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Características anatômicas e físico-químicas de frutos de macieira (Malus domestica Borkh.) e sua relação com a lenticelose; Anatomical and physico-chemical characteristics of fruits of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) and their relations to lenticel breakdown

Tessmer, Magda Andréia
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/01/2010 PT
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A presente proposta teve como objetivo avaliar aspectos anatômicos e físico-químicos em frutos de macieiras (Malus domestica Borkh.), Gala e Galaxy, cultivadas em três diferentes altitudes, buscando correlacioná-las ao distúrbio fisiológico, conhecido por lenticelose (lenticel breakdown), caracterizado pelo escurecimento das lenticelas e ocorrência de depressões de coloração parda ao redor destas estruturas. Os frutos maduros foram colhidos na safra 2008-09, em pomares comerciais localizados em cada uma das três áreas produtoras: Vacaria (RS), Fraiburgo (SC) e São Joaquim (SC), localizadas a 971, 1.048 e 1.353 m de altitude, respectivamente. As avaliações foram realizadas nos frutos maduros recém-colhidos e durante o armazenamento, quando os frutos foram submetidos a duas condições distintas: refrigeração (0ºC e 90% UR) e atmosfera controlada (1,5% O2; 2,5% CO2; 0ºC e 90% UR). Os frutos foram avaliados anatomicamente na colheita e durante o armazenamento quando detectado algum distúrbio fisiológico relacionado às lenticelas. A superfície dos frutos maduros de macieiras Gala e Galaxy, recém-coletados nas três localidades e ao final do armazenamento nas condições estudadas, foram analisadas ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura a fim de comparar a deposição das ceras epicuticulares. Adicionalmente os frutos foram avaliados em intervalos de 30 dias...

Efeito de tratamentos térmicos por imersão na qualidade de maçãs cv. Fuji inoculadas com Botryosphaeria dothidea e armazenadas em atmosfera controlada; Effects of heat treatments on fruit quality of “fuji” apples inoculated with Botryosphaeria dothidea and stored in controlled atmosphere

Lunardi, Rosangela; Seibert, Eduardo; Pezzi, Ernani; Casali, Michel Elias; Bender, Renar João
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
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O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de perdas qualitativas em maçãs cultivar Fuji, previamente inoculadas com o agente causal da podridão-branca (Botryosphaeria dothidea), durante armazenagem em atmosfera controlada (AC) de 1,2-1,6 kPa de O2 e 0,2-0,4 kPa de CO2 à temperatura de 0-1ºC. Os tratamentos foram combinações de 3 períodos (1; 2 ou 3 minutos) e 3 temperaturas da água de imersão (47; 49 ou 52ºC). As maçãs foram avaliadas após 1; 3 ou 5 meses em AC e mais 7 dias em temperatura ambiente. Ao final de cada período de armazenagem, as maçãs foram avaliadas para as seguintes variáveis: firmeza de polpa, sólidos solúveis totais (SST), acidez titulável e perda de peso. O armazenamento em AC manteve as características de qualidade, mas não controlou o desenvolvimento de sintomas da podridão-branca. Os tratamentos de calor não retardaram as perdas da firmeza de polpa e pouco influenciaram os teores de SST. 0s teores de acidez titulável diminuíram, e as porcentagens de perda de peso aumentaram com os tratamentos de calor por imersão em água quente. Termos para indexação: Termoterapia, Malus domestica Borkh., podridão-branca.; The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of heat treatments on the quality of apples cv. Fuji. The fruits were immersed for one...

Endophytic yeasts and filamentous fungi associated with southern Brazilian apple (Malus domestica) orchards subjected to conventional, integrated or organic cultivation

Camatti-Sartori, Valdirene; Da Silva-Ribeiro, Rute Terezinha; Valdebenito-Sanhueza, Rosa Maria; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Azevedo, João Lúcio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 397-402
ENG
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Endophytic fungi were isolated from leaves, flowers and fruit of healthy apple trees (Malus domestica, BORKH.) growing in southern Brazilian orchards under three different cultivation systems (conventional, integrated and organic), during two vegetative cycles. The greatest total number of endophytic isolates was obtained from the orchards under organic cultivation when compared to integrated and conventional cultivation systems. Filamentous fungi from the genera Colletotrichum, Xylaria and Botryosphaeria were the most frequent ones and the most representative yeast genera were Sporobolomyces, Rhodotorula, Debaryomyces and Cryptococcus. It is suggested that some isolates may be used as indicators of the different management systems. © 2005 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Estudo da organogênese in vitro de explantes foliares de macieira (Malus domestica Borkh.) Cv. Galaxy

Micheluzzi, Fernanda de Carvalho
Fonte: Florianópolis, SC Publicador: Florianópolis, SC
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: vi, 55 f.| il., grafs., tabs.
POR
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Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais.; A fruticultura de clima temperado é uma atividade de grande importância sócio-econômica no Brasil, sendo que a maior área de produção está localizada na Região Sul do país, e o Estado de Santa Catarina é responsável por cerca de 50% da oferta nacional. O consumo da maçã vem aumentando e com o rápido aumento da área de cultivo da macieira, houve um acréscimo de problemas fitossanitários. Para manter a cultura da macieira em nível de produtividade desejada, a utilização de técnicas biotecnológicas para obtenção de mudas de qualidade genética-sanitária comprovada, das novas variedades, a produção de plantas matrizes básicas de melhor qualidade e produtividade, são algumas das condições importantes para a macieira. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver protocolos de regeneração in vitro para macieira (Malus domestica Borkh) cv. Galaxy, via organogênese direta, para estudos de propagação in vitro e melhoramento genético. Para isto foram usados como explantes segmentos nodais contendo gemas, apicais e laterais, e folhas os quais foram introduzidos em meio de cultura MS suplementado com BAP...

Atividade antioxidante in vitro e in vivo de diferentes cultivares de maçã (Malus domestica Borkh) do estado de Santa Catarina

Vieira, Francilene Gracieli Kunradi
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 p.| il., grafs., tabs.
POR
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Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência dos Alimentos, Florianópolis, 2010.; A maçã (Malus domestica Borkh) muito consumida em diversas regiões do mundo é considerada uma fruta rica em compostos fenólicos, os quais variam conforme a cultivar e a parte da fruta analisada. Este estudo objetivou analisar as características físico-químicas de diferentes cultivares de maçãs colhidas no sul do Brasil, nos anos de 2008 e 2009; comparar o conteúdo de compostos fenólicos e a atividade antioxidante na polpa, fruta inteira e casca destas cultivares; e investigar o efeito do consumo agudo de duas cultivares de maçã sobre a atividade antioxidante e a oxidação lipídica em humanos. Entre as duas safras, foram estudadas, no total, 22 cultivares de maçãs colhidas nas Estações Experimentais da Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI/SC). O conteúdo de matéria seca, sólidos solúveis totais, pH, açúcares totais, acidez titulável, fenólicos totais, flavanóis totais, antocianinas monoméricas totais e atividade antioxidante foram determinados nas amostras. Foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as cultivares...

Desenvolvimento das estruturas reprodutivas da macieira (Malus domestica Borkh.) sob diferentes condições climáticas

Francescatto, Poliana
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 239 p.| il., grafs., tabs.
POR
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67.01%
Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais, Florianópolis, 2014.; A cultura da macieira apresenta grande importância econômica no cenário mundial visto o grande volume de frutos produzidos e comercializados. No Brasil, a cultura da macieira é explorada principalmente na região Sul do país, devido suas condições climáticas subtropicais temperadas serem as mais parecidas às condições exigidas pela planta na obtenção de produções razoáveis de maçãs. No entanto, dentre os elementos climáticos, a temperatura pode ser considerada um dos fenômenos que mais tem influência sobre a cultura, desde a formação floral até a produção final; sendo um dos fatores responsáveis pelas irregularidades de produções. Diante disto, e com o intuito de gerar conhecimentos e informações sobre a cultura da macieira, este trabalho procurou entender os possíveis efeitos ambientais e climáticos, e seus limites qualitativos e quantitativos, sobre a aclimatação das plantas e de suas estruturas reprodutivas. Durante os anos de 2010 à 2014, foram realizadas as avaliações que envolvem o processo do desenvolvimento floral e reprodutivo de duas cultivares de grande importância econômica mundial...

Functional value of three varieties of Malus domestica Borkh from Beira Alta, Portugal orchards.

Agostinho, J; Ferreira, Rui; Alves-Pereira, Isabel
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The preservation and expansion of agricultural production require the recognition of specific properties of a product which contribute to increase their market value, since the conditions of soil and climate are important to achieve the properties which characterize and individualized it. Currently the region of Beira Alta, Portugal have a Protected Geographical Status (PGS) called Apple of Beira Alta which includes Golden Delicious and Starting varieties, traditionally grown in this region, and a Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) for Bravo Esmolfe, one regional variety extremely aromatic. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional value of these varieties of Malus domestica Borkh, harvested in these orchards, in terms of reducing sugars, soluble protein, ascorbate and phenols contents as well as antioxidant power (DPPH, FRAP) over 83 days at 4°C. The results show that Bravo Esmolfe have the lowest content of reducing sugars, while Starking exhibited the highest protein content. The cold preservation caused a significant increased of sugar level and decreased protein content of Starking, but Golden Delicious no reveals significant changes along time. The Starking response suggests loss of water and protein degradation during storage. The ascorbate level in Starking and Bravo Esmolfe was superior to that was determined in Golden Delicious...

Enzyme activity profile of peroxidases and polifenoloxidases of Malus domestica Borkh varieties from Portuguese orchards during cold storage

Agostinho, J; Ferreira, Rui; Alves-Pereira, Isabel
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
ENG
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The region of Beira Alta, Portugal distinguishes itself as a favorable area for apple growing that produces fruits with great economic importance. The polyphenoloxidase (EC 1.14.18.1, PPO) a copper-enzyme located in plastids, catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinones present in the vacuoles, generating brown coloration products. In general, the enzymatic browning occurs when phenolic compounds are released by the vacuoles and contact with PPO in the presence of oxygen. In other hand, the heme-enzymes peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7, POD) belong to oxidoreductases involved in capture of hydrogen peroxide generated by cell activity and protection against pathogens. Despite the features previous described, POD and PPO, contributes to deterioration of fruits color, resulting in adverse changes in flavor, contributing to the decrease of its useful life and consequent market value, being good markers of ability to preservation. So, the aim of this study was to assess the profile of PPO and POD enzyme activity of three varieties of Malus domestica Borkh, during cold storage. Apples of Golden Delicious, Starting and Bravo de Esmolfe varieties were randomly harvested from orchards in the region of Celorico da Beira during harvest season and stored at 4 ºC for 83 days. The fruits were washed in tap water...

Ability to scavenge free radicals by Malus domestica Borkh pulp reversed the stress profile induced by vanadium (V) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Agostinho, J; Ferreira, Rui; Alves-Pereira, Isabel
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
ENG
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The determination of functional value of a particular food includes the discovery and characterization of their antioxidant properties, as its phenols contents, its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) or its biological activity to reverse oxidative stress markers, as triggered by vanadium (V) in eukaryotic models as S. cerevisiae, which exhibit high homology between their enzyme antioxidant response and of the humans. So, the aim of this work was to determine how aqueous extract of apple pulp, collected at different times of the harvest period, affect the antioxidant response of S. cerevisiae BY4741 treated with vanadium pentoxide (2mM). Mesocarp fresh of Malus domestica Borkh. of Bravo de Esmolfe variety, randomly collected in orchards in the region of Celorico da Beira, in September 2012 at the beginning and end of the harvest season, were homogenized in water (2:1, w/v). In the supernatants obtained after differential centrifugation 18000 g, during 40 min at 4 °C, of aqueous extract were determined the phenols content [1] and the antioxidant power, using the radical DPPH• [2]. S.cerevisiae BY4741, a EUROSCARF strain, were inoculated in liquid YEPD medium, in the absence or presence of 2.0 mM vanadium pentoxide or in the presence of 2.0 mM vanadium pentoxide and 5% of apple extract and grown during 72 h...

Comportamento da maçã Granny Smith: frutos inteiros e minimamente processados

Ferreira, Vânia Filipa Fernandes
Fonte: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Publicador: Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
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Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica; Os atributos de qualidade são cruciais para a valorização dos frutos inteiros e minimamente processados, sendo determinantes para a escolha do consumidor não só a apresentação do produto, mas também o seu poder de conservação, preservando as características iniciais dos frutos. O presente trabalho teve como principais objectivos: 1) analisar e comparar a evolução da maçã Granny Smith (Malus domestica Borkh) adquirida em loja de venda a retalho (grande superfície) e numa organização de produtores (OP), quando colocada em refrigeração e em condições de temperatura ambiente; 2) desenvolver metodologias que permitam conservar a maçã Granny Smith minimamente processada com qualidade e durante um período de vida útil adequado a este tipo de produtos. As metodologias usadas passaram pelo uso de ácido ascórbico, cloreto de cálcio e tratamentos térmicos isolados e combinados com os tratamentos químicos. As maçãs de venda a retalho tiveram uma perda de massa superior, bem como as maçãs armazenadas à temperatura ambiente. Ao longo do armazenamento, a luminosidade (L*) diminuiu e os frutos de venda a retalho apresentaram menor luminosidade. As maçãs da organização de produtores são mais resistentes à ruptura da epiderme. A refrigeração após a compra permitiu minimizar a perda de firmeza que ocorre nos frutos...

Composition of pectic polysaccharides in a Portuguese apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe)

Silva,Ana S.; Nunes,Claudia; Coimbra,Manuel A.; Guido,Luís F.
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz" Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 EN
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Malus domestica Borkh. cv Bravo de Esmolfe is a typical Portuguese apple cultivar classified as Protected Designation and Origin (PDO). It is a traditional product produced under strict conditions and labelled with a specific law protected designation. This cultivar presents quite good sweetness and flavor. The monosaccharide composition of the pectic polysaccharides from this traditional apple is herein reported for the first time. Based on the molar ratios obtained from the sugar composition, the presumable pectin structure could be inferred. The cell-wall polysaccharides present in the alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) of unpeeled BE apple were sequentially fractionated. In addition, pectic material was also extracted by citric acid treatment prior to heat extraction at acidic pH. The water soluble pectin, imidazole soluble pectin and sodium carbonate soluble pectin account for 44, 16 and 40 % of the AIR, respectively. The pectic polysaccharides extracted in the presence of citric acid had lower galacturonic acid content and higher neutral sugars content. The homogalacturonan (HG) and less-substituted rhamnogalacturonan (RG) domains are extracted first. Pectin treated with citric acid has been shown to contain more substituted polymers...

Protein Changes during the Stratification of Malus domestica Borkh. Seed 1

Eichholtz, David A.; Robitaille, Henry A.; Herrmann, Klaus M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1983 EN
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Apple seeds (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious) were stratified at 5 and 15°C for various lengths, weighed, and soluble protein of axis and cotyledon tissue was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only seeds treated at 5°C germinated; seeds treated at 15°C did not germinate. Optimal germination required 63 days of stratification. Excised embryos required less stratification time for germination than intact seeds. When stratification was less than 35 days, the resulting seedlings from 5°C stratified embryos were dwarfed and epinastic. After 63 days of stratification, axes from 5 and 15°C treated intact seeds had increased in fresh weight by 72 and 28% (w/w), respectively. The dry weights of the axes did not change significantly and both fresh and dry weights of cotyledons remained unchanged during stratification. Total soluble protein in axes and cotyledons changed very little during stratification. However, axis polypeptide profiles changed. Most obvious was the occurrence of a new polypeptide and the increase of four other clearly identifiable polypeptides during 5°C treatment. The levels of the five most predominant axis proteins decreased at the same time. We observed no changes in the profiles of soluble cotyledon proteins. Control seeds kept at −10°C showed none of the reported changes.

Changes in mRNA and Protein during Ripening in Apple Fruit (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious)

Lay-Yee, Michael; DellaPenna, Dean; Ross, Gavin S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1990 EN
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Poly(A)+ RNA was extracted from cortical tissue of apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious), and in vitro translation products were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. As fruit internal ethylene concentration increased from a basal level of 0.0 to 0.1 microliter per liter to 1 to 5 microliters/liter, substantial changes in the pattern of in vitro translation products were observed. More subtle changes were observed as fruit continued to ripen and internal ethylene concentration increased to 80 to 100 microliters/liter. Overall, the levels of at least six mRNAs were found to increase, while one mRNA decreased. Analysis of proteins extracted from ripening fruit indicated that the level of at least three proteins increased with ripening.

Expression profiling of cell cycle genes reveals key facilitators of cell production during carpel development, fruit set, and fruit growth in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.)

Malladi, Anish; Johnson, Lisa Klima
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
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Cell production is an essential facilitator of fruit growth and development. Cell production during carpel/floral-tube growth, fruit set, and fruit growth, and its regulation by cell cycle genes were investigated in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.). Cell production was inhibited during late carpel/floral-tube development, resulting in growth arrest before bloom. Fruit set re-activated cell production between 8 d and 11 d after full bloom (DAFB) and triggered fruit growth. The early phase of fruit growth involved rapid cell production followed by exit from cell proliferation at ∼24 DAFB. Seventy-one cell cycle genes were identified, and expression of 59 genes was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. Changes in expression of 19 genes were consistently associated with transitions in cell production during carpel/floral-tube growth, fruit set, and fruit growth. Fourteen genes, including B-type cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and A2-, B1-, and B2-type cyclins, were positively associated with cell production, suggesting that availability of G2/M phase regulators of the cell cycle is limiting for cell proliferation. Enhanced expression of five genes including that of the putative CDK inhibitors, MdKRP4 and MdKRP5, was associated with reduced cell production. Exit from cell proliferation at G0/G1 during fruit growth was facilitated by multiple mechanisms including down-regulation of putative regulators of G1/S and G2/M phase progression and up-regulation of KRP genes. Interestingly...

Characterization of Resistance Gene Analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and Their Evolutionary History of the Rosaceae Family

Perazzolli, Michele; Malacarne, Giulia; Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/02/2014 EN
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The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden Delicious’. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However...

Multiplicacao In Vitro de Brotacoes de Macieira Cultivares Marubakaido (Malus Prunifolia, Willd, Borkh) e Megumi (Malus Domestica, Borkh).

SHUCH, M.W.; PETERS, J.A.
Fonte: Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasilia, v.28, n.4, p.433-437,abr.1993 Publicador: Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, Brasilia, v.28, n.4, p.433-437,abr.1993
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE)
PT_BR
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Brotacoes de macieira, porta-enxerto Marubakaido (Malus prunifolia Willd, Borkh), tambem conhecido como Maruba, e cultivar Megumi (Malus domestica, Borkh), oriundas do cultivo de meristema, foram multiplicadas "in vitro" em seis diferentes meios de cultura, onde se utilizaram diferentes concentracoes de benzilaminopurina (BAP) e a adicao de acido giberelico (AG3). O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o melhor meio de multiplicacao para estas duas cultivares. Os parametros analisados foram o numero de brotacoes formadas a partir de uma unica brotacao e o comprimento destas brotacoes. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com 2,0 mg/l de BAP para o porta-enxerto Maruba e 3,5 mg/l para a cultivar copa Megumi. A taxa de multiplicacao e o crescimento das brotacoes mostrou-se variavel de acordo com o genotipo.; 1993

Dorm??ncia de gemas sob influ??ncia da temperatura durante o per??odo hibernal e resposta produtiva da macieira pelo uso de indutores de brota????o; Bud dormancy under temperature influence during the winter period and apple tree productive response by use of budbreak promoters.

HAWERROTH, Fernando Jos??
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Agronomia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Agronomia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Agronomia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
POR
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Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). The inadequate chilling exposure for this species causes the occurrence of budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the cultivars efficient selection in a productive region. Similarly cultural practices can be developed and adapted to minimize the problems cause by lack chilling during winter. The budbreak promoters application is one of main management s strategies used to decrease the problems of insufficient winter chilling on temperate fruit trees. Because the influence of budbreak promoters on plant s productive behavior, detecting this effects along of productive season became important. This study aimed to evaluate the budbreak and depth dormancy of apple cultivars exposed to different chilling conditions during the winter, and evaluate the apple productive response by budbreak promoters application. For this, three experiments were carried out in this research. In the first experiment, one-yearold twigs of Castel Gala and Royal Gala cultivars...

Long-term annual fertilization with nitrogen and potassium affect yield and mineral composition of 'Fuji' apple; Adubações anuais com nitrogênio e potássio por longo prazo influenciam o rendimento e a composição mineral de maçãs 'Fuji'

NAVA, Gilberto; DECHEN, Antonio Roque
Fonte: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: São Paulo - Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) are closely related to orchard productivity, since they are usually found in higher concentrations than others macronutrients in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh) fruits. This research was carried out to assess the effect of eight years of soil additions of N and K on yield, fruit size and mineral composition of 'Fuji'/Marubakaido apple in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. A factorial design was used with N and K annual fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1 of N and K2O) replicated in three orchards from 1998 to 2006. Yield was estimated by multiplying the total number of fruit per tree by the mean weight of 100 randomly sampled fruit. Fifteen days prior to harvest, 24 fruit pulps were analyzed for N, K, Ca and Mg contents. Increases in yields were noticed in five and four years, due to the N and K fertilizer additions, respectively. Fruit size was more affected by K than by N fertilization. Fruit mineral composition was affected by both N and K fertilization. N concentration and N:Ca ratios were enlarged by N fertilization. K concentration and K:Ca ratios were also enlarged by K fertilization. Ca fruit concentration was reduced by N fertilization and often by K. Ca-related fruit disorders were not observed even after 180 days storage. However...

Cuticle of 'Gala' and 'Galaxy' Apples Cultivars under Different Environmental Conditions

Tessmer, Magda Andréia; Antoniolli, Lucimara Rogeria; Gloria, Beatriz Appezzato da
Fonte: INST TECNOLOGIA PARANA; CURITIBA-PARANA Publicador: INST TECNOLOGIA PARANA; CURITIBA-PARANA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This study aimed to analyze the cuticle thickness and pattern of epicuticular wax deposition in 'Gala' and 'Galaxy' apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh,) from three Brazilian producing areas: Vacaria (RS), Fraiburgo (SC) and Sao Joaquim (SC) with altitudes of 971, 1,048 and 1,353m, respectively. Harvested fruit were kept under two storage conditions: regular atmosphere (RA) (0 degrees C and 90% RH) and controlled atmosphere (CA) (1.5% O-2, 2.5% CO2, 0 degrees C and 90% RH). Cuticle thickness measurements were made using LM and the deposition pattern of epicuticular wax observed with a SEM. Altitude among the apple producing areas was not a factor in deposition pattern of waxes between the cultivars but at higher altitudes, the cuticle was thicker in both the cultivars. In the freshly-harvested fruits, waxes deposition in the form of platelets and the mechanism of "tear and repair" were observed. Severity of microcracks in the cuticle was more evident on the fruits from CA.; Rohm and Haas Company; Rohm and Haas Company; Agrofresh Inc.; Agrofresh Inc.; CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education); CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education)

Adubações anuais com nitrogênio e potássio por longo prazo influenciam o rendimento e a composição mineral de maçãs 'Fuji'; Long-term annual fertilization with nitrogen and potassium affect yield and mineral composition of 'Fuji' apple

Nava, Gilberto; Dechen, Antonio Roque
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2009 ENG
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Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) are closely related to orchard productivity, since they are usually found in higher concentrations than others macronutrients in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh) fruits. This research was carried out to assess the effect of eight years of soil additions of N and K on yield, fruit size and mineral composition of 'Fuji'/Marubakaido apple in São Joaquim, State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. A factorial design was used with N and K annual fertilizer rates (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1 of N and K2O) replicated in three orchards from 1998 to 2006. Yield was estimated by multiplying the total number of fruit per tree by the mean weight of 100 randomly sampled fruit. Fifteen days prior to harvest, 24 fruit pulps were analyzed for N, K, Ca and Mg contents. Increases in yields were noticed in five and four years, due to the N and K fertilizer additions, respectively. Fruit size was more affected by K than by N fertilization. Fruit mineral composition was affected by both N and K fertilization. N concentration and N:Ca ratios were enlarged by N fertilization. K concentration and K:Ca ratios were also enlarged by K fertilization. Ca fruit concentration was reduced by N fertilization and often by K. Ca-related fruit disorders were not observed even after 180 days storage. However...