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Técnicas e procedimentos para a auto-suficiência econômica de organizações não-governamentais: um estudo de caso com organizações de microcrédito brasileiras; Techniques and Conducts to an Economic Self-Suficiency in Non Governamental Organizations: study case related to Brazilian Microcredit Organizations

Carneiro, Murilo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/09/2007 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
O desemprego é dos grandes problemas enfrentados pela sociedade moderna e, sabidamente, os microempreendimentos têm um potencial maior para gerar empregos que as grandes organizações. Um dos principais problemas enfrentados pelos microempreendimentos é a falta de recursos financeiros para implementar seus investimentos. A fim de suprir essa demanda latente, várias ONGs foram fundadas com o intuito de lhes fornecer empréstimos de pequeno valor, conhecidos por microcréditos. Dentre os desafios que as ONGs de microcrédito devem superar para se consolidar no mercado, está a busca pela auto-suficiência econômica. Por meio de um estudo de caso com dezessete organizações brasileiras associadas à ABCRED, conclui-se que há indícios que algumas técnicas e seus respectivos procedimentos têm mais relevância para que se alcance a auto-suficiência. O estudo também apresenta diversas informações sobre as ONGs de microcrédito brasileiras que participaram do estudo de caso, permitindo que se tenha uma noção das características e peculiaridades desse segmento de atividade.; Unemployment is one of the most serious problem faced by the present society and the microundertakings, well embased, own a higher potencial to generate employment if compared with large organizations. The privation of financial resoucers is one of the basic problems faced by the microundertakings...

Microcrédito com responsabilidade individual: análise da possibilidade de criação de valor compartilhado; Microcredit with individual responsability: an analysis of the possibility of shared value creation

Bastos, Lívia Tiemi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 14/01/2013 PT
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.75%
Dentre as empresas atuando na Base da Pirâmide socioeconômica, os bancos comerciais têm-se destacado nos últimos anos. Eles têm participado em operações de microcrédito por meio de uma forma contratual de concessão de crédito, os empréstimos de microcrédito de responsabilidade individual, cujos riscos e custos de transação são elevados. Estudos reconhecem que nem todas as estratégias empresariais voltadas aos mercados da Base da Pirâmide são bem sucedidas. Porém, existem condições para que seja possível desenvolver estratégias focadas em atender as necessidades desses mercados, de modo que possibilitem a criação de valor compartilhado. O objetivo central do presente trabalho é levantar indícios de como a forma contratual de responsabilidade individual no microcrédito pode contribuir para a criação de valor compartilhado. O objeto de análise é a forma contratual de responsabilidade individual de Microcrédito Produtivo Orientado no mercado brasileiro. A abordagem metodológica escolhida é exploratória e qualitativa, por meio do método de estudo de caso de um programa de microcrédito. Ao cruzar informações da literatura com os dados coletados na etapa empírica, constatou-se o papel fundamental dos agentes de microcrédito na forma contratual de responsabilidade individual. A boa operação do programa de microcrédito analisado depende do trabalho do agente de microcrédito...

Market Solutions in Poverty: The Role of Microcredit in Development Countries with Financial Restrictions

Gómez Olivares, Mário; Santos, Sofia
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Economia Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Economia
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
The creation of credit markets in poor countries is a crucial factor for their development. If well put into practice, people would be able to improve their quality of life. With the suitable support they will become educated and that will allow them to enlarge their business, to think by themselves and to appreciate that they have rights. Microfinance has seen great changes in the last 50 years and has become visibly known due to the success of some occurrence in developing countries and more recently in Europe through a number of schemes that have been implemented solving this key issue. In this article we discuss this experience, we evaluate the economic theory of microfinance and propose a alternative model. We conclude that microcredit can be see as a new approach in developing policies or as a scheme against unemployment.

Is capital ownership a good alternative to microcredit?: the case of São Tomé and Príncipe

Bento, Ana Teresa dos Santos
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2011 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
Mestrado em Finanças; Microcredit, which was been mostly popularized by the Peace Nobel Prize Muhammad Yunus, has been considered an efficient tool to provide poor people from developing countries with basic financial support. However, there has been some criticism regarding these initiatives concerning the high interest rates charged, the lack of financial sustainability, the misuse of microloans among many others. This study proposes an alternative approach based on substituting the credit feature of these initiatives by a capital ownership component in order to accomplish both local development goals and rewarding return on investment. In order to achieve a more substantial outlook on this theory, a research study was conducted on a Microcredit initiative in São Tomé and Príncipe. It revealed the considerable lack of financial services provided in the country, mainly concerning the lack of initiatives targeting the private sector development. Thus, a Microcredit project like this would enhance the enterprise creation. However, the shortcomings highlighted in the literature were confirmed. This case study suggests that a different financing approach such as angel financing and venture capital could overcome the limitations of micro-credit.; O Microcrédito...

Pourquoi l’impact du microcrédit sur la réduction de la pauvreté en Afrique subsaharienne est-il limité?

Servet, Jean-Michel
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em 22/07/2015 FRA
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
The contribution raises ten questions as to how microcredit can contribute to poverty alleviation. It is not often that these ten conditions are all completely met. So, the impact of the microcredit is generally low with regard to the alleviation of poverty. The problems to achieve them are linked to the specificities of the clients and of the prevailing institutions in various sub-Sahara African countries.

The impact of microcredit on income: the case of Banco Real in Brazil

Gonzalez,Lauro; Righetti,César; Di Serio,Luiz Carlos
Fonte: Instituto de Economa da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Publicador: Instituto de Economa da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2014 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
This study aims to evaluate the impact of productive microcredit provided by a microfinance institution linked to a commercial bank by examining a sample of 20,628 customers. Academic literature points to the existence of shared specific characteristics amongst successful microcredit programs, including: (a) the use of a solidarity group, also called a joint debtor, (b) strong female participation, (c) a focus on poor regions, and (d) the presence of a loan officer. This article finds that the female variable is associated with increased income for the individual participant. Women began the program with an average sales value less than men, yet their sales grew exponentially at about 10% with each extension of credit.

Are Microcredit Borrowers in Bangladesh Over-indebted ?

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Faruqee, Rashid; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.66%
Microcredit programs in Bangladesh have experienced spectacular growth in recent years, with a growing number of borrowers availing credit from multiple microcredit agencies. There is a growing concern that if there are not sufficient returns to borrowing from microfinance institutions (MFIS), some borrowers might be taking loans that they will not be able to repay. A household may be considered over-indebted, for example, if its debt liability exceeds 40 percent of its income or assets. Using a long panel of household survey data from Bangladesh, the paper finds that some 26 percent of microcredit borrowers are over-indebted on this measure versus 22 percent of non-microcredit borrowers. Econometric analysis suggests that both MFI competition and multiple borrowing raise indebtedness. However, repeated borrowing, while it affects short-term liability adversely, does affect the long-term debt-asset ratio favorably. That is, repeated borrowing helps increase assets more than debt over time. Microcredit borrowers in Bangladesh are thus not necessarily over-indebted. But when borrowing is seen as protection against shocks such as floods even at the cost of being indebted...

Estimating the Long-Run Impact of Microcredit Programs on Household Income and Net Worth

Woutersen, Tiemen; Khandker, Shahidur R.
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.78%
This paper investigates whether the utilization of microcredit programs has a significant impact on the income and net worth of the participants. Several micro finance institutes are optimistic on the beneficial effects of microcredit programs. Others describe microcredit with interest rates in excess of 20 percent as a poverty trap. This paper uses more than 20 years of panel data on households in Bangladesh to estimate bounds on the causal effects of microcredit programs. The analysis rejects the hypothesis that these microcredit programs are a poverty trap. Moreover, the paper finds moderately positive effects of such programs.

Women and Development in Senegal: Microcredit and Household Well Being

Kane, Safietou
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.71%
The challenging living conditions of many Senegalese families, and the absence of a providing spouse, have led women to covet new economic opportunities, such as microcredit loans. These loans offer Senegalese women the possibility to financially support their households and become active participants in their economies by starting or sustaining their micro businesses. The study takes place in Grand-Yoff, an overpopulated peri-urban area of the Senegalese capital city Dakar, where most people face daily survival issues. This research examines the impact of microcredit activities in the household of Senegalese female loan recipients in Grand-Yoff by examining socio-economic indicators, in particular outcomes of health, education and nutrition. The research total sample is constituted of 166 female participants who engage in microcredit activities. The research combines both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data for the study were gathered through interviews, surveys, participant observation, focus-groups with the study participants and some of their household members, and document analysis. While some women in the study make steady profits from their business activities, others struggle to make ends meet from their businesses’ meager or unreliable profits. Some study participants who are impoverished have no choice but to invest their loans directly into their households’ dire needs...

Variations in Microcredit Interest Rates

Kneiding, Christoph; Rosenberg, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
Global differences in microcredit interest rates are dramatic. The global average is about 35 percent, but the average in Uzbekistan is above 80 percent, and in Sri Lanka it is around 17 percent. Small loan sizes are the most commonly cited reason why microcredit rates are higher than normal bank rates. Microcredit is a "high-touch" business, and microfinance institutions (MFIs) have to process thousands of tiny transactions. Apparently, there is no single, simple explanation for the considerable inter-country differences in interest rates. In addition to small loan sizes, which undoubtedly are an important driver behind interest rates, other dynamics are at work. This current research has already started to address some fundamental questions: 1) how do borrowers comparably fare in low-interest and high-interest environments? 2) What is the effect of competition on MFIs' efficiency? Does more competition necessarily lead to lower interest rates? 3) How should public policy exert influence on the domestic microfinance sector? What are the features of an "appropriate" regulatory environment?

Does a Picture Paint a Thousand Words? Evidence from a Microcredit Marketing Experiment

Giné, Xavier; Mansuri, Ghazala; Picón, Mario
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Female entrepreneurship is low in many developing economies partly because of constraints on women's time and mobility, which are often reinforced by social norms. This paper analyzes a marketing experiment designed to encourage women to adopt a new microcredit product. A brochure with the same content but two different covers was randomly distributed among male and female borrowing groups. One cover featured five businesses run by men, while the other showed identical businesses run by women. Men and women responded to psychological cues. Among men who were not business owners, had lower measured ability and whose wives were less educated, the responses to the female brochure were more negative, as did female business owners with low autonomy within the household. Women with relatively high levels of autonomy had a similar negative response to the male brochure, while there was no effect on female business owners with autonomy. Overall, these results suggest that women's response to psychological cues, such as positive role models...

Are Microcredit Participants in Bangladesh Trapped in Poverty and Debt?

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.71%
This paper addresses whether microcredit participants in Bangladesh are trapped in poverty and debt, as many critics have argued in recent years. Analysis of data from a long panel survey over a 20-year period confirms this is not the case, although numerous participants have been with microcredit programs for many years. The results of the analysis suggest that participants derive a variety of benefits from microcredit: It helps them to earn income and consume more, accumulate assets, invest in children's schooling, and be lifted out of poverty. This is not to say that non-participants have failed to progress over the same period. Both participants and non-participants have gained as the economy has grown; however, the rates of poverty reduction have been higher for participants. Testing the net effect of microcredit programs requires applying an econometric method that controls for why some households participated and others did not, conditional on their initial characteristics. In addition, the method must control for time-varying...

Microcredit Interest Rates and Their Determinants, 2004-2011

Rosenberg, Richard; Gaul, Scott; Ford, William; Tomilova, Olga
Fonte: CGAP, Washington, DC Publicador: CGAP, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.51%
From the beginning of modern microcredit, its most controversial dimension has been the interest rates charged by micro lenders, often referred to as microfinance institutions (MFIs). These rates are higher, often much higher, than normal bank rates, mainly because it inevitably costs more to lend and collect a given amount through thousands of tiny loans than to lend and collect the same amount in a few large loans. Higher administrative costs have to be covered by higher interest rates. Many people worry that poor borrowers are being exploited by excessive interest rates, given that those borrowers have little bargaining power, and that an ever-larger proportion of microcredit is moving into for-profit organizations where higher interest rates could, as the story goes, mean higher returns for the shareholders. Section one looks at the level and trend of micro lenders' interest rates worldwide, and breaks them out among different types of institutions (peer groups). Section two examines the cost of funds that micro lenders borrow to fund their loan portfolio. Section three reports on loan losses...

Dynamic Effects of Microcredit in Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.6%
This paper uses long panel survey data spanning over 20 years to examine the dynamics of microcredit programs in Bangladesh. With the phenomenal growth of microfinance institutions representing 30 million members with over $2 billion of annual disbursement over the past two decades, it is important to understand the dynamics of microcredit expansion and its induced impact on household welfare. A dynamic panel model is used to address a number of issues, such as whether credit effects are declining over time, whether market saturation and village diseconomies are taking place, and whether multiple program membership, which is rising as a consequence of microcredit expansion, is harming or benefiting the borrowers. The paper's results confirm that microcredit programs have continued to benefit the poor by raising household welfare. The beneficial effects have also remained higher for female than male borrowers. There are diseconomies of scale caused by higher levels of village-level borrowing, especially for male members. Multiple program membership is also growing with competition from microfinance institutions...

Does a Picture Paint a Thousand Words? Evidence from a Microcredit Marketing Experiment

Giné, Xavier; Mansuri, Ghazala; Picón, Mario
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.22%
Female entrepreneurship is low in many developing economies partly due to constraints on women's time and mobility, often reinforced by social norms. We analyze a marketing experiment designed to encourage female uptake of a new microcredit product. A brochure with two different covers was randomly distributed among male and female borrowing groups. One cover featured 5 businesses run by men while the other had identical businesses run by women. We find that both men and women respond to psychological cues. Men who are not themselves business owners, have lower measured ability and whose wives are less educated respond more negatively to the female brochure, as do women business owners with low autonomy within the household. Women with relatively high levels of autonomy shown the male brochure have a similar negative response, while there is no effect on female business owners with autonomy shown the female brochure. Overall, these results suggest that women's response to psychological cues, such as positive role models, may be mediated by their autonomy and that more disadvantaged women may require more intensive interventions.

Funding contract duration of microcredit loans

Barroso, Nazaré; Barros, Carlos Pestana; Borges, Maria Rosa
Fonte: ISEG – Departamento de Gestão Publicador: ISEG – Departamento de Gestão
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em //2009 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.6%
This study analyses the funding contract duration of microcredit loans in Portugal from 1999 to 2008, using a data file from the Portuguese Microcredit Association that overseas all microcredit actions. A survival model is used to analyse which characteristics are associated with the duration of the contract, taking into account the uncontrolled heterogeneity of the data. Policy implications are derived for improving the understanding and management of the duration of microcredit funding contracts.

Microcredit supply and credit rationing in a developed country: A theoretical model and empirical evidence

Barros, C.; Lagoa, S.; Leão, E.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa Publicador: Instituto Universitário de Lisboa
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em 12/09/2013 ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
Microcredit has been proposed as a tool for poverty reduction. However, little is known about the way banks determine loans terms and if the credit supplied is enough to satisfy demand. This paper, firstly, proposes a theoretical model to analyse microcredit interest rates and amounts. Secondly, the model predictions regarding loans' size are tested using a disequilibrium model and data from a developed country with a growing market. It is found that banks actively adjust loan amount to client and macroeconomic risks, and that credit rationing was high, even though declining as the market developed. Finally, policy implications are derived.

Construção de modelos credit scoring com análise discriminante e regressão logística para a gestão do risco de inadimplênciaa de uma intituição de microcrédito.; The development of credit scoring models with logistic regression and discriminant analysis for the credit risk management of a microcredit institution

Araújo, Elaine Aparecida; Carmona, Charles Ulises De Montreuil
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.4%
Os modelos de Credit Scoring são modelos quantitativos empregados comumente por instituições financeiras na mensuração e previsão do risco de crédito, possuindo uso consolidado no processo de concessão de crédito destas instituições. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a possibilidade de aplicação de modelos Credit Scoring em uma instituição de microcrédito denominada Fundo Rotativo de Ação da Cidadania – Cred Cidadania. Para isso, foram coletados dados relativos a uma amostra de clientes do Cred Cidadania, e estes dados foram utilizados para desenvolver dois tipos de modelos de Credit Scoring: um de aprovação de crédito e um outro chamado behavioural scoring (escoragem comportamental). As técnicas estatísticas empregadas na construção dos modelos foram análise discriminante e regressão logística. Os resultados do estudo demonstraram que os modelos Credit Scoring obtêm desempenho satisfatório quando utilizados na análise de risco de crédito na instituição de microcrédito Cred Cidadania, alcançando um percentual de classificação correta dos clientes de cerca de 80%. Os resultados indicam também que o uso de modelos Credit Scoring fornece subsídios à instituição, auxiliando-a na prevenção e redução da inadimplência e na diminuição dos seus custos operacionais...

Medios publicitarios eficientes para impulsar el microcrédito en pequeñas y medianas empresas de Colombia; Media advertising to promote efficient microcredit small business of Colombia

Bonilla Murcia, Darly; Pereira, Jackson
Fonte: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Mercadeo de Servicios Publicador: Universidad Militar Nueva Granada; Facultad de Ciencias Económicas; Especialización en Mercadeo de Servicios
Tipo: bachelorThesis; Trabajo de grado Formato: pdf; pdf
SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
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El objetivo de este documento consiste en identificar los medios publicitarios usados para llevar el Microcrédito a las pequeñas y medianas empresas de Colombia, entendiendo la historia y antecedentes del microcrédito como un producto crediticio en crecimiento a nivel mundial.; The purpose of this paper is to identify the means used to carry advertising Microcredit to small and medium enterprises in Colombia, understanding the history and background of microcredit as a credit product growth.

Beyond Fishing? The Impact of Microcredit on Alternative Livelihoods in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Brock, Annie
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 25/04/2013 EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.6%
Indonesia has the most biologically diverse coral reefs worldwide. However, many marine areas of Indonesia, including the Spermonde Archipelago of South Sulawesi, have become increasingly degraded due to global environmental change and local pressures including coastal runoff and destructive fishing practices. As ocean health declines, small island villages of the Spermonde Archipelago experience food insecurity and growing levels of poverty. These small island communities face challenges in developing alternative livelihoods to fishing due to limited access to economic markets and resources. As conservation strategies evolve to better incorporate the importance of natural resources to people, microcredit has emerged as a possible tool in addressing both conservation and development objectives in the region. Created in 1998, the Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program (COREMAP) is a national conservation initiative that melds bottom-up and top-down policy approaches to protect coral reefs and empower the coastal and island communities that depend upon marine resources. One way in which COREMAP seeks to reduce pressure on marine resources is through the provision of small loans for the development of alternative livelihoods to fishing. Through 74 semi-structured interviews with loan recipients and village staff in eight small island villages...