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Mudança clínica em variáveis cognitivas e emocionais subjacentes ao comportamento anti-social: os efeitos do GPS em contexto prisional

Ramos, João Pedro Azinheira
Fonte: Universidade de Coimbra Publicador: Universidade de Coimbra
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
As intervenções que procuram diminuir as taxas de reincidência criminal e o comportamento anti-social têm sido alvo de diversos estudos que pretendem apurar a magnitude dos efeitos nos factores que mantêm e predispõem os indivíduos para o desvio. De acordo com a literatura, as intervenções mais eficazes possuem um conjunto de métodos e materiais conceptualizados em determinados formatos pré-definidos que se denominam de programas. Destes, os que apresentam resultados mais positivos no sistema de justiça criminal são baseados no modelo cognitivo-comportamental (McGuire, 2001, 2006, 2008). A presente investigação propôs-se a avaliar a eficácia do GPS – Gerar Percursos Sociais (Rijo et al., 2007) na reabilitação psicossocial de reclusos do sexo masculino. Este é um programa multimodal de grupo que visa a reabilitação de indivíduos com comportamento anti-social. Decorre em pequenos grupos, de 8 a 12 participantes, ao longo de 40 sessões semanais, e inclui 5 módulos sequenciais. Baseado num referencial teórico cognitivo-interpessoal (Bernstein, Arntz, & Vos, 2007; Safran & Segal, 1990; Young, 2003), o GPS foca-se nas mudanças cognitivas, emocionais e comportamentais, assumindo como objectivo final a modificação de crenças disfuncionais subjacentes ao comportamento anti-social (Bernstein et al....

Visitas íntimas na prisão : a perceção de guardas e reclusos; Intimate visits in prison : perception of prison guards and inmates

Teixeira, Liliana Peixoto
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.58%
Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia; O estudo da temática da sexualidade em meio prisional não está muito desenvolvido, sendo que na generalidade este tópico aparece associado à vitimação prisional e ainda não existem muitos estudos, que analisem as visitas íntimas em contexto prisional. Assim, os principais objetivos do presente estudo são perceber em termos gerais, qual a perceção dos guardas prisionais em relação às visitas íntimas, em função de um conjunto de variáveis sociodemográficas, como também perceber, qual a perceção dos reclusos a esse respeito, tendo em conta as variáveis sociodemográficas e jurídico-penais. Trata-se de um estudo com um desenho de investigação quantitativo, do tipo transversal e observacional. A amostra é compreendida por 140 sujeitos, sendo que 50 sujeitos são guardas prisionais e os restantes 90 indivíduos são reclusos do sexo masculino. Os resultados mostram que a perceção sobre as visitas íntimas é afetada pelos anos de serviço e pela idade, por parte dos guardas, e pelo ter ou não visitas íntimas e ser reincidente ou primário, por parte dos reclusos. Estes resultados podem contribuir para uma redução da violência entre os reclusos.; The research of sexuality in prison is still scarce and generally this topic appears associated with prison victimization. On the other hand...

O bullying nas prisões; Bullying in prisons

Moreira, Susana Alexandra Leite
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.5%
Dissertação de mestrado em Administração da Justiça; O que se pretendeu com o presente estudo foi analisar questões relacionadas com a agressividade e bullying em contexto prisional ao nível de ofensores masculinos. Houve a necessidade de percepcionar se variáveis sócio-demográficas e jurídico-penais favorecem o desencadeamento de um aumento de comportamentos agressivos, bem como a possibilidade de existirem factores facilitares do surgimento dos mesmos, aspirando-se a compreensão da realidade prisional masculina, perspectivando a adopção de medidas de prevenção situacional da violência neste meio tão específico. Assim, tornou-se imprescindível um olhar atento no plano de comportamentos agressivos, nomeadamente o psicológico, coercivo e indirecto. Para tal, utilizou-se a Direct and Indirect Prisoner Behaviour Checklist - Revised (DIPC-R) (Ireland 2002) no sentido de averiguar a existência de correlação entre a existência de bullying e as diversas variáveis sócio-demográficas e jurídico-penais, as quais foram recolhidas através de um questionário. Não se observou uma grande diversidade de reclusos, pois o estudo foi realizado apenas num Estabelecimento Prisional. Embora pequena, a amostra incluiu reclusos de diversas idades...

Correlation between HIV and HCV in Brazilian prisoners: evidence for parenteral transmission inside prison

Burattini,MN; Massad,E; Rozman,M; Azevedo,RS; Carvalho,HB
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2000 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
OBJECTIVE: It is an accepted fact that confinement conditions increase the risk of some infections related to sexual and/or injecting drugs practices. Mathematical techniques were applied to estimate time-dependent incidence densities of HIV infection among inmates. METHODS: A total of 631 prisoners from a Brazilian prison with 4,900 inmates at that time were interviewed and their blood drawn. Risky behavior for HIV infection was analyzed, and serological tests for HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis were performed, intended as surrogates for parenteral and sexual HIV transmission, respectively. Mathematical techniques were used to estimate the incidence density ratio, as related to the time of imprisonment. RESULTS: Prevalence were: HIV -- 16%; HCV -- 34%; and syphilis -- 18%. The main risk behaviors related to HIV infection were HCV prevalence (OR=10.49) and the acknowledged use of injecting drugs (OR=3.36). Incidence density ratio derivation showed that the risk of acquiring HIV infection increases with the time of imprisonment, peaking around three years after incarceration. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between HIV and HCV seroprevalence and the results of the mathematical analysis suggest that HIV transmission in this population is predominantly due to parenteral exposure by injecting drug...

HIV seroprevalence and the acceptance of voluntary HIV testing among newly incarcerated male prison inmates in Wisconsin.

Hoxie, N J; Vergeront, J M; Frisby, H R; Pfister, J R; Golubjatnikov, R; Davis, J P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.38%
In 1986-88, voluntary and blinded HIV testing was conducted among Wisconsin male prison entrants. The HIV seroprevalence was 0.30 percent in 1986, 0.53 percent in 1987, and 0.56 percent in 1988. The seroprevalence rates among entrants tested voluntarily did not differ from those tested blindly. Voluntary HIV testing was accepted by 71 percent of male prison entrants in 1988; among entrants reporting intravenous drug use 83 percent consented to voluntary HIV testing. Voluntary HIV testing of entrants appears to be an effective screening strategy in Wisconsin prisons.

Coinfection with tuberculosis and HIV-1 in male prison inmates.

Salive, M E; Vlahov, D; Brewer, T F
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.64%
An association between past exposure to tuberculosis (TB) and infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was investigated using a case-control design among a 6-week sample of 698 male inmates consecutively admitted to the Maryland State prison system. Based on Mantoux testing and measurement of anti-HIV-1, we found a positive but not significant association between HIV-1 and TB infection (odds ratio 2.4, 95 percent confidence interval 0.9-6.3). The power of the study to detect an association of this magnitude was 0.57. Of the entire intake sample, 1.3 percent were found to be coinfected with TB and HIV-1. Some misclassification may have been present due to anergy or latent HIV-1 infection. The elevated risk of TB in coinfected inmates, coupled with the study results, suggest that the inmate screening process on entry to the prison should be modified to improve identification of coinfected people. Specifically, anergy testing should be added to the admission screening procedure, and appropriate voluntary anonymous HIV-1 antibody testing should be more widely available to inmates.

Outbreak of HIV infection in a Scottish prison.

Taylor, A.; Goldberg, D.; Emslie, J.; Wrench, J.; Gruer, L.; Cameron, S.; Black, J.; Davis, B.; McGregor, J.; Follett, E.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/02/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.72%
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possible spread of HIV infection and its route of transmission among prison inmates. DESIGN--In response to an outbreak of acute clinical hepatitis B and two seroconversions to HIV infection, counselling and testing for HIV were offered to all inmates over a two week period in July 1993. Information was sought about drug injecting, sexual behaviour, and previous HIV testing. SETTING--HM Prison Glenochil in Scotland. SUBJECTS--Adult male prisoners. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Uptake of HIV counselling and testing; occurrence and mode of HIV transmission within the prison. RESULTS--Of a total 378 inmates, 227 (60%) were counselled and 162 (43%) tested for HIV. Twelve (7%) of those tested were positive for antibody to HIV. One third (76) of those counselled had injected drugs at some time, of whom 33 (43%) had injected in Glenochil; all 12 seropositive men belonged to this latter group. Thirty two of these 33 had shared needles and syringes in the prison. A further two inmates who injected in the prison were diagnosed as positive for HIV two months previously. Evidence based on sequential results and time of entry into prison indicated that eight transmissions definitely occurred within prison in the first half of 1993. CONCLUSION--This is the first report of an outbreak of HIV infection occurring within a prison. Restricted access to injecting equipment resulted in random sharing and placed injectors at high risk of becoming infected with HIV. Measures to prevent further spread of infection among prison injectors are urgently required.

CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS ATTENDING A PRISON PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC

Chadda, R.K.; Amarjeet,
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Psychiatric morbidity is higher in prison inmates as compared to that in general population but treatment facilities are often inadequate. The present work reports the profile of psychiatric patients seen in a jail hospital over a period of three months. The jail had about 9000 inmates. Psychiatric services consisted of weekly visit by a psychiatrist. Seventy two male inmates were seen during the period of study. Most of them (80%) were undertrials. Diagnosis included schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and malingering. Stress of imprisonment contributed to the illness only in a small percentage of patients. Among the admitted patients, jail environment interfered with improvement. Frequent relapses were noted among the improved schizophrenic patients when transferred back to the jail. The study emphasises the need for improving the conditions in jail and developing prison psychiatric units to be managed by psychiatrists.

Risk factors for hepatitis C infection and perception of antibody status among male prison inmates in the hepatitis C incidence and transmission in prisons study cohort, Australia

Gates, Jennifer A.; Post, Jeffrey J.; Kaldor, John M.; Pan, Yong; Haber, Paul S.; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Dolan, Kate A.;
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.68%
The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among male prison inmates enrolling into a prospective cohort in Australia. We tested 121 inmates who were previously untested or were previously known to be anti-HCV antibody negative for anti-HCV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HCV-positive inmates were classified as cases (n=25) and HCV-negative inmates as controls (n=96). The study found that cases were less educated than controls and confirmed that prior imprisonment, drug injection, and a longer duration of injecting were risk factors for HCV infection. More than half of those who tested HCV positive perceived that they did not have HCV infection, and 44% were unsure of their HCV status. Those inmates who were incorrect about their HCV status tended to be less educated and were more likely to have been previously imprisoned than those who were correct about their HCV status. Inmates who were unsure of their HCV status were less likely to have been tested for HCV than those who had a clear perception of their HCV status, even if incorrect. Three (12%) inmates who tested positive denied injecting drug use, but reported other risk factors. Prisons are likely to remain an important site for the diagnosis of HCV infection and targeted interventions aimed at risk reduction among inmates with low education levels and a previous imprisonment history.

Long-term functional outcome in adult prison inmates with ADHD receiving OROS-methylphenidate

Ginsberg, Ylva; Hirvikoski, Tatja; Grann, Martin; Lindefors, Nils
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.35%
In a recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we established a robust efficacy (Cohen’s d = 2.17) of osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) delivered 72 mg daily for 5 weeks versus placebo on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, global severity and global functioning in 30 adult male prison inmates with ADHD and coexisting disorders. Outcomes continued to improve during the subsequent 47-week open-label extension with OROS-methylphenidate delivered at a flexible daily dosage of up to 1.3 mg/kg body weight. In the present study, we evaluated long-term effectiveness and maintenance of improvement over the cumulated 52-week trial on cognition, motor activity, institutional behaviour and quality of life. Post hoc, we explored the associations between investigators’ and self-ratings of ADHD symptoms and between ratings of symptoms and functioning, respectively. Outcomes, calculated by repeated measures ANOVA, improved from baseline until week 16, with maintenance or further improvement until week 52. Both verbal and visuospatial working memory, and abstract verbal reasoning improved significantly over time, as well as several cognition-related measures and motor activity. No substance abuse was detected and a majority of participants took part in psychosocial treatment programmes. The quality of life domains of Learning...

An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale in Male Prison Inmates

Smith, Phillip N.; Wolford, Caitlin; Mandracchia, Jon T.; Jahn, Danielle R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.67%
Prison inmates are exposed to a number of adverse conditions prior to and during incarceration that place them at risk for suicide. The interpersonal theory of suicide may prove useful in better understanding suicide in prisons, allowing for more effective prevention and treatment programs. However, no studies of the interpersonal theory have been conducted in prison populations. Further, there have been no studies examining the factor structure of the assessment of one of the theory’s main constructs: the acquired capability for suicide. The current study examined the factor structure of the Acquired Capability for Suicide Scale in a sample of male prison inmates. We found that a four-factor model provided the best statistical and conceptual fit; though, only three of these factors were meaningful with an additional method-factor. The three resulting factors were each associated with previous exposure to painful and provocative events, but none differentiated suicide attempter status. Results suggest that the interpersonal theory has promise in application to suicide in prison populations, but more work is needed to develop a self-report measure of acquired capability, particularly as it relates to prisoners.

A Randomized Clinical Trial of Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners: Prediction of Treatment Entry and Completion in Prison

GORDON, MICHAEL S.; KINLOCK, TIMOTHY W.; COUVILLION, KATHRYN A.; SCHWARTZ, ROBERT P.; O’GRADY, KEVIN
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.41%
The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: counseling only (counseling in prison; n= 70); counseling plus transfer (counseling in prison with transfer to methadone maintenance treatment upon release; n= 70); and counseling plus methadone (methadone maintenance in prison, continued in a community-based methadone maintenance program upon release; n= 71). Entered prison treatment (p <. 01), and completed prison treatment (p< .001) were significantly predicted by the set of 10 explanatory variables and favored the treatment conditions receiving methadone. The present results indicate that individuals who are older in age and have longer prison sentences may have better outcomes than younger individuals with shorter sentences, meaning they are more likely to enter and complete prison-based treatment. Furthermore, implications for the treatment of prisoners with prior heroin dependence and for conducting clinical trials may indicate the importance of examining individual characteristics and the possibility of the examination of patient preference.

Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria

Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.64%
Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this.

The prevalence of personality disorders in Portuguese male prison inmates: Implications for penitentiary treatment

Brazão, Nélio; CINEICC - Centro de Investigação do Núcleo de Estudos e Intervenção Cognitivo-Comportamental, Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Coimbra; da Motta, Carolina; Universidade dos Açores; CINEICC - Ce
Fonte: ISPA - Instituto Universitário Publicador: ISPA - Instituto Universitário
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/09/2015 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.76%
Prison inmates are known to be a population with a high prevalence of mental disorders. Most of these disorders are chronic and difficult to treat, particularly in what concerns Cluster B Personality Disorders, which prevalence in forensic samples  are even higher than in the general population. This study assesses the prevalence of Personality Disorders in a sample of 294 Portuguese male prison inmates, interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). The results showed a global prevalence rate of 79.9%, with 42.8% of the participants diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder as the main diagnosis. Paranoid, Passive-Aggressive, Borderline, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder. These results strongly suggest that Personality Disorders should be taken into account when deciding and planning the intervention inside prison.

OLDER FEDERAL INMATES: NEEDS, INSTITUTIONAL TREATMENT, AND LEGAL IMPLICATIONS

IFTENE, ADELINA DIANA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.58%
This thesis is a blend of social science methodology and legal interpretation aimed at investigating the quality of life of older Canadian federally incarcerated offenders and whether their rights are being respected. For this study I used social science empirical methodology to answer certain legal questions, such as: what are the needs of older male offenders and how are these needs influencing the exercise of their legal rights? Are institutions prepared to deal with the increased needs of older offenders? If no, is this an infringement of this group’s rights? Is the Canadian legal framework broad or specific enough to offer protection to the vulnerabilities of the older male prison population? First, I was able to establish a set of acute and chronic needs that older male offenders have. Second, I encountered a series of legal, policy, and institutional limitations in responding to those needs. All these seem to show a diminished quality of life for older male offenders, a profound sense of dehumanization, an erosion of their community ties, and greater fears regarding their release. Under such circumstances it seems sensible that the CSC approach towards older offenders needs to change. If such change does not come voluntarily...

Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

Olugbenga-Bello, A. I.; Adeoye, O. A.; Osagbemi, K. G.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.61%
Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9 + 7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents' knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.

Agressividade, estilo de vida criminal e adaptação à prisão; Agresividad, estilo de vida criminal y adaptación a la prisión; Aggressiveness, criminal lifestyle and prison adjustment; Agressivité, style de vie criminel et adaptation à la prison

Gonçalves, Leonel Cunha; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.44%
El estudio de la adaptación a la prisión y la clasificación de los reclusos pueden ayudar a prevenir situaciones de riesgo y promover un tratamiento penitenciario más adecuado. Este estudio correlacional explora la relación entre la agresividad, el estilo de vida criminal y la adaptación a la prisión, incluyendo datos socio-demográficos y jurídico-penales. La agresividad es medida por el Aggression Questionnaire y lo estilo de vida criminal por el Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form. La adaptación a la prisión incluye dos indicadores: los procedimientos disciplinarios y los accesos a los servicios clínicos. La muestra consta de treinta y uno participantes del sexo masculino y nacionalidad portuguesa, detenidos en una prisión regional. El periodo de observación fue de cinco meses. Los resultados indican que la agresividad, la historia del consumo de drogas y condenas más cortas predicen peor adaptación a la cárcel. Además se verifica que los scores Aggression Questionnaire se asocian con los procedimientos disciplinarios y el acceso a los servicios clínicos.; The study of inmates´ adjustment to prison and prison classification may help to prevent risky situations and promote a more effective institutional treatment. This correlational study explores the relation between aggressiveness...

Correlação entre HIV e HCV em prisioneiros brasileiros: evidência de transmissão parenteral no encarceramento; Correlation between HIV and HCV in Brazilian prisoners: evidence for parenteral transmission inside prison

Burattini, MN; Massad, E; Rozman, M; Azevedo, RS; Carvalho, HB
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2000 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.35%
OBJECTIVE: It is an accepted fact that confinement conditions increase the risk of some infections related to sexual and/or injecting drugs practices. Mathematical techniques were applied to estimate time-dependent incidence densities of HIV infection among inmates. METHODS: A total of 631 prisoners from a Brazilian prison with 4,900 inmates at that time were interviewed and their blood drawn. Risky behavior for HIV infection was analyzed, and serological tests for HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis were performed, intended as surrogates for parenteral and sexual HIV transmission, respectively. Mathematical techniques were used to estimate the incidence density ratio, as related to the time of imprisonment. RESULTS: Prevalence were: HIV -- 16%; HCV -- 34%; and syphilis -- 18%. The main risk behaviors related to HIV infection were HCV prevalence (OR=10.49) and the acknowledged use of injecting drugs (OR=3.36). Incidence density ratio derivation showed that the risk of acquiring HIV infection increases with the time of imprisonment, peaking around three years after incarceration. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between HIV and HCV seroprevalence and the results of the mathematical analysis suggest that HIV transmission in this population is predominantly due to parenteral exposure by injecting drug...

The prevalence of personality disorders in Portuguese male prison inmates: Implications for penitentiary treatment

Brazão,Nélio; Motta,Carolina da; Rijo,Daniel; Pinto-Gouveia,José
Fonte: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada Publicador: Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
96.76%
Prison inmates are known to be a population with a high prevalence of mental disorders. Most of these disorders are chronic and difficult to treat, particularly in what concerns Cluster B Personality Disorders, which prevalence in forensic samples are even higher than in the general population. This study assesses the prevalence of Personality Disorders in a sample of 294 Portuguese male prison inmates, interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). The results showed a global prevalence rate of 79.9%, with 42.8% of the participants diagnosed with Antisocial Personality Disorder as the main diagnosis. Paranoid, Passive-Aggressive, Borderline, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders were the most common comorbid diagnosis associated with Antisocial Personality Disorder. These results strongly suggest that Personality Disorders should be taken into account when deciding and planning the intervention inside prison.

HIV seroprevalence among male prison inmates in the six countries of the organization of eastern Caribbean States in the Caribbean

Boisson,EV; Trotman,C
Fonte: West Indian Medical Journal Publicador: West Indian Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.89%
OBJETIVE: To determine HIV prevalence among male prison inmates in the six OECS countries in the Caribbean. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six unlinked, anonymous point prevalence surveys of a total of 1288 male inmates were conducted during a one-year period, August 2004 - August 2005. An oral fluid sample was collected and an interviewer-administered questionnaire and consent form was completed for each survey participant. RESULTS: The overall HIV prevalence was 2.8% (range 2.0% - 4.1%). Only 39% of all inmates had previously been tested, compared to 67% of the HIV-positive inmates. Of all inmates who previously tested, 61% had their last test less than two years ago, 45% had done so while in prison and 39% had done so in a hospital. Most of those who had not previously been tested had no particular reason for not doing so (57%); 24% of them felt it was not necessary or they were not at risk. CONCLUSION: HIV prevalence among male prison inmates was three times higher than the estimated OECS population prevalence in 2003, slightly higher than the prevalence among incarcerated males in the United States of America and Canada, and lower than that in other Caribbean countries in earlier years. Health information on prison populations is important as this is a vulnerable group...