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Produção de sentido em programas de tevê: representações femininas e modelos de consumo; Produção de sentido em programas de tevê: representações femininas e modelos de consumo

Almeida, Bibiana Stohler Sabença de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/06/2011 PT
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35.91%
A presente pesquisa visa ao estudo da produção de sentido nos programas do canal por assinatura GNT, tendo como base a representação dessas telespectadoras e os modelos de consumo sugeridos pelos próprios programas (estímulo às práticas de consumo). Para tanto, foram selecionados os seguintes programas: 1. Menu Confiança, voltado à alimentação; 2. Super Bonita Transforma, com a temática beleza; 3. Tamanho Único, específico à moda. A partir da seleção proposta, temos a oportunidade de compreender o percurso do enunciador (éthos), sua projeção até as telespectadoras GNT (páthos) e o contexto dessa produção, marcado por um determinado tempo/espaço (cronotopo). Delineamos, portanto, três conceitos ao entendimento da produção de sentido nesses programas: éthos, páthos e cronotopo, estudados e revisitados, aqui, pelos autores Maingueneau (2008), Fiorin (2008), Discini (2009), Trindade & Barbosa (2007). Dessa forma, esta dissertação tem como propósito analisar a enunciação dos episódios de cada programa, bem como seus efeitos de sentido, observando suas sugestões de consumo, ou seja, como, quando e onde essas mulheres irão consumir os produtos tematizados pela alimentação, beleza e moda. Nossa hipótese é de que tais modelos de consumo contemporâneos são capturados por meio de esquemas de informação...

Desambiguação lexical de sentidos para o português por meio de uma abordagem multilíngue mono e multidocumento; Word Sense Disambiguation for portuguese through multilingual mono and multi-document

Nóbrega, Fernando Antônio Asevêdo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2013 PT
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A ambiguidade lexical é considerada uma das principais barreiras para melhoria de aplicações do Processamento de Língua Natural (PLN). Neste contexto, tem-se a área de Desambiguação Lexical de Sentido (DLS), cujo objetivo é desenvolver e avaliar métodos que determinem o sentido correto de uma palavra em um determinado contexto por meio de um conjunto finito de possíveis significados. A DLS é empregada, principalmente, no intuito de prover recursos e ferramentas para diminuir problemas de ambiguidade e, consequentemente, contribuir para melhorias de resultados em outras áreas do PLN. Para o Português do Brasil, pouco se tem pesquisado nesta área, havendo alguns trabalhos bem específicos de domínio. Outro fator importante é que diversas áreas do PLN engajam-se no cenário multidocumento, onde a computação é efetuada sobre uma coleção de textos, todavia, não há relato de trabalhos de DLS direcionados a este cenário, tampouco experimentos de desambiguação neste domínio. Portanto, neste trabalho de mestrado, objetivou-se o desenvolvimento de métodos de DLS de domínio geral voltado à língua Portuguesa do Brasil e o desenvolvimento de algoritmos de desambiguação que façam uso de informações multidocumento...

Analogies, metaphors, and wondering about the future: Lay sense-making around synthetic meat

Marcu, A.; Gaspar, R.; Rutsaert, P.; Seibt, B.; Fletcher, D.; Verbeke, W.; Barnett, J.
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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Drawing on social representations theory, we explore how the public make sense of the unfamiliar, taking as the example a novel technology: synthetic meat. Data from an online deliberation study and eighteen focus groups in Belgium, Portugal and the UK indicated that the various strategies of sense-making afforded different levels of critical thinking about synthetic meat. Anchoring to genetic modification, metaphors like ‘Frankenfoods’ and commonplaces like ‘playing God’ closed off debates around potential applications of synthetic meat, whereas asking factual and rhetorical questions about it, weighing up pragmatically its risks and benefits, and envisaging changing current mentalities or behaviours in order to adapt to scientific developments enabled a consideration of synthetic meat’s possible implications for agriculture, environment, and society. We suggest that research on public understanding of technology should cultivate a climate of active thinking and should encourage questioning during the process of sense-making to try to reduce unhelpful anchoring.

Web-assisted tobacco intervention in Portuguese : intentions to make behavioural changes and behavioural changes

Nunes, Luís Saboga
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011 ENG
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ABSTRACT - The problem of how to support “intentions to make behavioural changes” (IBC) and “behaviour changes” (BC) in smoking cessation when there is a scarcity of resources is a pressing issue in public health terms. The present research focuses on the use of information and communications technologies and their role in smoking cessation. It is developed in Portugal after the ratification of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (on 8 November 2005). The prevalence of smokers over fifteen years of age within the population stood at 20.9% (30.9% for men and 11.8% for women). While the strategy of helping people to quit smoking has been emphasised at National Health Service (NHS) level, the uptake of cessation assistance has exceeded the capacity of the service. This induced the search of new theoretical and practical venues to offer alternative options to people willing to stop smoking. Among these, the National Health Plan (NHP) of Portugal (2004-2010), identifies the use of information technologies in smoking cessation. eHealth and the importance of health literacy as a means of empowering people to make behavioural changes is recurrently considered an option worth investigating. The overall objective of this research is to understand...

Sense and Significance: A Mixed Methods Examination of Meaning Making After the Loss of One’s Child

Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Currier, Joseph M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Keesee, Nancy J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2010 EN
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The purpose of this mixed methods study was to identify specific themes of meaning making (sense making and benefit finding) among bereaved parents, as well as to examine associations of these themes to the severity of grief symptomatology. A sample of 156 bereaved parents responded in writing to open-ended questions about sense making and benefit finding. We assessed normative grief symptoms with the Core Bereavement Items (Burnett, Middleton, Raphael, & Martinek, 1997) and maladaptive grief symptoms with the Inventory of Complicated Grief (Prigerson et al., 1995). Qualitative analyses revealed 45% of the sample could not make sense of their loss, and 21% could not identify benefits related to their loss experience. These parents had more severe normative and maladaptive grief symptoms. Overall, parents discussed 32 distinct approaches to finding meaning in their child’s death, 14 of which involved sense making, and 18 involved themes of benefit finding. The most common sense-making themes involved spirituality and religious beliefs, and the most common benefit-finding themes entailed an increase in the desire to help and compassion for others’ suffering. These results further reinforce the importance of meaning making for many bereaved parents and suggest the utility of developing and evaluating meaning-centered grief interventions with this population.

A common-sense reasoning system for mechanical engineering

Sokoloski, Aaron M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 64 p.; 2731087 bytes; 2733140 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
ENG
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This thesis describes the Mechnet system, which was created to test an implementation of analogy-based reasoning about mechanical engineering, focusing on tools and machines that would be found in a shop. Mechnet uses common-sense data about how these things are used and what they are made of, and attempts to judge which objects are similar to each other. The goal was to make "sensible" analogies about things, in that they make sense to a human who has experience in this area. Results show some reasonable analogies for many tools and machines entered, but non-sensical analogies in several instances. The problems which cause these non-sensical analogies are discussed and analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvement; and further research into other kinds of common-sense reasoning.; by Aaron M. Sokoloski.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 63-64).

Locating Intergenerational Sense of Self: Intersections of Genealogy with Leisure and Tourism

Higginbotham, Gregory
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
ENG
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Situated at the intersection of leisure and tourism, there is currently a renewed interest and curiosity in ancestral lineages. Focusing on amateur genealogists who pursue, and travel for, a leisure engagement of genealogy, this qualitative research study endeavours to investigate their quests for personal identity and locations of an intergenerational sense of self. With the adoption of a narrative inquiry method, life story interviews were conducted with four amateur genealogists. Findings from an analysis of the narratives have been organized into five core themes, each of which contributes to our understanding of these amateur genealogists’ experiences of leisure and travel. While the amateur genealogists do not acknowledge their leisure engagements as a quest for personal identity, they make use of such engagements to locate an intergenerational sense of self and gain enriched self-understandings. Moreover, by facilitating intersections of genealogy, leisure, and tourism, several key insights are offered that may be of particular interest to scholars in both fields of study.

Fuzzy ideas: using fuzzy logic to make sense of Western art music

Suiter, Wendy
Fonte: The Australian National University Publicador: The Australian National University
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
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Presented for Music Research Seminar, Kingsland Room, Level 6 ANU School of Music. Current musicological practice provides us with a range of procedures for investigating aspects of the construction of particular genres of Western art music, or for understanding typical listener perceptual response patterns. Each method attempts to deal with the problems of subjectivity of the analyst and/or the nature of music as a time-based intangible artform. As a result, conventional methods overlook or simplify aspects of making sense of a complete piece of music as a lived experience. In the late 20th century, computer scientists developed Fuzzy Logic as a way to explicitly incorporate the subjectivity of human problem-solving in environments of imprecision and uncertainty. Avant-garde music is difficult to understand. My thesis is that Fuzzy Logic is an informative way to represent the personal and subjective experience of a piece of avant-garde music as part of analysing how that intangible time-based music makes sense. As a result, Fuzzy Logic can be a constructive tool for making sense of any type of Western art music, composed using any materials, techniques and forms.

Prospective elementary school teachers??? ways of making sense of mathematical problem posing.

Chapman, Olive
Fonte: Grupo de Investigaci??n Did??ctica de la Matem??tica: Pensamiento Num??rico, (FQM-193), Publicador: Grupo de Investigaci??n Did??ctica de la Matem??tica: Pensamiento Num??rico, (FQM-193),
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
ENG
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The study tackled prospective teachers??? sense-making of mathematical problem posing and the impact of posing different contextual problems on their learning. Focus was on the generation of new problems and reformulation of given problems. Participants were 40 prospective elementary teachers. The findings provide insights into possible ways these teachers could make sense of problem posing of contextual mathematical problems and the learning afforded by posing diverse problems. Highlighted are five perspectives and nine categories of problem posing tasks to support development of proficiency in problem-posing knowledge for teaching.; El estudio indag?? sobre los modos en que futuros profesores de primaria dan sentido a la invenci??n de problemas matem??ticos y el impacto de plantear diferentes problemas contextualizados en su aprendizaje. El foco fue la invenci??n de nuevos problemas y la reformulaci??n de otros dados. Los participantes fueron 40 futuros maestros de primaria. Los resultados proporcionan elementos sobre posibles modos en que estos maestros dan sentido a la invenci??n de problemas matem??ticos y el aprendizaje que ofrece plantear diversos problemas. Se destacan cinco perspectivas y nueve categor??as de tareas en la invenci??n de problemas para apoyar el desarrollo de la competencia de plantear problemas en la ense??anza.

“This wasn’t supposed to happen” : making sense of emotions in the face of expectation breach

Berner, Nili
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
EN
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Des recherches antérieures sur les émotions en contexte organisationnel, notamment autour des notions de travail émotionnel, de contrat psychologique et d'équité, ont souvent soulevé la question de la rationalité et du caractère approprié ou non des manifestations émotionnelles, ainsi que sur les mécanismes utilisés pour contrôler et modérer celles-ci. Cependant, peu de recherche empirique a été effectuée sur la façon dont les employés eux-mêmes font sens de leurs émotions au travail et le processus par lequel ils parviennent à rendre celle-ci compréhensibles et légitimes, à la fois pour eux-mêmes et pour autrui. Au cours des dernières années, un courant de recherche émergent tend toutefois à mettre de côté la perspective normative / rationaliste pour soulever ce type de questions. Ainsi, au lieu d'être considérées comme des expériences strictement subjectives, privées, voire inaccessibles, les émotions y sont envisagées à travers les discours et les mises en récits dont elles font l’objet. Les émotions apparaissent ainsi non seulement exprimées dans le langage et la communication, mais construites et négociées à travers eux. La recherche présente développe empiriquement cette perspective émergente...

O sentido espacial das crianças de 3 e 4 anos; The spatial sense of 3 and 4 year old children

Balinha, Ana Filipa Lemos
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2015 POR
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Relatório de estágio de mestrado em Educação Pré-Escolar e Ensino do 1ºCiclo do Ensino Básico; Este relatório procura conhecer que sentido espacial possuem as crianças de 3 e 4 anos, através de algumas explorações para promover o desenvolvimento do mesmo. Além disso, pretende responder às questões: 1. O sentido espacial das crianças melhora com recurso a atividades específicas? 2. Como se caracteriza o sentido espacial das crianças? 3. Que vocabulário específico da geometria aprendem estas crianças? Os participantes deste estudo, realizado numa Instituição Particular de Solidariedade Social no centro de Braga, foram 20 crianças com idades compreendidas entre os 3 e os 4 anos de idade. Tendo sida adotada uma metodologia de caráter qualitativo, com contornos de investigação ação, o projeto contempla 23 tarefas. Comecei por um Teste 1 que avaliava as competências das crianças ao nível do sentido espacial, nomeadamente, das noções espaciais – desenhos e mapas, propriedades das figuras geométricas e resolução de problemas com estas figuras. Seguiram-se momentos de intervenção, com tarefas organizadas em pequenos grupos, em grande grupo, individual e a pares sobre os tópicos mencionados. No final do projeto...

Is the Make-Buy Decision Process a Core Competence?

Fine, Charles H.; Whitney, Daniel E.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Formato: 99783 bytes; application/pdf
EN_US
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Many of today's products are so complex that no single company has all the necessary knowledge about either the product or the required processes to completely design and manufacture them in-house. As a result, most companies are dependent on others for crucial elements of their corporate well-being. Typically, however, companies have some choice as to whom they become dependent upon and for what sorts of skills and competences. That is, although few companies can "do it all," most have significant influence over the strategic choice of corporate identity and what businesses to be in. What is the range of choices they face? How are different companies making those choices? Can we make sense of the variety of decisions we can observe now in different industries or different parts of the world? What are the skills that companies must retain? In this paper we address the challenge of making these choices rationally. We give examples in which similar companies, facing similar choices, select make/buy patterns in very different ways, resulting in very different patterns of interdependencies along companies' supply chains. These choices are not restricted to skills related to the product, but include choices related to key design and manufacturing issues. To make sense of these differences...

Embodiment and sense-making in autism

De Jaegher, Hanne
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/03/2013 EN
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In this article, I sketch an enactive account of autism. For the enactive approach to cognition, embodiment, experience, and social interaction are fundamental to understanding mind and subjectivity. Enaction defines cognition as sense-making: the way cognitive agents meaningfully connect with their world, based on their needs and goals as self-organizing, self-maintaining, embodied agents. In the social realm, the interactive coordination of embodied sense-making activities with others lets us participate in each other's sense-making (social understanding = participatory sense-making). The enactive approach provides new concepts to overcome the problems of traditional functionalist accounts of autism, which can only give a piecemeal and disintegrated view because they consider cognition, communication, and perception separately, do not take embodied into account, and are methodologically individualistic. Applying the concepts of enaction to autism, I show: How embodiment and sense-making connect, i.e., how autistic particularities of moving, perceiving, and emoting relate to how people with autism make sense of their world. For instance, restricted interests or preference for detail will have certain sensorimotor correlates, as well as specific meaning for autistic people.That reduced flexibility in interactional coordination correlates with difficulties in participatory sense-making. At the same time...

Making sense of (exceptional) causal relations. A cross-cultural and cross-linguistic study

Le Guen, Olivier; Samland, Jana; Friedrich, Thomas; Hanus, Daniel; Brown, Penelope
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2015 EN
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36.09%
In order to make sense of the world, humans tend to see causation almost everywhere. Although most causal relations may seem straightforward, they are not always construed in the same way cross-culturally. In this study, we investigate concepts of “chance,” “coincidence,” or “randomness” that refer to assumed relations between intention, action, and outcome in situations, and we ask how people from different cultures make sense of such non-law-like connections. Based on a framework proposed by Alicke (2000), we administered a task that aims to be a neutral tool for investigating causal construals cross-culturally and cross-linguistically. Members of four different cultural groups, rural Mayan Yucatec and Tseltal speakers from Mexico and urban students from Mexico and Germany, were presented with a set of scenarios involving various types of causal and non-causal relations and were asked to explain the described events. Three links varied as to whether they were present or not in the scenarios: Intention-to-Action, Action-to-Outcome, and Intention-to-Outcome. Our results show that causality is recognized in all four cultural groups. However, how causality and especially non-law-like relations are interpreted depends on the type of links...

Making sense of studying physics

Ingerman, Ake; Booth, Shirley
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/01/2004
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With an investigation into how students in a physics Master of science program make sense of their whole first year study experience in one of the years following a programme reform, we try to offer insights and advice to consider when involved in similar changes. We conclude and argue that by trying to support the students' in making sense of their studying in terms of physics and empowering them in their understanding of the nature of physics and their study situation, both the potential for productive, meaningful and positive learning of physics as something which is relevant in the students life, and the way in which the students analyse and make sense of things they encounter, both physically and academically, are advanced.; Comment: 6 pages, presented at the 12th SAARMSTE conference, Cape Town

Making sense of the combined degree experience: the example of criminology double degrees

Wimshurst, Kerry; Manning, Matthew
Fonte: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Carfax Publishing, Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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35.99%
Little research has been undertaken on student experiences of combined degrees. The few studies report that a considerable number of students experienced difficulty with the contrasting epistemic/disciplinary demands of the component programmes. A mixed-methods approach was employed to explore the experiences of graduates from four double degrees that combine criminology with a second degree. While participants experienced epistemological uncertainties, most worked out ways, individually and in groups, to accommodate the tensions associated with combined degree study and to make sense of their experiences. A common means of coping was to enlist the disciplinary perspectives of one field as a lens to make sense of the other. At the same time, participants reported that there was little in the way of curriculum and pedagogical provisions to help them to establish connections between their degrees. As one participant stated, ‘it was all [done] on our own'.

Logical Normativity and Common Sense Reasoning; Logical Normativity and Common Sense Reasoning

Agazzi, Evandro; Department of Philosophy University of Genoa ITALY Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Unidad Cuajimalpa
Fonte: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC Publicador: Federal University of Santa Catarina – UFSC
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 POR
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A lógica, considerada como uma disciplina técnica iniciada por Aristóteles e tipicamente representada pela variedade de cálculos lógicos modernos, constitui um esclarecimento e refinamento de uma convicção e prática presentes no senso comum, ou seja, o fato de que os seres humanos crêem que a verdade pode ser adquirida não apenas por evidência imediata, mas também por meio de argumentos. Como uma primeira aproximação, a lógica pode ser vista como um registro “descritivo” das principais formas de argumento presentes no senso comum, mas o fato de que alguns desses padrões possam realmente permitir a derivação de consequências falsas a partir de premissas verdadeiras impõe a tarefa de tornar explícitos que padrões correspondem a um “raciocínio correto” e quais não. Nesse ponto, a lógica (que contém a apresentação de tais padrões) parece ser dotada de uma característica “normativa”. Isso equivale a dizer se pretende que os cálculos lógicos espelhem adequadamente a noção intuitiva de “consequência lógica” e que nesse sentido eles não podem ser totalmente arbitrários ou convencionais, mas devem satisfazer certos requisitos básicos tais como as condições de correção e (tanto quanto possível) de completude semântica. Em tal forma eles são “julgados” de acordo com os requisitos fundamentais presentes no nível do senso comum e aparecem como “idealizações” das espécies de raciocínio praticadas no senso comum. Por essa razão também vários tipos de cálculos lógicos são inteiramente justificados uma vez que tornam explícitos...

The guys told us crying that they saw how they were killing her and they could not do anything": psychosocial explorations of migrant journeys to the U.S.

Sládková,Jana
Fonte: Psychosocial Intervention Publicador: Psychosocial Intervention
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2014 ENG
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In this article I examine undocumented migrant experiences on their journeys to the U.S. Tens of thousands of Honduran migrants leave their homes in hopes to provide better for their families from afar. In in-depth interviews, 21 migrants from Honduras share the events they endure as they cross Guatemala, Mexico and the borders that divide them. I conducted narrative analyses and specifically used the analytical tools of high points and poises to locate the most salient experiences the migrants narrated as well as identifying particular selves the migrants were presenting. The high points centered around the crossings of the Mexico-U.S. border, encounters with gangs and the police in Mexico, and travels on top of freight trains. Most of these events were highly charged with potential short and long-term effects on the migrants' health. In trying to make sense of their experiences, migrants presented themselves as heroes helping others, victims of the migration systems, good parents, or unaffected bystanders. This research provides insight into the rarely explored psychosocial aspects of undocumented migration, illuminates how Honduran migrants who attempt this journey make sense of their experiences, and proposes interventions to mitigate the potentially tragic consequences of this migration.

'We were not part of apartheid': rationalisations used by four white pre-service teachers to make sense of race and their own racial identities

le Roux,Adré
Fonte: South African Journal of Education Publicador: South African Journal of Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 EN
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Despite fundamental reforms to South African education, large performance gaps still prevail between former black schools and former white schools. Nineteen years into a democracy and education in post-apartheid South Africa still retains a strong racial dimension between poorer communities and more affluent communities. Differential access to power and privilege in post-apartheid South Africa is the logical consequence of a racialised society, and the latter constitutes the context in which pre-service students have to make sense of their racialised subjectivities that ultimately affect their decisions and active agency to bringing about a less polarised society. In this paper, Bonilla-Silva's structural theory of racism is used as a theoretical lens to unpack the rationalisations used by four white pre-service teachers to make sense of race and their own racial identities. By claiming that they were not part of apartheid, the participants use various rationalisations to provide them with information to maintain a belief in white innocence in racism and to disengage them from structural racism.

Making sense of experience in preschool: Children's encounters with numeracy and literacy through inquiry

Henningsen,Marjorie
Fonte: South African Journal of Childhood Education Publicador: South African Journal of Childhood Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2013 EN
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Opening up space for authentic inquiry in preschool can influence the extent to which children can make use of their growing mathematical and linguistic understandings to make sense of themselves and the world around them. Authentic inquiry here refers to investigation that arises naturally from the interests and questions of the children as they experience the learning environment. Three authentic examples are presented from the work of four- to five-year-old children in the domains of mathematics and literacy development to illustrate how the two domains need to be viewed as intertwined at the preschool level. Reflections are also offered on the role of the learning environment, the role of curriculum and the role of teachers and other adults in the learning process. This manuscript is based on a plenary address given in Grahamstown, South Africa at the SARAECE Research and Development week: "Strengthening Foundation Phase Education" conference at Rhodes Universityin September 2012.