Poucas categorias de produtos e serviços são tão interessantes para os profissionais de marketing como os produtos de luxo. Esse interesse deriva da sua capacidade de corporificar significados sociais e individuais, bem como de sua carga simbólica e emocional. Admitindo que os objetos luxuosos expressem os desejos e emoções humanos, por meio deles pode-se conhecer um pouco dos valores, crenças e atitudes dos consumidores. Este trabalho tem por objetivo descrever aspectos do comportamento de consumidores brasileiros de produtos e/ou serviços de luxo ou sofisticados, em termos de atitudes, emoções e comportamento de consumo. Para atingir tal objetivo, partiu-se de um resumo dos conhecimentos teóricos já desenvolvidos sobre o tema, passando por aspectos de marketing específicos ao segmento e pelas descobertas de estudos empíricos sobre o comportamento dos consumidores com relação a produtos e serviços de luxo. Terminou-se com uma discussão sobre a proposta de valor das empresas atuantes no mercado do Novo Luxo. A segunda parte da dissertação compreende um estudo empírico quantitativo descritivo, com 290 consumidores brasileiros de marcas sofisticadas, visando a descrever suas atitudes, emoções e comportamento de consumo. O estudo de campo revelou a existência de três grupos com perfis diferenciados em termos de atitudes e crenças com respeito ao luxo. Os resultados também indicam que o consumo do luxo pode ser relacionado à tradição social...
O luxo é um setor que tem cada vez mais despertado o interesse de acadêmicos e profissionais de marketing, não só pela importância econômica que representa para alguns países, mas também pela sua tendência de crescimento em mercados emergentes, favorecida pelo aumento da renda disponível e do tamanho da clientela potencial. Especificamente no Brasil, o mercado do luxo tem experimentado um incremento anual significativo e superior ao da economia como um todo. A gestão das empresas atuantes nesse mercado apresenta desafios de particular interesse para os estudiosos e praticantes do marketing, pois os produtos luxuosos possuem elevado grau de valores intangíveis, subjetivos e sociais agregados, que são determinantes para a formação de sua demanda e de uma parcela considerável do preço final. O cenário de crescente competição e internacionalização exige processos gerenciais cada vez mais orientados para o mercado, nos quais análises da concorrência e do perfil dos consumidores são formas de gerar um maior valor percebido pelo cliente. Não obstante, criar e entregar esse valor exige uma clara compreensão de sua natureza e dimensões. Nesse contexto, este trabalho teve por objetivo propor e testar um modelo conceitual integrador para o Valor Percebido pelo Cliente dos produtos de luxo...
O mercado de luxo, quando do surgimento da internet, tendeu a rejeitar esse canal como uma nova opção de venda e relacionamento com o consumidor. No entanto, a dinâmica de mercado mostrou que essa era uma estratégia que não fazia sentido: as vendas online de artigos de luxo só crescem e surgem constantemente novos websites especializados em venda de produtos de luxo no país. Hoje, diversas marcas já se aventuram online, assim como outras redes varejistas premium; a internet definitivamente passa a ser considerada um canal de venda de artigos de luxo. Mas, trata-se de um fenômeno recente, em que a natureza da tecnologia virtual, principalmente impessoal, é um desafio constante para um setor em que a experiência multissensorial no ponto de venda é considerada um elemento importante para o negócio. Assim, o presente estudo se propôs a tratar da união de três conceitos: (i) o comportamento do consumidor, (ii) no ambiente de compra virtual, (iii) aplicado a um setor específico, o de artigos de marcas de luxo. A questão central de pesquisa é "Quais as motivações dos consumidores de produtos de luxo para comprar pela internet?" Considerando-se como pressuposto o conceito de motivação definido por Sheth et al. (2001) e que a pesquisa motivacional é aceita como um método que permite descobrir razões mais profundas do por que do comportamento das pessoas...
Entre 2007 e 2012 a indústria de bens de luxo, no contexto nacional dobrou e tamanho, movimentando mais de US$ 20 bilhões em 2012, sendo que São Paulo é a cidade brasileira com a maior "concentração destas atividades. Abordada por Pierre George na década de 1950, esta temática, assim como as discussões sobre Geografia do Comércio, se fizeram pouco presente durante a segunda metade do século XX, o que começou a mudar a' partir da década de 1990. Com a chegada do século XXI e a intensificação do processo de globalização acompanhadas de mudanças no modelo. produtivo, é possível observar um maior protagonismo do Consumo em relação à produção; possibilitando o surgimento de novas terrilorialidades adequadas para a realização destas novas funções urbanas. O presente, trabalho se propõe a discutir e analisar os processos que conformam os territórios que serviram de base material para. a comercialização de bens e serviços de luxo na cidade de São Paulo neste período (1913-.2014). O luxo, um tema plural e multifacetário, exigiu desta dissertação de mestrado uma interpretação interdisciplinar,e a combinação de distintas teorias inerentes à ciência geográfica para sua concepção, respaldados pelo método de pesquisa qualitativo...
The Brazilian luxury goods market has been registering substantial growth with many international brands establishing presence in the country. When entering the market, the perfect location seems for most of them to be found in Iguatemi Group’s Shopping Malls. This research focuses the topic of Luxury Market and Retail, in the form of a case study on Iguatemi Group, which tries to understand How is Iguatemi Group creating opportunities for International Luxury Brands in Brazil? To understand the context of the case, the text explores the Brazilian market evolution, its attraction factors and challenges, the location choice methodology used by international luxury brands, and finally, how is the Iguatemi Group creating opportunities for these brands in Brazil. For doing so, a multiple-methods approach was followed so to achieve a non-biased result. In-depth interviews were conducted with Iguatemi’s managers, international luxury brands’ managers and experts in luxury market and retail; non-participant observation was held, and documentation was examined. The research found that the entry of International Luxury Brands in Brazil started about 20 years ago, mainly explained by the positive structural economic reforms Brazil experienced in this period. 60% of the studied brands chose São Paulo’s Iguatemi malls as first location...
During the last decade, international luxury brands have been expanding continuously to new markets, transferring the industry’s gravity center from West to East. The present research aims at investigating how consumers’ motivations for buying luxury products differ in developed and emerging markets and what role culture plays in those differences. More precisely, the paper focuses on two main actors of this industry: France (the first country offering luxury-branded products) and China (hosting the world major luxury consumers). An online questionnaire assessed Status & Conspicuousness, Conformity, Uniqueness, Hedonism and Quality motivations of 95 French and 72 Chinese students. Results were statistically analyzed trough a series of independent-sample t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Conformity appears to be a dominant motivation in China, while Hedonism and Quality motivations prevail in France. Moreover, Uniqueness comes out as equally important in both markets. Cultural orientation was measured trough individuals’ self-construal and doesn’t have a significant influence in the previous results. The researcher proposes that differences in motivations might alternatively depend on luxury knowledge and on the industry development stage in a country. Further investigation concerning the causes of motivation differences is crucial. Finally...
Investigating international marketing strategy involves looking at the decisions
firms take in response to the growth in trade, together with and at the same time
as having many new products and services available for a specific market. In
turn, strategies towards internationalization are only possible because of an
increase in foreign investment, the mobility of populations and competing at an
international level. Companies are often motivated to expand internationally as
they seek to overcome competition in the home market and exploit competitive
advantages in foreign markets. Following three very successful decades in its
domestic market, the USA, the expansion of the Ralph Lauren (RL)
Corporation in Europe proved to be equally successful. In attempting to paint
an accurate picture of the birth, development and current status of RL as a
global brand, the firm’s corporate strategies in Europe are examined in light of
the cultural implications of expanding an American brand in European markets.
This work makes a detailed analysis of Ralph Lauren’s European international
marketing strategies based on Bradley’s (2005) process model of international
marketing together with the most recent research in international marketing
particularly with reference to international luxury.; A estratégia de marketing internacional requer a observação de decisões
tomadas por empresas em resposta ao crescimento das trocas comerciais...
Mestrado em Gestão de Empresas; Nowadays China is already out of Mao Zedong‟s shadow and people are experiencing western lifestyles. In opposition to Europe, money is new and the economy is already world number two. People are now educated, travelled overseas and are proactively seeking for new fashion trends worldwide. Purchasing power is growing and cannot be ignored thus creating enormous opportunities for western brands. Talking about luxury in China is an accurate and relevant gumption, especially in the garment sector having that the locals are collectivism-oriented and are constantly displaying status. However, approaching the Chinese consumers must not be done the same way it is done in Europe or in the USA and cultural adaptation must take place. The aim of this thesis is studying luxury garment consumers in China and the segments of consumption that are arising. Moreover, the performance of one Portuguese company already having a share in this market is analyzed and recommendations are drawn for future investments. This project is about Chinese consumer behaviors over luxury garment.; A China dos dias de hoje já se conseguiu afastar da sombra de Mao Tsé Tung e as pessoas vivem segundo padrões ocidentais. Ao contrário da Europa...
SCIELO:S2182-84582014000300013 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science); The main goal of this study is to extend the theory of planned behaviour by introducing past experiences as antecedents of behavioural intentions and to test this model in the context of luxury consumption. In this vein, the Brazilian luxury market, more specifically in the São Paulo area, was selected due to its growing presence on the world stage of luxury products. Therefore, an online questionnaire was constructed based on a literature review, and data were collected. The findings suggest that attitude and perceived behaviour control are more important to explain word-of-mouth, whereas past experience, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms significantly impact willingness to pay more. The consumers most willing to pay more for a luxury brand are also more willing to continue to buy such brands in the near future.
This study aims to explore how luxury hotels create hospitality experiences in order to examine consistency of manager’s statements. To this end, the study included a literature review to understand the major approaches used in creating customer experiences. Following this, thirty in-depth interviews were prepared and carried out with thirty international luxury hotel managers in both Brazil and Portugal. The findings reveal that personalized service, brand image, service quality, client contact and adaptation of services are enhancers of customer experience in luxury hotels. These enhancers together with gastronomy, decoration, spa & wellness, staff and social networks are the most mentioned elements, confirming efforts of hotels to integrate experiences as an important role for hospitality industry. As far as one knows, this is the first attempt to explore the perspectives of luxury hotel managers’ in creating customer experience using in-depth interview approach and content analysis.
Mestrado em Gestão; Nowadays consumers get more demanding than ever before, marketing moves from the
traditional transactional driven paradigm to the new, relational based paradigm. That is why
customer relationship management (CRM) gains importance. Conventional brands were the
first one’s that implement a CRM strategy in order to built strong long-life relationships with
the most valuable customers. Luxury brands are just starting to realize the benefits of CRM.
Whereas they are reluctant to use the usual and common techniques that have been proven
successful for classic consumer goods because it involves the risk for luxury brands to loose
its prestige status. Hence, luxury brands are facing the challenge to reconcile CRM and at the
same time, keeping their luxury image. This work intents to answer the question if luxury
brands and CRM are mutually exclusive or not based on the case study of developing a CRM
strategy for the luxury brand watch company Patek Philippe. This case study is not conducted
in cooperation with the company Patek Philippe that is why the type of case data used in this
work is data available in the Internet, books, magazines or lectures. To answer the work’s
question, theoretical knowledge gets applied to a real life situation by the reference of the case
study of Patek Philippe. After presenting the theoretical knowledge necessary for the case
In this thesis, I undertake a study of rapid condominium growth occurring in the City of Toronto, Canada, and the emergence of an ultra-luxury condominium market during a time of global financial instability. This thesis examines the influence of rapid growth on Toronto as a world city during this time by asking the following research questions:
1. Why has Toronto become a place of safe investment for condominium buyers during a time of global economic uncertainty?
2. Why has the ultra-luxury market emerged in Toronto? What are the driving forces behind it, how does it contribute to Toronto’s standing as a world city, and what does the future hold for this niche market?
3. What is the current state of the condominium market in Toronto and what can we expect to see happen in the near future?
To answer these questions, this thesis draws insights from urban, political, economic and social geographic literature, statistical and policy data, as well as twenty-five (25) semi- structured interviews with a variety of key industry stakeholders in the City of Toronto. The results of this study point to a changing demographic landscape in a city where fundamental elements have not only secured Toronto’s reputation as a place of safe investment...
Luxury has evolved over the centuries; new challenges have created questions of appropriate strategies for brands. Experience and authenticity became important aspects in the field: consumers are enjoying more material comfort and there is a trend of a cultural shift for personal fulfillment and aspiration through experience. The biggest challenge for today's luxury marketers is to not only talk to the target, but to understand how the target is shifting, while not alienating consumers and damaging the brand´s image.
Considering managers and consumers perspectives separately, it would be possible to conclude that their perceptions are congruent, as many studies have presented. However, if perspectives are put together and compared, different realities could emerge. This exploratory research is based on a case study that describes both perspectives of their perception on luxury experience, consumer behavior and consumption motivations, and luxury retailing. It was developed interviews with the brand owner and 10 brand´s consumers, and also indirect observations in the brands distribution formats.
In the brand perspective, the case study has shown that luxury experience involves the construction of brand experience strategy based on products...
The growing tendency of luxury brands to concentrate within multibrand conglomerates, in
contrast with the increasing customer demand for brand identity and unique experiences,
leads to a growing interest on understanding how customers react to the integration of several
luxury brands under the same corporate parent. The present study intends to decipher existent
and post integration brand perceptions through the measurement of customer-based brand
equity (CBBE) and four of its most consensual dimensions in literature: Brand Awareness,
Brand Associations, Perceived Quality and Brand Loyalty. The analysis focused on three
brands belonging to Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy: Louis Vuitton, Céline and Fendi, given
their distinct levels of brand familiarity. An online survey was distributed and results were
analyzed through regression estimations and a median difference analysis. A positive relation
was found between brand equity dimensions and the overall construct. However, the use of
more targeted dimensions could have further benefited the analysis. Moreover, it was
possible to conclude that overall prior brand perceptions affect the evaluations of the
integration, despite the only significant effect of the evaluations on overall post perceptions
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics; Contradicting the other sectors, the Luxury Industry continues to show positive growth worldwide. One of the drivers of this evolution is the booming luxury consumption in Emerging Markets. In Portugal the situation does not differ. The top luxury shoppers are tourists from Angola, Brazil, China and Russia. The research conducted, interviewing this segment and Managers/Retailers from leading luxury brands/boutiques, showed that there is room for improvement. This Project gives to the Luxury Sector in Portugal important insights on emerging countries tourists’ behavior as Luxury Consumers, on how this Sector is seen by them, and finally, on what can be improved to capture their full potential.
Dissertação de mestrado em Marketing / M310 - MarketingJEL- M390 - Marketing and Advertising- Other; The present dissertation is based on a research about luxury values, human behaviour,
marketing strategies and buying intentions in the luxury market. Moreover, it focuses
on the generation Y, individuals born between 1977 and 1995, because they are
already an important segment in today’s market, and are becoming even more
important due to their large size, their current significant amount of spending power
and their potential for huge amounts of future spending power.
This dissertation establishes a connection between the Theory of Planned Behaviour
(TPB) of Ajzen (1991), which states that human behaviour is affected by behavioural
intention, which, in turn, is affected by attitude, subjective norms, and perceived
behavioural control; and the luxury value framework of Wiedmann et. al. (2009),
which states that what really adds luxury value in the consumer’s perception is
defined through the existence of four latent dimensions: financial, functional,
individual, and social. Additionally, the dissertation in hand studies the importance of
luxury marketing strategies and its relationship to behavioural intentions.
Results revealed that the overall luxury values had a positive relation with the TPB
The luxury segment is one of the fastest growing and most profitable segments, yet it is largely understudied. In order to maximize their potential, luxury brands must have a clear understanding of the attitudes and perceptions their potential clients have, especially how their marketing tactics affect the attitudes and purchase intention of the their potential buyers.
The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the effects advertising copy has on attitudes and purchase intention in the luxury market. Previous studies have shown that brands have priming effects on consumers, whereas, slogans have a reverse priming effect. A luxury brand will induce a consumer to spend more, whereas, a non-luxury brand will not induce spending. Slogans exert a reverse effect, a slogan aimed at luxury induces thriftiness, whereas, a slogan that implies saving will induce the consumer to spend more. Thus, this study aims to show whether a savings or luxury message, in the form of a message and not a slogan, affects the shopping habits of individuals in the luxury sector. This would be particularly interesting for the luxury sector, since messages found in advertisements can more easily be changed in comparison to slogans. In addition, the messages can be altered and tailored for specific audiences...
This thesis explores what motivates middle class Chinese to consume expensive, imported luxury products. China’s middle class is larger than the population of the United States and is expected to more than double within the next decade. Despite China’s unprecedented economic growth over the past generation, per capita income is still relatively low. In addition, growing income inequality has widened the gap between China’s wealthy and the rest of the population. Nonetheless, middle class Chinese are demanding luxury goods with premium price tags and steep import taxes. Based on questionnaire responses of nearly 200 Chinese shoppers, this paper seeks to understand the relationship between luxury consumption and social status.; Honors thesis
This thesis examines the role of luxury across histories and the democratization of modern luxury. This thesis then looks at the value of the Vogue brand as both a product and an agent in the development of luxury taste and participation within emerging markets, particularly within Japan and China. A developed nation today, Japan was able to engage with modern international trade and luxury consumption decades before China’s currently emerging society due to internal socio political factors and events dating back to the 17th century. China’s particular political turmoil over the past century then further dissuaded essential participation. This paper discusses the varying ways Western luxury brands have entered these disparate economies and argues that the creation of luxury desire must be rooted in a localized cultural understanding. The paper then argues that just as Vogue allowed the emerging US economy to establish luxury and fashion tastes and industries independent of France and Other Europe following World War I, international editions of Vogue allow emerging societies the same confidence. This confidence translates to a more extensive repertoire of brand engagement and further refined taste as well as the development of a homegrown industry held to international standards. Employing a first hand analysis of Vogue Japan and Vogue China advertisements over time...
This article aims to identify and analyze the growth strategies of companies that make up the so-called luxury industry and observe the formation of international conglomerates operating strategies aligned to the standard of competition in this industry. For this we made a literaturereview and analysis of published material on the specific industry of luxury, and a survey of data on two international luxury conglomerates, LVMH and PPR. It was found that the strategies that have supported the growth of those companies were diversifying activities through mergers and acquisitions, coupled with product differentiation based on attributessuch as high product quality and brand distinction.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8085.2015v18n1p103Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar e analisar as estratégias de crescimento das empresas que compõe a chamada indústria do luxo e observar a formação de conglomerados internacionais que operam estratégias alinhadas ao padrão de concorrência setorial dessa indústria. Para tal, foi feita uma revisão bibliográfica e análise de material publicado sobre o setor específico de luxo, além de um levantamento de dados sobre dois conglomerados de luxo internacionais, o LVMH (Möet Hennessy Louis Vuitton) e PPR (Pinaut Primtemps Redoute). Verificou-se que as estratégias que deram sustentação ao crescimento daqueles grupos econômicos foram a diversificação de atividades via fusões e aquisições...