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Papel da proteína Mx1 na resposta a interferons e no processo neoplásico

Brantis-de-Carvalho, C. E.; Boldrin, P. E. G.; Silva, W. A.; Rahal, Paula; Tajara, E. H.; Carraro, D. M.; Camargo, A. A.; Zanelli, C. F.; Valentini, S. R.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 287-295
ENG; POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.09%
The Mx1 protein is encoded by an interferon- induced gene and shares domain organization, homooligomerization capacity and membrane association with the large dynamin-like GTPases. The Mx1 protein is involved in the response to a large number of RNA viruses, such as the bunyavirus family and the influenza virus. Interestingly, it has also been found as a methylation-silenced gene in several types of neoplasm, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this scenario, MX1 gene silencing is associated with immortalization in several neoplastic cell lines. Thus, Mx1 stands out as one of the key proteins involved in interferon-induced immune response and also plays an important role in cell cycle control. Here we discuss some of the functions of the Mx1 protein, including its antiviral activity, protein folding and involvement in neoplasia, as well as those revealed by investigating its cellular partners.; A proteína Mx1 é codificada por um gene induzido por interferon e compartilha a organização de seus domínios, a capacidade de homo-oligomerização e associação com membranas com as grandes dinaminas GTPases. A proteína Mx1 está envolvida na resposta contra um grande número de vírus de RNA, como aqueles pertencentes à família Buniavírus e o vírus influenza. Curiosamente...

Busca de parceiros físicos por duplo-híbrido das proteínas ADAM23 e MX1, codificadas por genes metilados em câncer de cabeça e pescoço

Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Brantis de
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 74 f. : il.
POR
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28.06%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Pós-graduação em Biotecnologia - IQ; A metilação de ilhas CpG em regiões regulatórias de vários genes tem sido descrita como um processo importante no silenciamento de genes supressores de tumor e diretamente envolvida no processo de carcinogênese de uma série de tumores. O estudo desses genes afetados pela metilação em tumores visa identificar possíveis marcadores moleculares para o diagnóstico, prognóstico e tratamento de tumores, além de possibilitar a descoberta de fatores importantes no processo biológico do câncer. Neste sentido, ao estudar o perfil diferencial de metilação de genes em carcinomas de células escamosas de cabeça e pescoço, o gene MX1 foi identificado como diferencialmente expresso. Correlação também foi encontrada entre o silenciamento de ADAM23 e estágios tardios da progressão tumoral neste tipo de câncer. Dessa forma, o presente estudo envolveu a identificação de ligantes celulares das proteínas ADAM23 e MX1 por meio de rastreamentos de duplo- híbrido, usando bibliotecas de cDNA de cérebro fetal humano. Inicialmente, foi realizado rastreamento com os domínios desintegrina e rico em cisteína (DIS-ACR) de ADAM23...

Busca de parceiros físicos das proteínas ADAM23 e MX1, utilizando o sistema de duplo híbrido em Saccharomyces cerevisae

Boldrin, Paulo Eduardo Gonçalves
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: 53 f.
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.98%
A metilação de ilhas CpG em regiões regulatórias de vários genes tem sido descrita como um processo importante no silenciamento de genes supressores de tumor e diretamente envolvida no processo de carcinogênese de uma série de tumores. O estudo desses genes afetados pela metilação em tumores visa identificar possíveis marcadores moleculares para o diagnóstico, prognóstico e tratamento de tumores, além de possibilitar a descoberta de fatores importantes no processo biológico do câncer. Os genes MX1 e ADAM23 foram identificados como diferencialmente metilados em linhagens celulares provenientes de carcinoma de cabeça e pescoço. Neste sentido, ao estudar o perfil diferencial de metilação de genes em carcinomas de células escamosas de cabeça e pescoço, o gene MX1 foi identificado como diferencialmente expresso. Dessa forma, para elucidar a função destes genes no controle da carcinogênese, o presente estudo buscou identificar ligantes celulares das proteínas MX1 e ADAM23 por meio de rastreamentos de duplo-híbrido, usando bibliotecas de cDNA de cérebro fetal humano. Os rastreamentos com a proteína ADAM23 não geraram resultados positivos por isso não são aqui discutidos. Foi realizado rastreamento com a proteína MX1...

Mx1-Based Resistance to Thogoto Virus in A2G Mice Is Bypassed in Tick-Mediated Virus Delivery

Dessens, Johannes T.; Nuttall, Patricia A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1998 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
The interferon-induced mouse Mx1 protein has intrinsic antiviral activity against orthomyxoviruses, including Thogoto virus. Thus, Mx1+ A2G mice are apparently resistant to infection following needle- or tick-borne virus challenge. However, tick-borne challenge and, to a lesser degree, injection of virus mixed with tick salivary gland extract resulted in virus transmission to uninfected ticks feeding on the A2G mice. The data indicate that immunomodulatory components in tick saliva can overcome a natural antiviral mechanism.

Tick-borne thogoto virus infection in mice is inhibited by the orthomyxovirus resistance gene product Mx1.

Haller, O; Frese, M; Rost, D; Nuttall, P A; Kochs, G
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1995 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.01%
We show that tick-transmitted Thogoto virus is sensitive to interferon-induced nuclear Mx1 protein, which is known for its specific antiviral action against orthomyxoviruses. Influenza virus-susceptible BALB/c mice (lacking a functional Mx1 gene) developed severe disease symptoms and died within days after intracerebral or intraperitoneal infection with a lethal challenge dose of Thogoto virus. In contrast, Mx1-positive congenic, influenza virus-resistant BALB.A2G-Mx1 mice remained healthy and survived. Likewise, A2G, congenic B6.A2G-Mx1 and CBA.T9-Mx1 mice (derived from influenza virus-resistant wild mice) as well as Mx1-transgenic 979 mice proved to be resistant. Peritoneal macrophages and interferon-treated embryo cells from resistant mice exhibited the same resistance phenotype in vitro. Moreover, stable lines of transfected mouse 3T3 cells that constitutively express Mx1 protein showed increased resistance to Thogoto virus infection. We conclude that an Mx1-sensitive step has been conserved during evolution of orthomyxoviruses and suggest that the Mx1 gene in rodents may serve to combat infections by influenza virus-like arboviruses.

Overexpression of the influenza virus polymerase can titrate out inhibition by the murine Mx1 protein.

Huang, T; Pavlovic, J; Staeheli, P; Krystal, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.78%
The murine Mx1 protein is an interferon-inducible protein which confers selective resistance to influenza virus infection both in vitro and in vivo. The precise mechanism by which the murine Mx1 specifically inhibits replication of influenza virus is not known. Previously, sensitive replication systems for influenza virus ribonucleoprotein, in which a synthetic influenza virus-like ribonucleoprotein is replicated and transcribed by influenza virus proteins provided in trans, have been developed. With these systems, the antiviral activity of the murine Mx1 protein was examined. It was found that continued expression of influenza polymerase polypeptides via vaccinia virus vectors can titrate out the inhibitory action of the murine Mx1 protein. This titration of inhibitory activity also occurs when the viral PB2 protein alone is overexpressed, suggesting that an antiviral target for the murine Mx1 polypeptide is the viral PB2 protein.

Nuclear localization of mouse Mx1 protein is necessary for inhibition of influenza virus.

Zürcher, T; Pavlovic, J; Staeheli, P
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1992 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.98%
The interferon-induced Mx1 protein of mice confers selective resistance to influenza virus. It inhibits viral mRNA synthesis in the nucleus of influenza virus-infected cells. The related human MxA protein is localized in the cytoplasm and can inhibit influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus but not other viruses. MxA blocks a poorly defined cytoplasmic multiplication step of influenza virus that follows primary transcription of the viral genome. We previously showed that nuclear variants of MxA that carry an artificial nuclear translocation signal were also active against influenza virus. However, these variants blocked primary transcription of influenza virus. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether cytoplasmic forms of Mx1 were capable of mimicking the antiviral action of MxA by determining the antiviral activities of mutant mouse Mx1 protein. Cytoplasmic Mx1(E614), which differs from wild-type Mx1 by a single amino acid substitution in its nuclear transport signal, failed to inhibit the multiplication of influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Relocation of Mx1(E614) to the nucleus with the help of the simian virus 40 large T nuclear translocation signal attached to its amino terminus restored the influenza virus-inhibiting activity. Other changes in the carboxy-terminal region of Mx1 also abolished transport to the nucleus and simultaneously abolished antiviral activity. One of these variants...

Thogoto Virus Lacking Interferon-Antagonistic Protein ML Is Strongly Attenuated in Newborn Mx1-Positive but Not Mx1-Negative Mice

Pichlmair, Andreas; Buse, Johanna; Jennings, Stephanie; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg; Staeheli, Peter
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
The Thogoto virus ML protein suppresses interferon synthesis in infected cells. Nevertheless, a virus mutant lacking ML remained highly pathogenic in standard laboratory mice. It was strongly attenuated, however, in mice carrying the interferon-responsive Mx1 gene found in wild mice, demonstrating that enhanced interferon synthesis is protective only if appropriate antiviral effector molecules are present. Our study shows that the virulence-enhancing effects of some viral interferon antagonists may escape detection in conventional animal models.

Replication fitness determines high virulence of influenza A virus in mice carrying functional Mx1 resistance gene

Grimm, Daniel; Staeheli, Peter; Hufbauer, Martin; Koerner, Iris; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Solórzano, Alicia; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Haller, Otto; Kochs, Georg
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.95%
The IFN-induced resistance factor Mx1 is a critical component of innate immunity against influenza A viruses (FLUAV) in mice. Animals carrying a wild-type Mx1 gene (Mx1+/+) differ from regular laboratory mice (Mx1−/−) in that they are highly resistant to infection with standard FLUAV strains. We identified an extraordinary variant of the FLUAV strain, A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) (designated hvPR8), which is unusually virulent in Mx1+/+ mice. hvPR8 was well controlled in Mx1+/+ but not Mx1−/− mice provided that the animals were treated with IFN before infection, indicating that hvPR8 exhibits normal sensitivity to growth restriction by Mx1. hvPR8 multiplied much faster than standard PR8 early in infection because of highly efficient viral gene expression in infected cells. Studies with reassortant viruses containing defined genome segments of both hvPR8 and standard PR8 demonstrated that the HA, neuraminidase, and polymerase genes of hvPR8 all contributed to virulence, indicating that efficient host cell entry and early gene expression renders hvPR8 highly pathogenic. These results reveal a surprisingly simple concept of how influenza viruses may gain virulence and illustrate that high speed of virus growth can outcompete the antiviral response of the infected host.

The Mx1 Gene Protects Mice against the Pandemic 1918 and Highly Lethal Human H5N1 Influenza Viruses▿

Tumpey, Terrence M.; Szretter, Kristy J.; Van Hoeven, Neal; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Kochs, Georg; Haller, Otto; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Staeheli, Peter
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.9%
Mice carrying a wild-type Mx1 gene (Mx1+/+) differ from standard laboratory mice (Mx1−/−) in being highly resistant to infection with common laboratory strains of influenza A virus. We report that Mx1 also protects mice against the pandemic human 1918 influenza virus and a highly lethal human H5N1 strain from Vietnam. Resistance to H5N1 of Mx1+/+ but not Mx1−/− mice was enhanced if the animals were treated with a single dose of exogenous alpha interferon before infection. Thus, the interferon-induced resistance factor Mx1 represents a key component of the murine innate immune system that mediates protection against epidemic and pandemic influenza viruses.

Epigenetic Silencing of CRABP2 and MX1 in Head and Neck Tumors12

Calmon, Marilia F; Rodrigues, Rodrigo V; Kaneto, Carla M; Moura, Ricardo P; Silva, Sabrina D; Mota, Louise Danielle C; Pinheiro, Daniel G; Torres, Cesar; de Carvalho, Alex F; Cury, Patrícia M; Nunes, Fabio D; Nishimoto, Ines Nobuko; Soares, Fernando A; d
Fonte: Neoplasia Press Inc. Publicador: Neoplasia Press Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.38%
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease affecting the epithelium of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Conditions of most patients are diagnosed at late stages of the disease, and no sensitive and specific predictors of aggressive behavior have been identified yet. Therefore, early detection and prognostic biomarkers are highly desirable for a more rational management of the disease. Hypermethylation of CpG islands is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms that leads to gene silencing in tumors and has been extensively used for the identification of biomarkers. In this study, we combined rapid subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis in a hierarchical manner to select genes that are putatively reactivated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC) in HNSCC cell lines (FaDu, UM-SCC-14A, UM-SCC-17A, UM-SCC-38A). This combined analysis identified 78 genes, 35 of which were reactivated in at least 2 cell lines and harbored a CpG island at their 5′ region. Reactivation of 3 of these 35 genes (CRABP2, MX1, and SLC15A3) was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR; fold change, ≥3). Bisulfite sequencing of their CpG islands revealed that they are indeed differentially methylated in the HNSCC cell lines. Using methylation-specific PCR...

Molecular Signatures Associated with Mx1-Mediated Resistance to Highly Pathogenic Influenza Virus Infection: Mechanisms of Survival

Cilloniz, Cristian; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Ni, Chester; Carter, Victoria S.; Korth, Marcus J.; Swayne, David E.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Katze, Michael G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.95%
Understanding the role of host factors during lethal influenza virus infection is critical to deciphering the events that determine the fate of the host. One such factor is encoded by the Mx1 gene, which confers resistance to influenza virus infection. Here, we compared pathology and global gene expression profiles in lung tissue from BALB/c (Mx1−) and BALB · A2G-Mx1 mice (Mx1+/+) infected with the fully reconstructed 1918 pandemic influenza virus. Mx1+/+ mice showed less tissue damage than Mx− animals, and pathology and mortality were further reduced by treating the mice with interferon prior to infection. Using global transcriptional profiling, we identified distinct molecular signatures associated with partial protection, complete protection, and the contribution of interferon to the host response. In the absence of interferon treatment, partial protection was characterized by the generation of an acute response with the upregulation of genes associated with apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and cell migration. Complete protection was characterized by the downregulation of cytokine and chemokine genes previously associated with influenza virus pathogenesis. The contribution of interferon treatment to total protection in virus-infected Mx1+/+ mice was characterized by the altered regulation of cell cycle genes. These genes were upregulated in Mx1+/+ mice treated with interferon but downregulated in the absence of interferon treatment. Our results suggest that Mx1+/+ mice generate a protective antiviral response by controlling the expression of key modulator molecules associated with influenza virus lethality.

Regulation of Interferon-stimulated Gene (ISG)12, ISG15, and MX1 and MX2 by Conceptus Interferons (IFNTs) in Bovine Uterine Epithelial Cells

Kim, Min-Su; Min, Kwan-Sik; Imakawa, Kazuhiko
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.69%
Various endometrial genes in ruminant ungulates are regulated by conceptus interferon tau (IFNT). However, the effect of each IFNT isoform has not been carefully evaluated. In this study, the effects of 2 IFNT isoforms, paralogs found in utero, and interferon alpha (IFNA) on uterine epithelial and Mardin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells were evaluated. Expression vectors of the bovine interferon (bIFNT) genes bIFNT1, bIFNTc1, and bIFNA were constructed, and recombinant bIFNs (rbIFNs) were produced by 293 cells. Bovine uterine epithelial or MDBK cells were cultured in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of each rbIFN for 24, 48, or 72 h. Transcript levels of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) ISG12, ISG15, MX1, and MX2 were analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. These messenger RNAs were up-regulated by rbIFN in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In the epithelial cells, the ISG12 transcript level increased at 48 h after rbIFN treatment but slightly decreased at 72 h, whereas the transcript level of ISG15 increased at 24 h and was maintained through 72 h. Expressions of MX1 and MX2 increased at 72 h after rbIFN treatment. MX1 expression increased in all treatment groups, but MX2 increased only by bIFNTc1. In MDBK cells...

Transfer of the Amino-Terminal Nuclear Envelope Targeting Domain of Human MX2 Converts MX1 into an HIV-1 Resistance Factor

Goujon, Caroline; Moncorgé, Olivier; Bauby, Hélène; Doyle, Tomas; Barclay, Wendy S.; Malim, Michael H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.98%
The myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) protein of humans has been identified recently as an interferon (IFN)-inducible inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that acts at a late postentry step of infection to prevent the nuclear accumulation of viral cDNA (C. Goujon et al., Nature 502:559–562, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12542; M. Kane et al., Nature 502:563–566, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12653; Z. Liu et al., Cell Host Microbe 14:398–410, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2013.08.015). In contrast, the closely related human MX1 protein, which suppresses infection by a range of RNA and DNA viruses (such as influenza A virus [FluAV]), is ineffective against HIV-1. Using a panel of engineered chimeric MX1/2 proteins, we demonstrate that the amino-terminal 91-amino-acid domain of MX2 confers full anti-HIV-1 function when transferred to the amino terminus of MX1, and that this fusion protein retains full anti-FluAV activity. Confocal microscopy experiments further show that this MX1/2 fusion, similar to MX2 but not MX1, can localize to the nuclear envelope (NE), linking HIV-1 inhibition with MX accumulation at the NE. MX proteins are dynamin-like GTPases, and while MX1 antiviral function requires GTPase activity...

Production of transgenic pigs over-expressing the antiviral gene Mx1

Yan, Quanmei; Yang, Huaqiang; Yang, Dongshan; Zhao, Bentian; Ouyang, Zhen; Liu, Zhaoming; Fan, Nana; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Gu, Weiwang; Lai, Liangxue
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.95%
The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1) has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15–25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV). Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed a profound decrease of influenza A proliferation in Mx1 transgenic cells. Growth kinetics showed an approximately 10-fold reduction of viral copies in the transgenic cells compared to non-transgenic controls. Additionally, we found that the Mx1 transgenic cells were more resistant to CSFV infection in comparison to non-transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that the Mx1 transgene can protect against viral infection in cells of transgenic pigs and indicate that the Mx1 transgene can be harnessed to develop disease-resistant pigs.

The Impact of IL28B Genotype and Liver Fibrosis on the Hepatic Expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 and Their Association with Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

Domagalski, Krzysztof; Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Kozielewicz, Dorota; Dybowska, Dorota; Tretyn, Andrzej; Halota, Waldemar
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/06/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.69%
The strong impact of interleukin 28B (IL28B) polymorphisms on sustained virological response (SVR) after peginterferon and ribavirin treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is well-known. We investigated IL28B variability and hepatic expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 in CHC patients, the relation of each with their clinical characteristics, and how they associated with responses to combined therapy. Genotyping and gene expression analysis were conducted in a selected cohort of treatment-naïve patients who underwent interferon and ribavirin treatment. Differential expression of IP10, IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 genes was assessed from pretreatment liver biopsies using quantitative PCR. Histopathological evaluation of liver specimens was performed on the basis of the Scheuer’s modified scale. We showed that hepatic IFI27, ISG15, and MX1 expression was lower in the IL28B CC 12979860 and TT rs8099917 groups than in the CT-TT rs12979860 and TG-GG rs8099917 groups (P < 0.001). We found no differences in IP10 expression between the IL28B genotypes (P > 0.05); in contrast, IP10 expression was significantly affected by the progression of fibrosis (P = 0.007). We showed that the rs12979860 CC genotype was associated with successful treatment when compared to the rs12979860 CT-TT genotype (P = 0.004). Additionally...

Protection from Severe Influenza Virus Infections in Mice Carrying the Mx1 Influenza Virus Resistance Gene Strongly Depends on Genetic Background

Shin, Dai-Lun; Hatesuer, Bastian; Bergmann, Silke; Nedelko, Tatiana; Schughart, Klaus
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/07/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.95%
Influenza virus infections represent a serious threat to human health. Both extrinsic and intrinsic factors determine the severity of influenza. The MX dynamin-like GTPase 1 (Mx1) gene has been shown to confer strong resistance to influenza A virus infections in mice. Most laboratory mouse strains, including C57BL/6J, carry nonsense or deletion mutations in Mx1 and thus a nonfunctional allele, whereas wild-derived mouse strains carry a wild-type Mx1 allele. Congenic C57BL/6J (B6-Mx1r/r) mice expressing a wild-type allele from the A2G mouse strain are highly resistant to influenza A virus infections, to both mono- and polybasic subtypes. Furthermore, in genetic mapping studies, Mx1 was identified as the major locus of resistance to influenza virus infections. Here, we investigated whether the Mx1 protective function is influenced by the genetic background. For this, we generated a congenic mouse strain carrying the A2G wild-type Mx1 resistance allele on a DBA/2J background (D2-Mx1r/r). Most remarkably, congenic D2-Mx1r/r mice expressing a functional Mx1 wild-type allele are still highly susceptible to H1N1 virus. However, pretreatment of D2-Mx1r/r mice with alpha interferon protected them from lethal infections. Our results showed, for the first time...

Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5α expression in PBMC

Aamer, Hadega A; Rajakumar, Premeela; Nyaundi, Julia; Murphey-Corb, Michael
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.57%
Background: At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5α, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFNγ in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results: Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (≥6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5α and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5α levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma...

Interferon-Inducible Protein Mx1 Inhibits Influenza Virus by Interfering with Functional Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complex Assembly

Verhelst, Judith; Parthoens, Eef; Schepens, Bert; Fiers, Walter; Saelens, Xavier
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2012 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.06%
Mx1 is a GTPase that is part of the antiviral response induced by type I and type III interferons in the infected host. It inhibits influenza virus infection by blocking viral transcription and replication, but the molecular mechanism is not known. Polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) and nucleoprotein (NP) were suggested to be the possible target of Mx1, but a direct interaction between Mx1 and any of the viral proteins has not been reported. We investigated the interplay between Mx1, NP, and PB2 to identify the mechanism of Mx1's antiviral activity. We found that Mx1 inhibits the PB2-NP interaction, and the strength of this inhibition correlated with a decrease in viral polymerase activity. Inhibition of the PB2-NP interaction is an active process requiring enzymatically active Mx1. We also demonstrate that Mx1 interacts with the viral proteins NP and PB2, which indicates that Mx1 protein has a direct effect on the viral ribonucleoprotein complex. In a minireplicon system, avian-like NP from swine virus isolates was more sensitive to inhibition by murine Mx1 than NP from human influenza A virus isolates. Likewise, murine Mx1 displaced avian NP from the viral ribonucleoprotein complex more easily than human NP. The stronger resistance of the A/H1N1 pandemic 2009 virus against Mx1 also correlated with reduced inhibition of the PB2-NP interaction. Our findings support a model in which Mx1 interacts with the influenza ribonucleoprotein complex and interferes with its assembly by disturbing the PB2-NP interaction.

Inactivation of the Progesterone Receptor in Mx1+ Cells Potentiates Osteogenesis in Calvaria but Not in Long Bone

Zhong, Zhendong A.; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Lane, Nancy E.; Yao, Wei
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
28.06%
The effect of progesterone on bone remains elusive. We previously reported that global progesterone receptor (PR) knockout mice displayed high bone mass phenotype, suggesting that PR influences bone growth and modeling. Recently, Mx1+ cells were characterized to be mesenchymal stem cell-like pluripotent Cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the PR in Mx1+ cells regulates osteogenesis. Using the Mx1-Cre;mT/mG reporter mouse model, we found that the calvarial cells exhibited minimal background Mx1-Cre activity prior to Cre activation by IFNα treatment as compared to the bone marrow stromal cells. IFNα treatment significantly activated Mx1-Cre in the calvarial cells. When the PR gene was deleted in the Mx1-Cre;PR-flox calvarial cells in vitro, significantly higher levels of expression of osteoblast maturation marker genes (RUNX2, Osteocalcin, and Dmp1) and osteogenic potential were detected. The PR-deficient calvariae exhibited greater bone volume, especially in the males. Although Mx1-Cre activity could be induced on the bone surface in vivo, the Mx1+ cells did not differentiate into osteocytes in long bones. Bone volumes at the distal femurs and the bone turnover marker serum Osteocalcin were similar between the Mx1-Cre;PR-flox mutant mice and the corresponding wild types in both sexes. In conclusion...