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Sustainable Energy for All 2013-2014 : Global Tracking Framework

World Bank; International Energy Agency
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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46.24%
In declaring 2012 the international year of sustainable energy for all, the United Nations (UN) general assembly (2011) established at the personal initiative of the UN secretary general- three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030. Those goals are to ensure universal access to modern energy services (including electricity and clean, modern cooking solutions), to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency, and to double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. Some 70 countries have formally embraced the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative, while numerous corporations and agencies have pledged tens of billions of dollars to achieve its objectives. As 2012 drew to a close, the UN general assembly announced a decade of sustainable energy for all stretching from 2014 to 2024. Sustaining momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives will require a means of charting global progress over the years leading to 2030. Construction of the necessary framework has been coordinated by the World Bank and Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the International Energy Agency (IEA)...

Mongolia : Heating Stove Market Trends in Poor, Peri-Urban Ger Areas of Ulaanbaatar and Selected Markets Outside Ulaanbaatar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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25.91%
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia is the coldest capital of the world and remains one of its most polluted. Coal and wood burning for heating are essential for survival but contribute about 60 percent of the fine particulate (PM2.5) concentrations in the city. These levels of exposure are very harmful to health and exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards many-fold. The heating appliances causing the pollution are both traditional stoves that have been used for generations and, increasingly, coal fired stove furnaces used by wealthier households. The overwhelming majority of households in the ger areas (informal settlements surrounding the city), however, are poor, and the population continues to grow as job prospects in Ulaanbaatar attract more migrants. The World Bank estimates that a reduction of 80 percent of emissions from ger area heating could achieve a 48 percent reduction in population weighted exposure to PM2.5. To achieve this, poor households need to be convinced to permanently switch to less polluting heating solutions...

Tracking Access to Nonsolid Fuel for Cooking

Ghosh Banerjee, Sudeshna; Portale, Elisa; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Bonjour, Sophie
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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56.19%
The World Health Organization estimates that in 2012 about 4.3 million deaths occurred because of exposure to household air pollution caused by smoke from the incomplete combustion of fuels such as wood, coal, and kerosene. Inefficient energy use in the home also poses substantial risks to safety, causing burns and injuries across the developing world. To support the achievement of these goals, a starting point must be set, indicators developed, and a framework established to track those indicators until 2030. The World Bank and International Energy Agency have led a consortium of 15 international agencies to produce data on access to nonsolid fuel for the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework. Launched in 2013, the framework defines access to modern cooking solutions is as the use of nonsolid fuels for the primary method of cooking. Nonsolid fuels include (i) liquid fuels (for example, kerosene, ethanol, or other biofuels), (ii) gaseous fuels (such as natural gas, LPG, and biogas), and (iii) electricity. These are in contrast to solid fuels such as (i) traditional biomass (wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and dung), (ii) processed biomass (pellets, briquettes); and (iii) other solid fuels (such as coal and lignite).

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN_US
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16%
Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

Results-Based Aid in the Energy Sector : An Analytical Guide

Vivid Economics; Savedoff, William
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
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15.83%
Results-based approaches (RBA) are becoming increasingly important, in both developed and developing countries. Within the energy sector, there are already several large-scale results-based schemes that make payments to implementers and service providers. However, support to national or regional governments based on the achievement of results in the energy sector remains unusual. This report seeks to explore the opportunity of utilizing RBA within the energy sector. It complements earlier work by vivid economics and the energy sector management assistance program (ESMAP) on results-based financing (RBF). The report constitutes one output in a broader research agenda on RBAs in the energy sector being undertaken by ESMAP of the World Bank. This report is intended to provide a high-level guide to results-based aid in the energy sector. It should be useful for a wide range of interested parties, including recipients, donor agencies, development practitioners, and academics. By providing a clear and justified analytical framework...

The State of the Global Clean and Improved Cooking Sector

Putti, Venkata Ramana; Tsan, Michael; Mehta, Sumi; Kammila, Srilata
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The global clean and improved cooking solutions sector has evolved significantly in recent years. Clean and improved cooking solutions are also beginning to generate attractive market opportunities for local and international private enterprises in the provision of cooking appliances, fuels, and financing. This report covers all clean and improved cooking solutions that can improve on the fuel efficiency and emissions performance of traditional cooking technologies such as the three stone fire, open U-shaped clay or mud stoves, metal bucket charcoal stoves, and unvented coal stoves. Under the definition of improved cooking solutions the report includes all cook stoves that improve fuel efficiency without reducing particulate matter emissions to the low levels necessary for optimal health and environmental outcomes as defined by World Health Organization (WHO) household air pollution guidelines and the International Standards Organization International Workshop Agreement (ISO IWA) guidelines for improved cook stoves. The objectives of this report are threefold: (1) establish a common fact base for sector analysis; (2) build a case for increased sector focus and investment; and (3) inform intervention strategies. The information provided in this report constitutes a best-effort attempt to harmonize definitions and data sources to give a comprehensive picture of the overall sector landscape...

Results-Based Financing to Promote Clean Stoves

Zhang, Yabei; Adams, Norma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Journal Article
EN_US
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Past market failures to deliver clean cooking and heating solutions, especially to low-income households, suggest the continued need for subsidies if universal access is to be achieved. To succeed, however, subsidies must be well-targeted, have low potential for “leakage,” and be calibrated to avoid destroying commercial incentives and discipline. Results-based financing, which disburses public resources against demonstrated results, can be used to mobilizeand sustain private-sector participation in scaling up access to clean stoves. Pilots implementing this approach under the World Banks Clean Stove Initiative show promising results.

Clean and Improved Cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.26%
Evidence from the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) survey on the global burden of disease shows that nearly 600,000 Africans die annually and millions more suffer from chronic illnesses caused by air pollution from inefficient and dangerous traditional cooking fuels and stoves. This tragic and avoidable first-order public health crisis disproportionately harms women and children. Moreover, cooking with wood, charcoal, crop waste, dung, coal, and potentially dangerous and polluting modern fuels, such as kerosene, also imposes tremendous direct costs on economies and households in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and contributes to a wide range of negative environmental and climate change effects.This overview report, prepared in support of the World Bank’s Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES) initiative, builds on earlier reports from the World Bank and the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC). The report establishes a baseline for the SSA cooking landscape and offers an overview of emerging opportunities to encourage increased investment in clean and improved cooking businesses across the region. This report covers the full range of clean and improved cooking solutions in SSA that can enhance the fuel efficiency and emissions performance of traditional technologies...

Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Bangladesh

Sadeque, Zubair; Rysankova, Dana; Elahi, Raihan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
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This knowledge note is the second of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Since its inception in 2003, Bangladesh's solar home system program has installed about three million electrification systems in rural households, two-thirds of them in the last three years. The program is the most dynamic off-grid electrification program in the world, benefitting more than 15 million people and contributing about 130 MW in renewable energy generation capacity. The case study for Bangladesh is interesting, because off-grid electrification is crucial to reaching universal access. Achieving universal access to modern energy services is one of the three complementary objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) initiative. Bangladesh's rural electrification program was initiated in 1977 with the creation of the Rural Electrification Board (REB). Yet, it was estimated that at the prevailing pace of grid electrification, Bangladesh was going to take 50 years to reach universal access. By 2002...

Indonesia : Toward Universal Access to Clean Cooking

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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46.46%
Indonesia's household cooking fuels have undergone a dramatic shift in recent years, owing primarily to the government's highly successful Kerosene-to- Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Conversion Program; yet the impact in poorer rural areas has been limited. Switching to LPG, electricity, and other modern fuels would be the most effective way to achieve clean cooking solutions, but these fuels are expensive, requiring costly stoves and delivery infrastructure that are beyond reach for most rural households. By contrast, many types of biomass can be freely collected from the local environment or purchased for significantly less than other fuels. Thus, large-scale fuel switching in rural areas is unlikely to occur until rural economies become substantially more developed. This means that an estimated 40 percent of households will continue to rely on traditional biomass energy, especially fuel wood, to meet their daily cooking needs for years to come. This report is structured according to the directional organization of the study. Chapter two presents an overview of household cooking fuels in Indonesia...

Baseline and Feasibility Assessment for Alternative Cooking Fuels in Senegal

Practical Action Consulting; Enda; World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.31%
This report was prepared by Practical Action Consulting for the Africa Clean Cooking Energy Solutions (ACCES) initiative of the World Bank. Most of Sub-Saharan Africa continues to rely overwhelmingly on traditional fuels and cooking technologies, both of which are a major cause of death and illness as well as a range of socio-economic and environmental problems. More than 90 per cent of the rural population of Senegal relies on solid fuels (charcoal and firewood in particular, but also dung and agricultural residues) to meet its household cooking needs. The primary objective of this study is, (a) to establish a baseline for the current level of penetration of four alternative cooking fuels in Senegal in a number of pre-identified regions, and (b) to assess the feasibility of adopting them in those regions. The four fuels are briquettes from charcoal dust and agricultural residues; ethanol, mainly from sugar cane residue (that is, molasses); pure plant oil (PPO) from locally grown, oil-bearing plants such as Jatropha curcas; and a household biogas system using mainly livestock waste. Against this background...

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
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26%
Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest countries. Nearly 80 percent of the nation's 140 million people reside in rural areas; of these, 20 percent live in extreme poverty. Geographically, many low-lying areas are vulnerable to severe flooding, while other regions are prone to drought, erosion, and soil salinity. Such an unfavorable agricultural landscape, combined with mismanagement of natural resources and increasing population pressure, is pushing many of the rural poor to the brink. Because Bangladesh is such a poor country, it also is one of the world's lowest energy producers. Total annual energy supply is only about 150 liters of oil equivalent per capita (International Energy Agency, or IEA 2003); in rural areas, conditions are even worse. Compared to other developing countries, Bangladesh uses little modern energy. Despite its successful rural electrification program, close to two-thirds of households remain without electricity and, with the exception of kerosene, commercial fuels are beyond reach for many. Moreover...

Restoring Balance : Bangladesh's Rural Energy Realities

Asaduzzaman, M.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
15.92%
This study, the first to concentrate on Bangladesh's energy systems and their effects on the lives of rural people, drew on these background studies, as well as other World Bank-financed research on IAP and rural infrastructure, to present a rural energy strategy for the country. The study's broad aim was to identify ways to improve the living standard in rural Bangladesh through better and more efficient use of energy, while creating an environment conducive to growth and poverty reduction. For any developing country, the crux of a rural energy strategy is to have more and better choices for meeting rural demand for energy through market mechanisms and sound policy. This goes hand in hand with the development of competent implementing institutions, which are critical to the process. Also important are new supply- and demand side technologies that can be used to raise rural people's welfare and improve productivity to increase growth prospects. Accordingly, the rural energy strategy advocated by this study aims to satisfy the types of demand that increase household welfare and raise rural growth prospects as energy becomes a direct input into the production process.

Energy Strategy for Rural India : Evidence from Six States

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.22%
The fieldwork for this report consisted of a household energy survey of households living in 180 villages in six states (Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan and West Bengal). The report was initiated in response to concerns that energy strategies for rural India were not progressing toward modern energy use.It examines energy use, including renewable energy, to determine if households in rural areas have access to modern forms of energy use. In addition, analysis and recommendations are targeted toward poor households, who spend a significant proportion of their time and income on energy. Despite urbanization, 74 percent of India (some 120 million households) reside in rural areas, villagers still depend on traditional fuels to meet their energy needs. Fuelwood, crop residues, dung and other traditional fuels, as presently used, have inherent disadvantages: collection is arduous and time-consuming; combustion is difficult to control; and cooking captures a fraction of these fuels' available energy. Today...

China : Accelerating Household Access to Clean Cooking and Heating

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
The China Clean Stove Initiative (CSI), a collaborative effort of the Chinese government and the World Bank, aims to scale up access to clean cooking and heating stoves for poor, primarily rural households, who are likely to continue using solid fuels beyond 2030. More than half of China's population still relies on solid fuels (coal and biomass) for cooking and heating; many of these households, located mainly in rural areas, are likely to continue using solid fuels in the near future. Switching to modern energy alternatives would be the most effective way to achieve clean cooking and heating solutions and should be encouraged; yet such fuels are more expensive than solid fuels, requiring more costly stoves and delivery infrastructure. Effective strategies to scale up the dissemination of clean burning, fuel-efficient stoves for household cooking and heating can mitigate the health hazards associated with the burning of solid fuels. It is estimated that Household Air Pollution (HAP) from solid fuel use results in more than a million premature deaths each year in China. Scaled-up access to clean and efficient stoves is consistent with China's strategy to promote energy conservation...

Clean Stove Initiative Forum Proceedings, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, March 18, 2013

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.53%
The East Asia and Pacific (EAP) clean stove initiative (CSI) forum is part of the World Bank's EAP CSI regional program, which focuses on achieving access to modern cooking and heating solutions in the EAP region, particularly through the scaled-up access to advanced cooking and heating stoves for poor, primarily rural households, who are likely to continue using solid fuels to meet their cooking and heating needs beyond 2030. The objectives of the EAP CSI forum are twofold. The first is to share results from implementing the first phase of the CSI, including reports on initial stocktaking activities in the four participating countries and the intervention strategies. The second is to promote collaboration, learning, and knowledge-sharing as the country initiatives move into their second phase. Market forces and mechanisms are powerful tools for ensuring a sustainable supply of clean cooking stoves and should be harnessed in a way that helps the private sector develop, market, and deliver modern cooking solutions. Thus...

One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
76.63%
The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...