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Discounting in military cost-effectiveness studies

Stone, Donald R.
Fonte: Monterey, California: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: U.S. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
Discounting is a means of assigning different weights to costs expected to be incurred in different future time periods. Such costs are a vital element of cost-effectiveness studies, which under present Department of Defense policy provide the primary basis for military procurement and force structure decision making. The discounting process is reviewed, and an attempt is made to identify qualitatively the factors which should determine the discount rate to be used in Department of Defense cost-effectiveness studies. These factors are separated into two groups: those which apply to costeffectiveness studies of all types of weapons systems, and those which depend upon the type of system being considered. Finally the manner of presenting the results of the discounting process to the decisionmaker is discussed.

Optimizing Military Capital Planning

Brown, Gerald G.; Dell, Robert F.; Newman, Alexandra M.
Fonte: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval Publicador: Escola de Pós-Graduação Naval
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.48%
Interfaces, 34 (6), 2004 , pp.  415-425.; The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/doi 10.1287/inte.1040.0107; Center for Infrastructure Defense (CID) Paper.; Planning United States military procurement commits a significant portion of our nation’s wealth and deter- mines our ability to defend ourselves, our allies, and our principles over the long term. Our military pioneered and has long used mathematical optimization to unravel the distinguishing complexities of military capital planning. The succession of mathematical optimization models we present exhibits increasingly detailed fea- tures; such embellishments are always needed for real-world, long-term procurement decision models. Two case studies illustrate practical modeling tricks that are useful in helping decision makers decide how to spend about a trillion dollars.

The integration role of European defense procurement in achieving a more competitive and stronger European defense equipment market

Angelov, Kiril O.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.51%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The creation of a strong and competitive European defense equipment market out of the 28 fragmented markets of the EU member states remains an important subject of discussion in transatlantic relations today. The increasing defense capability gap between Europe and the United States continues to raise many questions, including the issue of European dependency on U.S. defense capabilities and technologies. At the same time, the EU’s decreasing military spending, in particular in the defense procurement and research and development areas, has been negatively affecting defense companies in Europe. To support the development of a competitive, competent, and capability-driven defense industry, the EU member states agreed to focus on the institutionalization of the European defense equipment market. The main focus of this study is how this institutionalization process contributes to the fostering of the defense market integration. Using qualitative analysis, I argue that the new regulation contributes little to the integration of the different national defense industries in Europe. Despite the publically expressed consensus for more collaboration in defense procurement, most member states continue to look for nationally driven decisions...

Manpower procurement policies, ground force structures, and registration systems : Demark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom

Sohlberg, Ragnhild
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: x, 100 p. : ill., 28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
This report compares manpower policies, peacetime force structures, and the character and time-phased availability of reserve forces in Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Information provided by standard comparative sources is insufficient for military balance assessments, as baselines for force reduction negotiations, and for reinforcement planning. This paper was based on national publications and documents and direct assistance from European defense authorities and experts. Differences in countries' history and conditions have led to a diversity of manpower policies and force structures--which may limit the feasibility and desirability of standardization. Universality of military conscription is at best approximated. Lengths of regular duty and reserve obligations vary within nations. The peacetime armies of Denmark, West Germany, and Norway have 30, 51, and 80 percent conscripts, respectively. Longer term volunteers and conscripts with extended obligations tend to fill complex tasks. These countries have significant mobilization potentials with relatively high readiness. (Author); Defense Resources Management Education Center Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey. California; http://archive.org/details/manpowerprocurem00sohl; NA

Financial analysis of outsourcing the Helicopter Combat Support Mission aboard Military Sealift Command ships

McLean, Michael D
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.23%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Department of Defense leaders plan to use outsourcing to reduce operations and maintenance spending and enable them to increase procurement and research and development spending. Even functions once labeled inherently governmental are now being evaluated for outsourcing in the quest to reduce spending. One such function is the Helicopter Combat Support (HC) Mission aboard Military Sealift Command (MSC) ships. This thesis evaluates service contract cost escalation rates and compares them to in-house cost escalation rates. Three Navy service contracts were evaluated, two aircraft maintenance contracts and one aircraft simulator maintenance contract. The purpose was to determine if the escalation rates differed enough to significantly affect DOD's ability to reduce spending through outsourcing. This thesis also determines the total in-house cost to perform the HC mission aboard MSC ships and evaluates commercial alternatives. The purpose is to establish the contract cost at which outsourcing this mission will result in long term cost reduction. This thesis found that service contract costs escalate faster than in-house costs in certain industries. This difference reduces or eliminates anticipated cost savings from outsourcing. The total in-house performance cost of the HC MSC mission was determined for two different options currently under consideration; http://archive.org/details/financialanalysi00mcle; Lieutenant Commander...

An analysis of expanding the defense industrial base through civil-military integration

Ray, Christopher J.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 111 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; This thesis examines expanding the defense industrial base through civil-military integration. The reduction in the procurement budget and subsequent consolidation of the major defense contractors are described as well as the difference between the commercial and defense markets. This thesis identifies three strategies to promote civil-military integration: conversion, diversification, and dual-use initiatives. The researcher found dual-use initiatives to be the most promising strategy to implement civil-military integration. Current initiatives to promote civil-military integration such as dual-use science and technology, the commercial operations and support initiative and commercial technological insertion project are described. An evaluation of the costs and benefits of civil-military integration is provided. This thesis also reviews the barriers to implementing civil-military integration. The researcher's analysis concludes that the existing regulatory barriers to civil-military integration prevent it from becoming a viable policy option for expanding the defense industrial base; http://www.archive.org/details/analysisofexpand00rayc; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy

Optimization-based military capital planning

Brown, Gerald Gerard; Dell, Robert F.; Newman, Alexandra M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: iv, 30 p.: ill.;28 cm.
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.32%
The United States military carefully plans and justifies its materiel procurements. These decisions have a profound, long-term impact on our ability to defend our nation, and to fight and win our nation's wars. Annual U.S. materiel investment is now larger than that of the rest of the world combined, and attracts keen attention from political leaders and government contractors. Procurement plans are complicated by their influence on domestic technology and production abilities, conflicted objectives, concerns regarding interoperability and maintainability of the materiel, and the sheer scale of the endeavor. Mathematical optimization models have long played a key role in unraveling the complexities of capital planning, and the military has lead the development and use of such models. We survey the history of optimizing civilian and military capital plans and then present prototypic models exhibiting features that render these models useful for real-world decision support.

Notes from the Stockpile seminar

Boger, Dan C.; Washburn, Alan R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.28%
A seminar was held to review some of the models used by the armed services for planning weapon procurement. Most of the effort was spent on the Navy's NNOR and the Air Force's Sabre Mix Methodologies. Even in an emergency situation, it is difficult to speed up the production rate of sophisticated, modern weapons. The time constant for increasing production rate for many weapons seems to be on the order of a year, whereas major wars are sometimes imagined to last for only several months. Given these supposed facts, the following question would seem to be crucial for the yearly POM process: How should a fixed budget be spent augmenting the current stockpile of weapons so as to maximize the effectiveness of the resulting stockpile? Operations Research techniques could play an important role in answering the question, since several favorable preconditions exist: The question must be asked repetitively, Combat modelling must inevitably be involved in assessing effectiveness, Lots of data are available that must be taken into account, and The problem of determining the best stockpile can be interpreted as one of mathematical optimization. For example, shows for a typical weapon the comparison between inventory and the Navy's 'programming objective profile' as determined by the NNOR (Non-Nuclear Ordnance Requirements). There is clearly a large difference between the two...

Improving public perceptions by instilling objectivity in decisions to waive procurement regulations

Potter, Kenyon
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Graduate School of Business and Public Policy Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Graduate School of Business and Public Policy
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.43%
Third Annual Acquisition Research Symposium; The following article is taken as an excerpt from the proceedings of the annual Acquisition Research Program. This annual event showcases the research projects funded through the Acquisition Research Program at the Graduate School of Business and Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. Featuring keynote speakers, plenary panels, multiple panel sessions, a student research poster show and social events, the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium offers a candid environment where high-ranking Department of Defense (DoD) officials, industry officials, accomplished faculty and military students are encouraged to collaborate on finding applicable solutions to the challenges facing acquisition policies and processes within the DoD today. By jointly and publicly questioning the norms of industry and academia, the resulting research benefits from myriad perspectives and collaborations which can identify better solutions and practices in acquisition, contract, financial, logistics and program management. For further information regarding the Acquisition Research Program, electronic copies of additional research, or to learn more about becoming a sponsor, please visit our program website at: www.acquisitionresearch.org. For further information on or to register for the next Acquisition Research Symposium during the third week of May...

Department of Defense procurement policy reform : an evolutionary perspective

Gates, William R.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 19 p.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.5%
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; The Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) was established in 1947 and evolved into the Department of Defense (DOD) in 1949. At least part of the reason for forming DOD was to coordinate, rationalize, and increase the efficiency of the defense sector's procurement process. Since its inception, DOD's procurement policies have been studied extensively, a multitude of reforms have been recommended, and many reforms have been implemented. However, after almost 40 years, analysts are still recommending reforms to improve coordination and rationality, and to increase the efficiency of DOD's procurement policies. This paper will trace the evolution of DOD's procurement policies over the last forty years. It will concentrate on five major reform efforts: the McNamara era; the Packard initiatives; OMB Circular A-109; the Acquisition Improvement Program (Carlucci); and the President's Blue Ribbon Commission on Defense Management (Packard Commission). Procurement policy, DoD procurement policy reform.

An analysis of the Republic of China Defense Procurement Division's supplier sourcing process.

Wang, Shih-Hao
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 p.;28 cm.
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.45%
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The Federal Acquisition Regulation prescribes the fundamental procedures of supplier sourcing process to be used and followed by the Government contracting officers after the purchase request has been received. Many commercial publications also promulgate the principles of the supplier sourcing process. As a foreign purchasing office in the United States, supplier sourcing is the most critical issue in the Republic of China Defense Procurement Division. This thesis compares the current supplier sourcing process as outlined in the Federal Acquisition Regulation, at a US Navy Inventory Control Point and at two private sector companies who specialize in providing hard-to-find repair parts, with the Republic of China Defense Procurement Division. The results of this thesis are some recommendations that would help improve the Republic of China Defense Procurement Division's supplier sourcing process.; http://archive.org/details/analysisofrepubl00wang; Lieutenant, Republic of China Navy

What issues does the Czech Republic face concerning offsets in the context of military purchases

Pargac, Petr
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: xviii, 83 p. : ill. ;
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.14%
The word "offset" in the broad sense represents reciprocal trade advantages that result from economic agreements. However, as a result of increasing competition among suppliers due to the reduced global defense market, declining military budgets, and other aspects, buyers are able to influence the conditions under which major defense programs are obtained. Not only unions, defense industries, trade associations, and public, but also EU is involved. The Czech Republic as a member of these organizations has to follow their rules as well, and their views and policies regarding offsets might be different. The objective of this project is to examine what issues, if any, the Czech Republic faces concerning offsets implementation in international trade. This study will discuss briefly the history of the Czech Republic's participation in offsets, and its current policy, if any, towards using offset practices. The Czech Republic's goals in offset practices, and government support for them, would be another area of research. The Czech Republic is an EU member and therefore is obliged to follow policies implemented by these institutions. Whether there is any connection between the Czech government policy and EU policies will also be examined. Specifically...

French military reforms since I996

de Vienne, India
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.39%
The !991 Gulf War was a landmark conflict for the French military. This conflict marked the beginning of a new geo-strategic era, where nuclear capacity and large scale armies no longer proved to be the most effective way of defending ones national political, military and strategic interests. The Cold War was over, and Western militaries had to learn to adapt, and quickly. All Western defence forces, with perhaps the exception of the United States, felt the difficulty in the change. For the French military, in particular, found three areas of distinct weakness. The French Defence Force had insufficient manpower, technological capacity and multilateral cooperation. In order to address these problems, the newly elected President Jacques Chirac's government, undertook some of the most innovative reforms French defence had ever experienced. In order to address the problems of the Gulf, conscription was abolished, multilateral alliances within Europe and within the transatlantic alliance gained greater precedence and joint arm procurement ventures were undertaken. The French army aimed to create a force which could be. interoperable with many of the world great military superpowers and thus provided France with a means of restating its position of influence on the global politicomilitary stage. France also maintained its bilateral alliances with the United Kingdom and Germany in particular...

Defence Procurement & Force 2030: Policy Options for the Improvement of Defence Procurement

Brobie, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.75%
Defence procurement has been the subject of Government scrutiny and reform for decades. A track record characterised by cost overruns and delivery delays reflects fundamental weaknesses in the capacity of the Australian Defence Organisation to effectively plan and carry out the acquisition of military equipment. This is particularly worrying for an organisation that is planning to spend $275 billion in fulfilling the requirements of the 2009 White Paper, Force 2030. This report aims to analyse and evaluate the current processes utilised for the procurement of Defence capital projects in the context of Force 2030, and identify policy options available to Parliament that can improve the cost effectiveness of procurement plans. It does so by analysing Force 2030 and identifying the challenges the ADO has in meeting its requirements. It then rigorously investigates the planning and acquisition phases of the procurement process, and determines the causes for the chronic problems that arise. The report finds Force 2030's capability requirements are unachievable and too ambitious given Australia's inability to successfully design and produce large military equipment domestically. The underlying causes for this is a lack of internal contestability with Defence and a lack of transparency and disclosure that does not allow for external scrutiny. Additionally...

A Bridge Too Far_ Strengthening Australia's Defence Ties with Japan and the Republic of Korea

Henschke, Benjamin
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.7%
The global balance of power is shifting towards Australia's neighbourhood. Australia's relationship with the United States has long been a foundation of its defence policy. It is therefore well placed to deepen its security cooperation with US allies in the region such as Japan and the Republic of Korea (ROK). This report analyses Australia's bilateral relationships with these two countries, covering both military-to-military linkages and civilian defence industry cooperation. Successive Australian governments have given strong rhetorical support to Australia's defence relationships with Japan and the ROK. This report finds that these pronouncements have not always translated into concrete action. Japan's Constitution prevents significant military cooperation with countries other than the United States. The ROK, meanwhile, has been preoccupied with preventing war on the Korean Peninsula, so it has not engaged significantly with the Australian military. The report finds that humanitarian, peacekeeping and disaster relief missions are the most likely areas of security cooperation between the countries. However, Australian forces have difficulty working effectively with Japanese and ROK troops in joint operations. Troops face linguistic...

Afghanistan - Country Procurement Assessment : Consulting Services

Ehrenberg, Martin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
Afghanistan is striving to emerge from a prolonged period of military occupation, wars and the Taliban rule. The country's security situation remains critical, especially outside of Kabul, yet the economy is stable and continues to grow. In the reconstruction process the country is receiving extensive donor support. Taking into consideration the World Bank's country assistance strategy, this report examines whether Afghanistan's Public Administration (PA) has access to the services it needs from international and national consultants under Bank and Afghan procurement rules. Both, the Bank's selection procedures and the Government of Afghanistan (GoA) policy, laws, rules of procedure, and practices are examined to determine whether they (1) lead to efficient consulting contract awards; and (2) support the development of local consulting firms. The demand and supply of international and domestic consulting services are assessed. In addition, this assessment identifies the key constraints that hamper the evolution of the domestic consulting sector. Suggestions are provided on what the GoA and the Bank could do to create an environment suitable for (1) qualified international consultants; and (2) the development of sustainable local consulting capacity necessary to help Afghanistan to implement its reform programs.

Budget and Procurement Monitoring in Nigeria : A Civil Society Perspective

Zovighian, Diane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.55%
Can governments be held accountable for spending by citizen organizations? In this issue the author present the experience of two civil society organizations (CSOs) engaged in budget and procurement review and monitoring in Nigeria. In the Nigerian context, the preconditions for accountable citizen-state relations are underdeveloped. In particular, some of the building blocks of transparent and accountable public financial management systems are absent or dysfunctional. Lack of information and limited opportunities for citizens' engagement in government processes have resulted in high levels of mistrust between citizens and government. Despite these challenges, there are people and groups, in both government and civil society, who have taken bold steps to ensure greater transparency and accountability in the planning and management of public resources. For example, networks of CSOs working in the area of procurement oversight have started demanding information on procurement bids. The World Bank civil society fund provides financial and technical support to CSOs aimed at improving their capacity and effectiveness to engage in reform and policy processes. Given the World Bank's broader focus on governance reforms...

Afghanistan - Country Procurement Assessment : Consulting Services

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Procurement Assessment (CPAR); Economic & Sector Work
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.59%
Afghanistan is striving to emerge from a prolonged period of military occupation, wars and the Taliban rule. The country's security situation remains critical, especially outside of Kabul, yet the economy is stable and continues to grow. In the reconstruction process the country is receiving extensive donor support. Taking into consideration the World Bank's country assistance strategy, this report examines whether Afghanistan's Public Administration (PA) has access to the services it needs from international and national consultants under Bank and Afghan procurement rules. Both, the Bank's selection procedures and the Government of Afghanistan (GoA) policy, laws, rules of procedure, and practices are examined to determine whether they (1) lead to efficient consulting contract awards; and (2) support the development of local consulting firms. The demand and supply of international and domestic consulting services are assessed. In addition, this assessment identifies the key constraints that hamper the evolution of the domestic consulting sector. Suggestions are provided on what the GoA and the Bank could do to create an environment suitable for (1) qualified international consultants; and (2) the development of sustainable local consulting capacity necessary to help Afghanistan to implement its reform programs.

American Military Contractors and the Neoliberal Way of War

Ettinger, AARON
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
EN; EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.34%
American Military Contractors and the Neoliberal Way of War explores the historical patterns of modern military contracting and its place in the political economy of American war. During the post-September 11 wars, contractors have played a prominent role, comprising over half the US total force. While the participation of contractors in major US contingency operations is not new, the scale and scope of contracting in Iraq and Afghanistan is without precedent. The study emerges from a puzzling historical development: during the Vietnam War, contractors constituted about 10 percent of the US footprint. In Iraq and Afghanistan, the figure climbs to 53 percent. What accounts for this change? The answer turns on one ideational and one institutional condition. Institutionally, the transition began with the US military’s shift from a mixed volunteer and draftee force to the All-Volunteer Force in 1973. Doing so removed personnel procurement from a statist framework through the introduction of the logic of the labour market. This institutional change was a necessary precondition for the gradual incursion of neoliberal market logic into military personnel policy. A series of reforms in subsequent decades initiated path dependent processes of military neoliberalization that eventually yielded the troop-contractor ratios of the post-September 11 wars. The dissertation develops a theoretical framework drawn from traditions in critical International Political Economy that conceptualizes five decades of uneven neoliberalization in the Department of Defense. Empirically...

Establishing a virtual manufacturing environment for military robots

Andersen, Ryan J. (Ryan John)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 177 p.
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.38%
Recent advances in the robotics industry have given the military an opportunity to capitalize on industry's innovation. Not only has core robotics technology improved but robotics manufacturing technology has also made significant improvements. This has enabled the U.S. military to procure robotic counterparts at an astonishing rate. The military expects to have a significant contingent of robots in the battle field by 2015. Today, "automated or remote-controlled machines are sniffing out mines, defusing explosives and watching for signs of danger".I The Army's Future Combat Systems program to revolutionize the military into a quicker, faster, and more lethal force is predicated on the rapid development of robotics technologies.2 Four out of the twelve vehicle systems being developed under the FCS program are unmanned vehicles requiring advanced robotics technologies. With this rapid pace of development a need for sound manufacturing environments exist to ensure product quality, availability, cost, and continuing innovation.; (cont.) This thesis presents a method for establishing a manufacturing environment for defense robotics that is both viable for industry cooperation and meets the demands of ongoing military procurement. This thesis presents a framework for supplier selection that includes: 1) military contracting requirements and contract manufacturing...