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Segmentação e modelagem comportamental de usuários dos serviços de transporte urbano brasileiros.; Segmentation and behaviour modelling of brazilian urban transport users.

Paiva Junior, Humberto de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/11/2006 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.03%
O princípio da sobrevivência de qualquer "negócio" é o entendimento das necessidades ou desejos dos consumidores de bens ou serviços. O sucesso de bens tangíveis depende do atendimento às especificações do mercado consumidor quanto à forma, função, durabilidade, segurança, disponibilidade, status e preço. Quanto aos serviços, os fatores para satisfação do consumidor são mais difusos e difíceis de serem mensurados e interpretados. O transporte público distingue-se dos demais serviços por ser um fator que possibilita ao consumidor desempenhar suas atividades sociais como, trabalho, educação, saúde, entretenimento, atividades culturais ou simplesmente o consumo de outros produtos e serviços. A atenção do consumidor não está diretamente focada no serviço de transporte sendo despertada somente quando algo não está funcionando adequadamente. Outra característica de distinção é a sua multiplicidade de serviços e clientes. Cada origem e destino, cada itinerário, horário ou modo constituem um serviço singular para um tipo de usuário que desempenha atividades sociais singulares. Em tais circunstâncias, a pesquisa de opinião apresenta-se como um meio útil para entender o consumo de transporte. Existem diversas experiências de aplicação de pesquisas de opinião de usuários de serviços de transporte público. Essas experiências foram bem sucedidas na reunião e descrição analítica da opinião dos usuários...

Public Transport Subsidies and Affordability in Mumbai, India

Cropper, Maureen; Bhattacharya, Soma
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.2%
This paper describes the role of public transport and the nature and incidence of transport subsidies in Mumbai, India. Mumbai has an extensive rail and bus network, and public transport is used for over 75 percent of all motorized trips in Greater Mumbai. Both rail and bus fares in Mumbai are subsidized: BEST, which operates public buses in Mumbai, is also an electric utility, and subsidizes bus fares from electricity revenues. We analyze the incidence of these subsidies, and their effect on mode choice, using data from a survey of households in Greater Mumbai. In Mumbai, as in many cities, the middle class is more likely to use public transport for travel than the poor. The poor, however, also use public transit, and their expenditure on public transit constitutes, on average, a larger share of their income than it does for the middle class. It is, therefore, the case that the poor benefit from transit subsidies in Mumbai, as well as the middle and upper-middle classes; however, the poorest 27 percent of the population receives only 19 percent of bus subsidies and 15.5 percent of rail subsidies. Indeed...

A Framework for Urban Transport Benchmarking

Henning, Theuns; Essakali, Mohammed Dalil; Oh, Jung Eun
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.23%
This report summarizes the findings of a study aimed at exploring key elements of a benchmarking framework for urban transport. Unlike many industries where benchmarking has proven to be successful and straightforward, the multitude of the actors and interactions involved in urban transport systems may make benchmarking a complex endeavor. It was therefore important to analyze what has been done so far, propose basic benchmarking elements and test them, and identify lessons for a simple and sustainable urban transport benchmarking framework. A major component of this study was to investigate (a) the availability of data for benchmarking and (b) the value of benchmarking on the basis of limited data. The study therefore proposes a benchmarking framework for urban transport, focusing on the performance of public transport. Because the design of a benchmarking framework depends on the objectives sought from it, the study focused on the performance of public transport systems from the policymaker s perspective. The study included pilot application of the proposed framework in five cities from three continents Beijing...

Greater Cairo : A Proposed Urban Transport Strategy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.22%
The objective of the urban transport strategy note (UTSN) is to provide an assessment of the urban transport system in Greater Cairo (GC), identify what now appear to be the most pressing urban transport problems, and framework for urgent policy actions and investment priorities that would be the basis of a formal transport strategy to be adopted and implemented by the authorities of the metropolitan area of Cairo. This note is essentially based on a thorough review of the 2002 Urban Transportation Master Plan for GC and a rapid analysis of the current conditions and performance of the urban transport system. This note includes nine chapters. The first chapter provides a quick overview of the current situation of the UT in GC. In chapter two, present the main guiding principles and key components of the proposed strategy to prepare the ground for the following chapters. Chapter three to nine elaborate on the issues and policy recommendations for each of the components of the strategy: organization and operation of public transport systems (chapter three)...

Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions Generated by the Transport Sector in ECA : Policy Options

Monsalve, Carolina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.36%
Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) generated from transport are among the fastest growing in Europe and in the Europe and Central Asia (ECA) region, posing a challenge in creating a low-carbon future, as economic development has been paralleled with a modal share increasingly dominated by roads.1 This modal shift, as in the European Union (EU), has been driven by a number of factors, including growing affluence, suburbanization, and falling land use densities in urban areas, which have translated into more widespread vehicle ownership, increasing trip numbers and lengths, while reducing the financial viability of public transport and non-motorized transport. This paper begins by reviewing recent trends in transport and GHG emission trends in the ECA region, using trends in the EU-15 and EU-27 as comparators.8 Subsequently, it will provide an overview of climate friendly transport policies for the road, rail, and air transport modes, before presenting some land transport success stories and then turning to a discussion on how to use revenues generated from pricing policy instruments. The objective is to provide a menu of policy options to improve the functioning of the transport sector in ECA...

Review of the Urban Transport Sector in the Russian Federation : Transition to Long-Term Sustainability

Oh, JungEun; Gwilliam, Kenneth
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.08%
Russian cities are undergoing critical economic and social changes that affect the performance and condition of their urban transport systems. While the population of most large cities in Russia (over one million residents) has remained relatively unchanged over the last decade, the average income of the urban dwellers has sharply increased. The number of private cars per capita has increased rapidly, generating a demand for urban mobility which is increasingly difficult to meet. This review of the urban transport sector in the Russian Federation (the Review, hereafter) aims to assess the current condition and performance of urban transport systems in medium-to-large size Russian cities and to identify key issues and underlying causes. The review principally covers software of urban transport in the secondary cities of Russia, including institutional arrangements, legal and regulatory issues, operation of public transport systems, traffic management, and parking, and less extensively hardware aspects, such as construction of road network.

Urban Transport for Development : Towards an Operationally-Oriented Strategy

Mitric, Slobodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.28%
This paper arose from the perception that a gap existed between the practice of project design and the formal Bank strategies for transport and urban sectors as stated in the cited reports. Formal strategies tend to be too general to be linked meaningfully to project designs. The paper in hand attempts to close this gap by putting forward a different, operationally-oriented concept of urban transport strategy and derives one such strategy from a review of recent Bank-funded projects. The term "operationally-oriented" means that the strategy is expressed in terms of objectives, policies, institutions and investments, mimicking the structure common to all individual projects. Projects on which the paper is based date from the last 15 years. They exhibit a wide diversity of features, reflecting inherited local conditions, the nature and rhythms of socio-economic changes underway, and the vintage of client-Bank relations. Yet, a strong central tendency is also evident, amounting to a coherent and robust approach. The core strategy...

A Framework for Urban Transport Projects : Operational Guidance for World Bank Staff

Mitric, Slobodan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.34%
This paper starts with a brief perspective on urban transport in developing countries, followed by a detailed presentation of an overall framework for making projects in this sector. Additional details on cities and projects used as case studies are given in the accompanying tables. The challenge for the Bank is to assist client cities in providing transport infrastructure and services that respond to demographic, spatial and economic growth in ways that balance the many different competing interests. Reflecting the importance that poverty and environmental factors are given in its development lending, the key strategic goal of the Bank is to protect and nurture public transport services and non-motorized transport modes, with underlying meta-objectives of equity and sustainability. In the policy dimension, the following approach features: (i) the equitable allocation of existing/new street space to protect and nurture public transport, and non-motorized modes; (ii) a for-the market rather than in the market...

Affordability of Public Transport in Developing Countries

Carruthers, Robin; Dick, Malise; Saurkar, Anuja
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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66.08%
The analysis reported here was prompted by a realization that there was little reliable and consistent information on what proportion of household income is spent on urban public transport. The information available uses inconsistent definitions of what costs are included and how income is measured, making comparisons between cities difficult. The authors report here on about a dozen studies that have addressed the issue of affordability. Though different measures are used in different countries, making it difficult to compare the results between cities, from the studies in South America, South Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, Africa, East Asia and Australasia summarized here, the authors make clear that the affordability of urban transport is considered an issue of importance throughout the developing world. There is also evidence that the high cost of urban transport is having a negative impact on the lives of the urban poor - either through restricting their access to jobs that are within feasible walking or cycling distance...

Developing the Public Transport Sector in China

Gwilliam, Ken
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
66.1%
The focus of this discussion paper is on institutional arrangements for the provision of public transport bus services, including the introduction of private capital in bus operations, the value of competitive tendering mechanisms as a determining factor in selecting suppliers, and the role of regulation. The purpose of this paper is to assist Chinese municipalities by describing the experience of other countries that have attempted to implement similar reforms, which may be considered relevant to China. The goal of this paper is to assist interested municipalities, the Ministry of Construction, and other relevant Chinese authorities to: 1) identify models of regulation and competition for the urban bus industry, based on the experience of Chinese and international practices, which are best, suited for the current and projected future of the urban bus industry in China; and 2) provide guidance for municipalities that are considering restructuring their bus industries.

Carbon Price Efficiency : Lock-in and Path Dependence in Urban Forms and Transport Infrastructure

Avner, Paolo; Rentschler, Jun; Hallegatte, Stéphane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.33%
This paper investigates the effect of carbon or gasoline taxes on commuting-related CO2 emissions in an urban context. To assess the impact of public transport on the efficiency of the tax, the paper investigates two exogenous scenarios using a dynamic urban model (NEDUM-2D) calibrated for the urban area of Paris: (i) a scenario with the current dense public transport infrastructure, and (ii) a scenario without. It is shown that the price elasticity of CO2 emissions is twice as high in the short run if public transport options exist. Reducing commuting-related emissions thus requires lower (and more acceptable) tax levels in the presence of dense public transportation. If the goal of a carbon or gasoline tax is to change behaviors and reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions (not to raise revenues), then there is an incentive to increase the price elasticity through complementary policies such as public transport development. The emission elasticity also depends on the baseline scenario and is larger when population growth and income growth are high. In the longer run...

Formulating an Urban Transport Policy : Choosing between Options

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.09%
As the developing world rapidly urbanizes, the demands on transport systems also grow often at a faster pace than the population. Given the above tendency, an effective and coordinated approach to urban transport requires that sound policies be put into place. Such policies enunciate the direction that a government wants to take; they lay the basic framework for downstream planning as well as project identification and prioritization. This document policy lays out the guiding principles for more detailed downstream planning. The objective of this guideline is to improve mobility, environmental quality, universal access, safety, and energy security of any urban transport policy. This guidebook is intended to be a practical support for formulating urban transport policies at the national, provincial, and local levels. To this end, it highlights some of the important issues that arise when creating an urban transport policy. The report is organized as follows: section one gives introduction. Section two presents a framework of possible actions...

Toward Sustainable and Energy Efficient Urban Transport

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
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56.08%
Many cities of developing countries are experiencing rapid growth of motorized transportation. This is leading to severe congestion, which, in turn, is reducing productivity. Road accidents have been increasing. Transport emissions have become a major contributor to severe air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. The main cause of these problems has been the increasing preference for personal motor vehicles for commuting to work and getting around the city. In many countries, urban development practices have worked in favor of such preference, leading to urban sprawl. Thus, remedial measures have to focus on reversing the preference for such modes of travel, shifting to public transport, cycling, or walking, and building and retrofitting cities to minimize the need for private automobiles. The objective of this guidance note is to present a systematic, practical, and comprehensive approach to dealing with the problems of urban transport. It outlines a framework of possible interventions and demonstrates how such interventions relate to the overall objectives of improving mobility and energy efficiency as well as reducing air pollution and road accidents. Thereafter...

A Gender Assessment of Mumbai's Public Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Women in Development and Gender Study; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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66.09%
This report provides: a high-level understanding on women's travel patterns that builds the foundation for understanding the ways in which they use public transport and the degree to which this is met by the public transport systems; and a first-cut view on women's priorities in public transport and potential ideas for addressing them. The purpose of this report is to initiate a dialog on these questions and begin to develop a picture of the role transport currently plays in women's lives with an understanding of the further role it can play, given women's specific needs. This study was carried out in Mumbai. Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra and is the commercial and entertainment capital of India. Throughout this report the authors has used the term 'women' to refer to women and girls above the age of 16 as several of our survey respondents are students between the ages of 17 and 21. However, there is a need for a deeper understanding of the public transport needs of school- children; many of them use public transport to go to better schools that are father away from their homes. The study was on public buses and trains...

Cities on the Move : A World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review; Villes en mouvement: la strategie de transport urbain de la Banque mondiale Cidades em movimento: estrategia de transporte urbano do Banco mundial Ciudades en movimento: revision de la estrategia de transporte urbano del Banco mundial

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.07%
The report's objectives are i) to better understand the nature and magnitude of urban transport problems, particularly in respect of the poor, and ii) to articulate a strategy by which the World Bank and other agencies can assist national and city governments to address these problems. The first part of the report considers how urban transport can be used as an instrument of urban development and poverty reduction. Chapter 2 discusses how transport reduces poverty. Chapter 3 examines how urban transport policies can be focused more specifically on meeting the needs of the poor but touches on other transport related aspects of the quality of life of poor people. Chapter 4 considers the urban environment, focusing on air pollution to which the poor are particularly vulnerable, while Chapter 5 considers problems of personal safety and security. The second part of the report considers how the objectives can be pursued by using a range of instruments. Chapter 6 considers the provision and management of road infrastructure. Chapter 7 discusses road based public transport...

Good Practices in City Energy Efficiency : Bogota, Colombia - Bus Rapid Transit for Urban Transport

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.02%
Bogota, the capital city of Colombia, is located near the geographic center of Colombia, 2,640 meters (8,661 ft) sea level. It is the largest and most populous city in the nation, with an estimated 8.2 million inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2007 and a population density of 3,912 inhabitants per square kilometer. Its economy generates 25 percent of Colombia's total gross domestic product (GDP). The city's roads were highly congested with the significant growth in private car ownership and use. While private cars occupied 64 percent of the road space, they only represented 19 percent of the population, and the daily average commute time was 1 hour and 10 minutes each way. Other issues included high incidences of accidents and extremely high air pollution rates during peak travel hours. In 1999, after the new National Government rejected potential plans for a subway system, the Mayor of Bogota presented his plan for a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, built upon the successful experience of Curitiba in Brazil. The transition to an effective BRT system would help realize the Mayor's four main goals by: (i) improving public transport system with respect to efficiency...

Urban Design Manual for Non-Motorized Transport-Friendly Neighborhoods

Fang, Ke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
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56.02%
China is already the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases, and transport is the fastest-growing source of these emissions. The international energy agency estimates that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from China's light-duty transport fleet will rise from 65 mega tones (MT) in 2005 to nearly 300 MT in 2020, an increase of 290 percent. In addition to contributing to global climate change, the rapid adoption of motor vehicles in China is also causing growing urban congestion and air pollution. Indeed, national level policy makers have begun to shift directions towards promoting public transport and providing safe environments for walking and cycling as way to improve urban accessibility and address local, national, and global environmental concerns. Yet, despite this shift at the national level, many municipalities lack the tools, knowledge, and resources to effectively address these issues. This publication aims to bridge that knowledge gap by providing a guide on how to improve non-motorized transport (NMT)...

Leaping Forward in Green Transport; The Case of Korea

Lee, Changgi; Vandycke, Nancy L.; Sung, Nak Moon; Choi, Sang Dae; Yi, Eun Joo Allison; Lee, Sangjoo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
56.05%
What do Bangkok, Cairo, Lagos, Mumbai, and Nairobi have in common? These megacities, like others in burgeoning emerging market economies, are magnets for people seeking better opportunities. They also suffer from serious traffic congestion, high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and heavy air pollution. These urban areas face a stark dilemma: economic expansion attracts more people and vehicles; but the resulting traffic and pollution hinder further growth while reducing the quality of life for their citizens. In spite of rapid growth, urbanization, and motorization, Korea has succeeded so well in expanding the use of public transport that it has stabilized energy consumption per capita in the road sector. In 2010, Korea took aim at a new 10-year goal with its green transport master plan: reduce GHG emissions by one-third while maintaining its competitiveness. To do so, Korea seems poised to create more cutting-edge transport innovations that can serve as models for other countries.

Public Transport Service Optimization and System Integration

Fang, Ke; Zimmerman, Samuel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
86.28%
Public transport has the most customer appeal and is most efficient when it is planned and operated as a seamless, integrated system. This is particularly important in urban environments in fast growing economies such as China and India, where public transport must increasingly compete with private vehicles which offer door-to-door, one seat travel irrespective of time of day or day of the week. International experience suggests that public transport planners must recognize two integration dimensions: (a) integration among all modes and routes comprising the multi-modal public transport network, (b) integration of the physical and operational elements or each respective mode and service, e.g., metro or bus. Successful integration in both dimensions will provide a more customer-friendly experience and make public transport more efficient and cost-effective. This will help maximize public transport ridership and revenue, increase customer satisfaction, reduce costs and subsidies and general environmental...

Comparison of travel time between private car and public transport in Cape Town

Hitge,G; Vanderschuren,M
Fonte: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering Publicador: Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 EN
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65.98%
The objective of urban transportation planning is, or should be, to optimise the access to opportunities for all people. One of the factors that defines access is to minimise the travel time between home and both primary and secondary activities. Optimisation refers to the balance between the benefits of reducing travel time with the cost of that reduction. Cost includes operational, infrastructure and environmental costs. However, the reality in many cities is that travel time is often minimised for some users or communities, while it remains relatively high for others. This paper explores the core components of travel time of an integrated public transport system, and compares that with travel time in the private transport system. This is done by using travel time data for Cape Town to estimate the value of time spent on each component of a typical trip in Cape Town in 2013. The paper concludes that travelling by public transport takes significantly longer than by private car for the average trip in Cape Town. It then highlights where to focus investment in the public transport system to move towards an integrated, multi-modal system that can compete with the private car, and thereby become attractive to all communities.