranes has yielded clones containing 34 single-copy genes distributed over the genome, while it failed for only one gene. Each probe isolated 1-12 BAC clones and, to date, no chimeric clones have been found. This BAC library will constitute an invaluable resource for creating physical maps, positional cloning of genes and other sequences in the tammar wallaby, as well as comparative mapping studies in mammals.