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How to Develop a Core Curriculum in Clinical Skills for Undergraduate Medical Teaching in the School of Medical Sciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia?

Hassan, Shahid
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2007 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
Clinical skills program as a laboratory method is a valuable adjunct to other forms of undergraduate medical training. This article describes the process of developing a core curriculum in clinical skills based on the Dundee model for a clinical skills centre. The School of Medical Sciences, in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) has been provided with a well equipped skills centre. However, the PBL curriculum in the undergraduate medical program in the school needs to be integrated with a clinical skills lab program. This is to counter the general feeling that the contribution of PBL is insignificant in terms of building clinical competency in an integrated system such as that used in USM compared to the traditional curriculi of other medical teaching institutions in Malaysia. Integrating clinical skills laboratory training with the PBL curriculum will provide evidence of PBL as an effective and innovative method for teaching and learning in Malaysia.

Review of Global Menace of Road Accidents with Special Reference to Malaysia- A Social Perspective

Kareem, Abdul
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2003 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
Road accident is ‘a global tragedy’ with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23–34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia...

Diversity of Fusarium Species from Highland Areas in Malaysia

Manshor, Nurhazrati; Rosli, Hafizi; Ismail, Nor Azliza; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
Fusarium is a cosmopolitan and highly diversified genus of saprophytic, phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. However, the existence and diversity of a few species of Fusarium are restricted to a certain area or climatic condition. The present study was conducted to determine the occurrence and diversity of Fusarium species in tropical highland areas in Malaysia and to compare with those in temperate and subtropical regions. A series of sampling was carried out in 2005 to 2009 at several tropical highland areas in Malaysia that is: Cameron Highlands, Fraser Hills and Genting Highlands in Pahang; Penang Hill in Penang; Gunung Jerai in Kedah; Kundasang and Kinabalu Park in Sabah; Kubah National Park and Begunan Hill in Sarawak. Sampling was done randomly from various hosts and substrates. Isolation of Fusarium isolates was done by using pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) agar and 1449 isolates of Fusarium were successfully recovered. Based on morphological characteristics, 20 species of Fusarium were identified. The most prevalent species occurring on the highlands areas was F. solani (66.1%) followed by F. graminearum (8.5%), F. oxysporum (7.8%), F. semitectum (5.7%), F. subglutinans (3.5%) and F. proliferatum (3.4%). Other Fusarium species...

Studies on Monstereae (Araceae) of Peninsular Malaysia I: Rhaphidophora megasperma, a New Record for West Malaysia

Sulaiman, Baharuddin; Boyce, Peter C.
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Rhaphidophora megasperma Engl., a species hitherto regarded as endemic to Sarawak, East Malaysia, is published as a new record for Peninsular Malaysia. It is the first species in the Rhaphidophora Spathacea group recorded for western Sunda. The species is illustrated and a key to the perforate-laminated Rhaphidophora in Peninsular Malaysia is presented.

Distribution of the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) in Malaysia (Peninsular, Sabah, Sarawak)

Nasir, Muhammad Dzulhelmi Muhammad; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
There is not much information available on the distribution of the Sunda colugo (Galeopterus variegates) in Malaysia, despite it being one of only two known species in the order Dermoptera. Data on the presence of the Sunda colugo and the vernacular names used by various ethnic groups throughout Malaysia were collected and compiled from various primary and secondary sources. There were 27 locations from Peninsular, 11 locations from Sabah and 34 locations from Sarawak that reported the presence of the Sunda colugo throughout Malaysia. The various ethnic groups of Malaysia adopted 37 different vernacular names to describe the Sunda colugo. This baseline data can be useful for the management authorities in conducting periodic monitoring and will enhance our knowledge of the population dynamics of the Sunda colugo in Malaysia.

Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia

Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island...

Financial Sector Assessment Program : Malaysia - Basel Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision

World Bank; International Monetary Fund
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.95%
Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) employs a very well developed risk-focused regulatory and supervisory regime, consisting of a hands-on and comprehensive program of onsite supervision and extensive off-site macro, and micro, surveillance that is well integrated with its on-site supervision. This assessment of the current state of compliance with the Basel Core Principles (BCPs) in Malaysia has been undertaken as part of a joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) mission. The assessment was conducted from 4 April till 20 April 2012. It reflects the banking supervision practices of the BNM as of the end of March 2012 for the supervision of commercial banks. The assessment is based on several sources: (i) a detailed and comprehensive self-assessment prepared by the BNM ; (ii) detailed interviews with the BNM staff; (iii) review of laws, regulations, and other documentation on the supervisory framework and on the structure and development of the Malaysia financial sector; and (iv) meetings with individual banks...

Malaysia - Insurance Core Principles : Detailed Assessment of Observance

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This assessment provides an understanding of the significant regulatory and supervisory framework for the insurance sector of Malaysia. The assessment was conducted by Mark Causevic (external expert from OSFI Canada) during April 2012. Malaysia is undertaking the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) for the first time, and it includes a formal assessment of its observance with the Insurance Core Principles (ICPs) issued by the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS). The Malaysia market has been growing for Islamic insurance products (family takaful, general takaful, and re-takaful). The ICPs were not specifically developed with Islamic insurance products in mind. Consequently, based on the scope that was agreed upon prior to the start of the assessment work, details on the regulation, supervision and various workings of Malaysian Islamic insurance market are included in this report, but they do not form part of the ICP assessment ratings for Malaysia.

A cross cultural study of entrepreneurial competencies and entrepreneurial success in SMEs in Australia and Malaysia.

Ahmad, Noor Hazlina
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2007
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.18%
The present study examined the relationship between entrepreneurial competencies and business success in the context of SMEs in Australia and Malaysia. A “mixed-method” approach was adopted whereby two studies were conducted in a sequential fashion (Study 1 and Study 2). In Study 1, a qualitative method was adopted in which individual interviews were conducted with 20 entrepreneurs – 10 from Australia and 10 from Malaysia – who operated SMEs in the manufacturing and service sectors. The aim was to elicit behaviours that delineate competencies, and thus enable the identification of entrepreneurial competencies that are context-specific and of relevance in the current business environment. A content analysis of the interview data identified 12 competency domains: Strategic; Commitment; Conceptual; Opportunity; Organising and Leading; Relationship; Learning; Personal; Technical; Ethical; Social Responsibility; and Familism. Importantly, nine of these categories were well represented in existing models of entrepreneurial competencies, thereby providing evidence that these models offer a reasonable degree of cross-cultural generalisability. However, three new categories emerged, namely, Ethical, Social Responsibility, and Familism (broadly concerned with the role of “family” in building business success). There was evidence for Ethical and Social Responsibility competencies in both the Australian and Malaysian data...

Green vs. sustainability performance assessment: a case study of an office building in Putrajaya, Malaysia

Shari, Z.; Soebarto, V.
Fonte: Pontifica Universidad Catolica del Peru; online Publicador: Pontifica Universidad Catolica del Peru; online
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Building performance assessment systems (BPASs) are emerging rapidly in many countries with different emphasis and scope of assessment. This paper seeks to find out whether a building design which scores high when assessed by an environmental-focused BPAS would also produce high scores if assessed by a BPAS which is based on a balanced and holistic concept of sustainability. Two BPASs were applied on a case study office building in Putrajaya, Malaysia, namely: 1) Singapore’s Green Mark Scheme, an existing environmental-focused BPAS actually used to rate the green performance of the case study building in reality; and 2) Malaysia Office Building Sustainability Assessment (MOBSA) framework, developed by the author in a three-year research as a means to assess the sustainability performance (environmentally, socially and economically) of office buildings in Malaysia. The study found that the building achieved a very high overall score in terms of its environmental design performance but scored lower when social- and economic-related criteria at the scale broader than the building itself were also taken into consideration and appropriately weighted. It appears that a more comprehensive BPAS, embracing the whole concept or three dimensions of sustainability...

Exploring the strengths and limitations of development journalism in Malaysia.

Ismail, Awan
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.24%
Since decolonization in 1957, development journalism has played a central role in serving Malaysian governments by disseminating ideas on issues concerning that country’s national development. Indeed, development journalism is seen as the mainstream form of journalism practice in Malaysia, not only on domestic issues but also significantly, on regional and international issues. The thesis makes a contribution to understanding the different ways development journalism is conceptualised through an investigation of how and why development journalism is practised in Malaysia. Therefore, the main aims of this thesis are to analyze the role of development journalism in Malaysia, and how journalists understand and talk about its strengths and limitations. This is done by first, exploring how, why and when journalists/reporters who follow the development journalism philosophy appear to take a harmony-oriented approach towards framing international relations. Second, this thesis identifies what are the contributing factors impacting on journalists in adopting this harmonious reporting approach. In this regard, this thesis offers a comprehensive analysis of development journalism’s strengths and limitations as demonstrated in Malaysia when maintaining international relations with its neighbour...

Circular migration of Indonesian low-skilled labour migrants to peninsular Malaysia: patterns, causes and consequences.

Balakrishnan, Balambigai
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2013
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.16%
The flow of international low-skilled labour migrants to Malaysia, especially from Indonesia, is one of the world’s most important migration corridors. With the increase in flow of undocumented migration, public resistance towards migrant workers, combined with the ongoing lack of pathways for gaining permanency and citizenship and the historical relationships and the geographical proximity of the two countries, Malaysia is facing added challenges in managing its migrant workers from Indonesia. Although Malaysia has become structurally dependent on low-skilled migrant workers it has not been able to develop policies that deliver ‘win-win-win’ outcomes to the host country, home country and to the migrants. In the last decade, migration theorists and policy makers have proposed circular migration as a preferred migration pattern between a developing nation with a labour surplus and a more developed country with labour shortages. While Indonesians may have adopted a long-standing de-facto pattern of circularity between Indonesia and Malaysia, at times actively facilitated by employers, there are no national policies or bilateral agreements that facilitate this circular migration. In this study, circular migration is compared with permanent migration which is...

An analysis of the underlying factors that affected Malaysia-Singapore relations during the Mahathir era: discords and continuity.

Omar, Rusdi
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
This thesis is an analysis of the underlying factors that influenced Malaysia-Singapore relations during the watershed period of Mahathir Mohamad as the Prime Minister of Malaysia (1981- 2003). The study proposes that the bilateral tensions between Malaysia and Singapore were, to a large extent, affected by such things as the burden of historical baggage from their acrimonious parting in 1965, after a short period of unification; the differences between them in their perceptions and approaches in handling bilateral relations; and their political cultures and the leadership styles of their prime ministers, but for the purposes of the present study, specifically those of Mahathir and Lee Kuan Yew. The thesis examines a number of key areas of discord between states and leaders alike. Despite the strong underlying differences, the thesis argues, the two states have existed in a condition of interdependency in the post-1965 period. They have had to find ways in which to suppress the culturally- and historically-conditioned tensions in order to ensure their respective states’ economic growth and political and social development. As a result, we have the curious situation in which both Malaysia and Singapore have found ways of maintaining engagement. In doing so...

Delivering sustainable building strategies in Malaysia: stakeholders' barriers and aspirations

Shari, Z.; Soebarto, V.
Fonte: Universiti Putra Malaysia Publicador: Universiti Putra Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.95%
In Malaysia there is both top-down and bottom-up pressure to deliver a sustainable built environment. However, most new projects display few sustainability features, explaining the continuous presence of, and increasing problems related to, the environment in Malaysia. This paper presents nine categories of barriers and four categories of measures to overcome the barriers and to promote sustainable building practices, drawn from qualitative research undertaken with thirty Malaysian building stakeholders via in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The primary barriers that were identified by the stakeholders are: 1) a lack of expressed interest in the clients’ requirements; 2) a lack of political will, legislation and enforcement; 3) a lack of technical understanding among project team members; 4) a lack of consideration of sustainability measures by project team members; and 5) real and perceived costs. Whilst measures suggested by the stakeholders are related to the government and regulatory stakeholders, research and education sector, private sector, and clients of the construction industry. The paper concludes that regional characteristics need to be reflected in any sustainability assessment methodologies in order to encourage sustainable development locally.; http://frsb.upm.edu.my/alamcipta/index.php/alamcipta/article/view/32; Shari...

Exploring critical success factors for developing infrastructure projects in Malaysia - main contractors' perspective

Jin, X.H.; Tan, H.C.; Zuo, J.; Feng, Y.
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
The construction industry needs to develop methodologies and techniques to better promote quality engineering and minimize losses. This study aims to identify the Critical Success Factors (CFSs) that contribute to the successful development of infrastructure projects in Malaysia and examine their possible impact on project objectives in scope, time, cost and quality. Main contractors are usually intensively involved in the development of infrastructure projects. However, there is limited research touching on main contractors’ view on CSFs for infrastructure projects in Malaysia. Therefore, this study is carried out to explore this topic from the main contractors’ perspective. Based on an extensive literature review, 33 candidate CSFs were identified and examined. Practitioners in selected companies that had been intensively involved in infrastructure development in Malaysia were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey. The questionnaire survey was designed to elicit professional opinions of those practitioners on the significance level and the impact on project objectives of the identified candidate CSFs. A significance index (SI) was calculated to show the significance level of the candidate CSFs. This explorative study has found that the majority of the 33 identified candidate CSFs were perceived to be of critical significance by the respondents. Some of them hold particular importance to achieving project management objectives in terms of scope...

Imagining identity: visions of Malaysia and the interrelationship between state, society and the global

O'Shannassy, Michael Gary
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.11%
The Asian Financial Crisis of 1997-1998 and the political crisis it engendered in Malaysia called into question the framework of governance associated with the long-standing Barisan Nasional (National Front, BN) government. And yet, despite the traumas induced by these twin crises, the fundamental relationships and structures that characterized political and economic relationships in Malaysia were not radically transformed. The underlying puzzle this thesis seeks to address is just how domestic reverberations of "the global" are mediated by the specific historical structure of a state. Utilizing the concept of national identity as an organizing principle while employing a model which positions the relationship between the international and domestic spheres and the state as a mutually constitutive dynamic offers a much more complete picture of the processes in operation. The central research question this thesis seeks to answer is: How are conceptions of national identity in Malaysia being shaped by the interrelationship between domestic society, the state and the global? By carrying out an in-depth empirical investigation into the historical (re)construction of and practices associated with national identity discourses in Malaysia...

Policy formulation processes in Malaysia and Australia: cultural differences do matter

Ansori, Siaan
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
EN_AU
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
This thesis examines the influence of culture in the national policy formulation processes of Malaysia and Australia. Superficially, these two countries have common stated strategic policy priorities (economic development and social stability), similar Westminster-based architectures of government, and comparable civil services. However, under the influence of culture and history, the two countries‘ policy formulation processes have developed very differently. In seeking explanations for the similarities and differences in government processes, the thesis demonstrates how cultural and historical experiences influence the policy formulation processes themselves, the associated policy outputs and outcomes, and ultimately the governments‘ ability to achieve their stated strategic policy priorities. It uses a case study of bilateral trade policy formulation to illuminate its findings in a real‘ national policy formulation context. Some specific examples of cultural and historical experiences shaping the policy formulation processes in Malaysia include: a legacy of pre-colonial (kerajaan) polities which existed in the Malayo-Indonesian archipelago up until the nineteenth century; colonisation by the British; and an omnipresent ethnic ideology‘ resulting from continuing fear of social unrest (experienced dramatically during the racial riots of 1969). In Australia...

Industrial relations practices in Southeast Asia's NICs: IR practices in China, Malaysia and Thailand

Bragg, Sarah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.07%
Australia is currently in free trade negotiations with China and Malaysia and has a FTA with Thailand. Australia is becoming more integrated into the Asia-Pacific economic region through bilateral trade agreements. It is within this context that a report of this nature is relevant. It outlines industrial relations (IR) practices in these countries, and highlights some implications for multinational companies (MNCs) and governments, specifically in regards to labour rights and standards. Why China, Malaysia and Thailand? These three countries have been described as the new 'Asian Tigers'. They have experienced massive industrialisation in the last two decades, and have opened their economies up to increasing amounts of foreign investment. China, for example, is Australia's second largest trading partner behind Japan. In 2003-2004, merchandise export trade to China was worth A$9.9 billion. Similarly, Malaysia has also opened up its economy to foreign direct investment. It is the fourth most open economy in the world and Australia's FTA negotiations further strengthen the ties between the two countries. Australia and Thailand have a current FT A (T AFTA) which also strengthens regional ties. All three countries have an IR infrastructure heavily controlled by the government through policy and legislation. Each government has played a substantial role in the industrialisation process. China has...

Measuring and achieving quality customer service: a study on public sector in Malaysia

Rashid, Muhammad Hafiz Abd
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
Excellent quality of customer service is so important for government agencies even though they are not-for-profit. Better service enhances productivity, and treating customer right the first time saves time and money. Creating satisfied customers reduces the likelihood irate citizens take their complaints to higher sources, or to a public forum where negative word-of-mouth can be damaging. A common criticism of the public in Malaysia has been the poor quality of customer service rendered by employees in government agencies. As the largest organization in Malaysia, the quality of service they provide has a tremendous influence on public perceptions of the quality of public service. A study was, therefore, performed to measure the quality of customer service provided by public agencies in Malaysia. Focus was given to the Road Transport Department as this study could not cater to all departments throughout the government agencies. One hundred respondents who experienced interactions with this department were chosen to participate in this study. They were required to answer online questionnaires and expressed their feedback regarding the quality of customer service this department provided. The result demonstrated that most of the respondents were unsatisfied with the quality of Customer Service Representatives...

Aggregate and regional demand for electricity in Malaysia

Solaymani,Saeed; Najafi,Sayed Mohammad Bager; Kari,Fatimah; Satar,Nurulhuda Binti Mohd
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.02%
The main objective of this paper is the analysis of electricity consumption in Malaysia as a whole and its three regions, namely, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. This analysis has been carried out using distinguished data in sectoral level for 44 quarters (2000Q1-2010Q4). For this purpose, two log-log static and dynamic panel demand functions are estimated. The dynamic model, which is based on a partial adjustment approach, is used to compare with the static model. The aggregate and the three regional models are estimated based on their economic sectors in both the dynamic and static methods. This study seeks to reveal some features of electricity consumption in Malaysia and its regions. It is found that the short and long- run price elasticities of electricity demand in all regions of Malaysia are inelastic. Consumers' responsiveness to changes in electricity prices in the short-run is low, while they have a high response to the long-run changes in the entire Malaysian economy and its regions. This means that, while the short and long-run price elasticities of electricity demand are lower than one, the magnitudes of the long-run elasticities are greater than the short-run elasticities. Moreover, all elasticities in the dynamic models are smaller than the static models. The estimated short and long-run cross-price elasticities of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are negative which suggests that LPG and electricity are complementary goods.