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A promoção internacional dos interesses portugueses : a nova diplomacia económica no Grão-Ducado do Luxemburgo; The international promotion of the Portuguese interests : the new economic diplomacy in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Soares, Vanda Mónica Faustino
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
Relatório de estágio de mestrado em Relações Internacionais; Este relatório reflete as atividades desenvolvidas no âmbito de um estágio curricular de 6 meses (Novembro 2013-Maio 2014) na Embaixada de Portugal no Luxemburgo, incidindo sobretudo no papel desta instituição no relacionamento bilateral, bem como na sua relação privilegiada com os atores presentes neste mercado, nomeadamente empresários portugueses e instituições luso-luxemburguesas, especialmente a Câmara de Comércio e Indústria Luso-Luxemburguesa e a Câmara de Comércio Luxemburguesa. Assim, explanarei alguns exemplos das diversas modalidades de diplomacia económica referentes ao estudo de caso. Neste contexto, somos conduzidos a refletir sobre a estratégia diplomática portuguesa, que desde 2006 conta com os escritórios da Agência para o Investimento e Comércio Externo de Portugal (AICEP). Paralelamente, foram atribuídas pelo Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros (MNE) novas funções às Embaixadas e Consulados, resultantes da parceria com o Ministério da Economia. Estes, enquanto agentes de diplomacia económica, devem apoiar a internacionalização das empresas portuguesas, na generalidade de dimensão pequena e média, facilitando a sua entrada nos mercados externos...

Multilocus Sequence Typing, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and fla Short Variable Region Typing of Clonal Complexes of Campylobacter jejuni Strains of Human, Bovine, and Poultry Origins in Luxembourg ▿ †

Ragimbeau, Catherine; Schneider, François; Losch, Serge; Even, Jos; Mossong, Joël
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Luxembourg, with a marked seasonal peak during summer. The majority of these infections are thought to be sporadic, and the relative contribution of potential sources and reservoirs is still poorly understood. We monitored human cases from June to September 2006 (n = 124) by molecular characterization of isolates with the aim of rapidly detecting temporally related cases. In addition, isolates from poultry meat (n = 36) and cattle cecal contents (n = 48) were genotyped for comparison and identification of common clusters between veterinary and human C. jejuni populations. A total of 208 isolates were typed by sequencing the fla short variable region, macrorestriction analysis resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We observed a high diversity of human strains during a given summer season. Poultry and human isolates had a higher diversity of sequence types than isolates of bovine origin, for which clonal complexes CC21 (41.6%) and CC61 (18.7%) were predominant. CC21 was also the most common complex found among human isolates (21.8%). The substantial concordance between PFGE and MLST results for this last group of strains suggests that they are clonally related. Our study indicates that while poultry remains an important source...

Hepatitis C virus genotypes distribution and transmission risk factors in Luxembourg from 1991 to 2006

Roman, Francois; Hawotte, Karin; Struck, Daniel; Ternes, Anne-Marie; Servais, Jean-Yves; Arendt, Vic; Hoffman, Patrick; Hemmer, Robert; Staub, Thérèse; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Schmit, Jean-Claude
Fonte: The WJG Press and Baishideng Publicador: The WJG Press and Baishideng
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
AIM: To analyze the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype distribution and transmission risk factors in a population of unselected patients in Luxembourg.

Prevalence and Seasonality of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Luxembourg ▿

Reye, Anna L.; Hübschen, Judith M.; Sausy, Aurélie; Muller, Claude P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
In Europe, ixodid ticks are important arthropod vectors of human and animal pathogens, but comprehensive studies of the prevalence of all relevant pathogens in Central Europe are scarce. As a result of ecological changes, the incidences of tick-borne infections are expected to increase. In this study, 1,394 nymphal and adult Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled monthly during the active season from 33 ecologically distinct collection sites throughout Luxembourg were screened for all human tick-borne pathogens relevant in Central Europe. Species were identified by sequence analysis of detection PCR amplicons. Mean infection rates of ticks were 11.3% for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, 5.1% for Rickettsia sp., 2.7% for Babesia sp., and 1.9% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum. No tick was found to be infected with Coxiella sp., Francisella tularensis subsp., or Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). A total of 3.2% of ticks were infected with more than one pathogen species, including mixed Borrelia infections (1.5%). Seasonal variations of tick infection rates were observed for Borrelia, Babesia, and Anaplasma, possibly reflecting a behavioral adaptation strategy of questing ticks. A positive correlation between the grade of urbanization and Borrelia infection rate of ticks was observed...

Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella antibodies in Luxembourg: results from a national cross-sectional study.

Mossong, J.; Putz, L.; Schneider, F.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
A serological prevalence survey was carried out in Luxembourg during 2000-2001 to determine the antibody status of the Luxembourg population against vaccine-preventable infections. Blood samples of children and adolescents were collected prospectively in randomly selected schools. Samples of adults were obtained through volunteer patients of the national health laboratory or of the mandatory pre-nuptial test. Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) virus antibody concentrations were measured using commercial ELISA tests. Age-standardized prevalence of measles, mumps and rubella virus antibodies was found to be 96.58, 75.40 and 95.69% respectively. Significant age-dependence of serology was observed for all three infections, with study participants born after the introduction of the MMR vaccine experiencing a gradual decline of antibodies following vaccination in childhood. Older study participants who were more likely to have antibodies from natural infection had consistently higher titres than younger individuals. Present vaccination coverage with MMR appears to be sufficient to prevent large local outbreaks of measles and rubella, but probably not mumps.

Seroprevalence and force of infection of varicella-zoster virus in Luxembourg.

Mossong, J.; Putz, L.; Schneider, F.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2004 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
A serological prevalence survey was carried out in Luxembourg during 2000-2001 to determine the antibody status of the Luxembourg population against vaccine-preventable infections including varicella-zoster virus (VZV). ELISA tests performed on 2679 sera indicated that 96 (3.6%) of the study population were seronegative. Age-specific seroprevalence rose rapidly from approximately 70% at age 4 years to 90% at age 6 years to 95% at age 12 years. Significant heterogeneity of seroprevalence was observed between the six different primary schools. For age groups 0-5, 6-11 and 12+ years, we estimated an annual force of infection of 0.361 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.31-0.415)], 0.204 (95% CI 0.12-0.29) and 0.05 (95% CI 0.024-0.082) respectively. Our results indicate that transmission of VZV is highest in children below the age of 6 years and that much lower levels of VZV transmission occur in secondary schools and throughout adulthood.

Seroepidemiology of diphtheria and pertussis in Luxembourg in 2000

MOSSONG, J.; PUTZ, L.; SHKEDY, Z.; SCHNEIDER, F.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
A large serosurvey was carried out in Luxembourg in 2000–2001, to determine the population immunity against a number of vaccine-preventable infections including diphtheria and pertussis. Immunity to diphtheria and pertussis was assessed using an in-house neutralization assay and a commercial ELISA test respectively. Mean pertussis antibody activity decreased from 4 to 8 years of age, reflecting the effects of waning of vaccine-induced immunity. Mean pertussis antibody activity increased during adolescence due to infection in previously vaccinated individuals and levelled out after approximately 20 years of age. For adults >25 years age, a statistically significant 30% difference in mean antibody activity between men and women was observed. The proportion of seronegatives for diphtheria among children and adolescents aged <20 years was 2·5% reflecting the high vaccination coverage. The proportion seronegative for diphtheria tended to increase with age such that 42% of individuals aged >40 years were seronegative. Our study supports the recently introduced acellular pertussis vaccine booster at 6 years to reduce pertussis transmission in school-aged children and adolescents.

Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis B virus in Luxembourg

MOSSONG, J.; PUTZ, L.; PATINY, S.; SCHNEIDER, F.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
A prospective seroepidemiological survey was carried out in Luxembourg in 2000–2001 to determine the antibody status of the Luxembourg population against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). One of the objectives of this survey was to assess the impact of the hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in May 1996 and included a catch-up campaign for all adolescents aged 12–15 years. Venous blood from 2679 individuals was screened for the presence of antibodies to HAV antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) using an enzyme immunoassay. Samples positive for anti-HBs were tested for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) using a chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay to distinguish between individuals with past exposure to vaccine or natural infection. The estimated age-standardized anti-HAV seroprevalence was 42·0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39·8–44·1] in the population >4 years of age. Seroprevalence was age-dependent and highest in adult immigrants from Portugal and the former Yugoslavia. The age-standardized prevalence of anti-HBs and anti-HBc was estimated at 19·7% (95% CI 18·1–21·3) and 3·16% (95% CI 2·2–4·1) respectively. Anti-HBs seroprevalence exceeding 50% was found in the cohorts targeted by the routine hepatitis B vaccination programme...

Concentration and Diversity of Noroviruses Detected in Luxembourg Wastewaters in 2008-2009 ▿

Skraber, Sylvain; Langlet, Jérémie; Kremer, Jacques R.; Mossong, Joël; De Landtsheer, Sébastien; Even, Jos; Muller, Claude P.; Hoffmann, Lucien; Cauchie, Henry-Michel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Noroviruses (NoV) in 78 wastewater samples from Luxembourg were quantified, cloned, and sequenced in 2008-2009. The concentrations of NoV genogroup II and the relative occurrences of certain genotypes changed significantly during the winter season. NoV genogroup I was frequently detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), albeit at 30-fold lower concentrations than for genogroup II, hampering attempts to assess overall genetic diversity by the cloning/sequencing approach.

Characterization of Newcastle Disease Viruses in Wild and Domestic Birds in Luxembourg from 2006 to 2008

Snoeck, Chantal J.; Marinelli, Marianna; Charpentier, Emilie; Sausy, Aurélie; Conzemius, Tom; Losch, Serge; Muller, Claude P.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important viral diseases of birds. Wild birds constitute a natural reservoir of low-virulence viruses, while poultry are the main reservoir of virulent strains. Exchange of virus between these reservoirs represents a risk for both bird populations. Samples from wild and domestic birds collected between 2006 and 2010 in Luxembourg were analyzed for NDV. Three similar avirulent genotype I strains were found in ducks during consecutive years, suggesting that the virus may have survived and spread locally. However, separate introductions cannot be excluded, because no recent complete F gene sequences of genotype I from other European countries are available. Detection of vaccine-like strains in wild waterbirds suggested the spread of vaccine strains, despite the nonvaccination policy in Luxembourg. Among domestic birds, only one chicken was positive for a genotype II strain differing from the LaSota vaccine and exhibiting a so-far-unrecognized fusion protein cleavage site of predicted low virulence. Three genotype VI strains from pigeons were the only virulent strains found. The circulation of NDV in wild and free-ranging domestic birds warrants continuous surveillance because of increased concern that low-virulence wild-bird viruses could become more virulent in domestic populations.

Prevalence and Correlates of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in Luxembourg Adults: Evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors (ORISCAV-LUX) Study

Alkerwi, Ala’a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Gilson, Georges; Stranges, Saverio
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/08/2015 EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
Evidence on vitamin D status and related risk factors in Luxembourg adults is lacking. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency and related risk factors among healthy adults in Luxembourg. Based on clinicians’ observations, it was hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency might be common in our population, constituting a significant public health concern. A nationally representative random sample of 1432 adults was enrolled in the ORISCAV-LUX study, 2007–2008. The participants were divided into four categories according to their serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses used weighted methods to account for the stratified sampling scheme. Only 17.1% of the population had a “desirable” serum 25(OH)D level ≥75 nmol/L, whereas 27.1% had “inadequate” [serum 25(OH)D level 50–74 nmol/L], 40.4% had “insufficient” [serum 25(OH)D level 25–49 nmol/L], and 15.5% had “deficient” [serum 25(OH)D level <25 nmol/L)]. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was greater among current smokers, obese subjects, those having reduced HDL-cholesterol level and fair/poor self-perception of health, compared to their counterparts. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was additionally higher among nondrinkers of alcohol...

LSM: A DSGE model for Luxembourg

DEÁK, Szabolcs; FONTAGNE, Lionel; MAFFEZZOLI, Marco; MARCELLINO, Massimiliano
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.01%
Luxembourg is a small open economy with a set of particular features, including rather limited competition in the domestic goods market, strong union power, and a segmented labor market for resident and non-resident workers. In this paper we develop a medium scale DSGE model that captures these features, calibrate it to mimic the actual behavior of the key macroeconomic aggregates, and use it to conduct policy experiments aimed at relaxing some of the existing rigidities in the goods and labor market.

Supremacy, direct effect, and dairy products in the early history of European law

PHELAN, William
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
As the ECJ’s two most famous decisions, Van Gend en Loos and Costa v. ENEL, which established the direct effect and supremacy of European law, are commemorated on their fiftieth anniversaries, attention has also turned to another of the ECJ’s early decisions. On 13th November 1964, in Commission v. Luxembourg & Belgium, the Dairy Products case, the ECJ rejected the use of ‘self-help’ countermeasures in the Community legal order, and therefore marked the fundamental distinction between European law and general international law. Drawing on writings by Robert Lecourt, Paul Reuter, and Paul Kapteyn, this paper demonstrates that a direct causal link between these three cases was recognized by ECJ judges and legal scholars as early as 1965. The historical evidence presented here therefore supports previous comparative analysis that has argued that these three decisions – Van Gend, Costa, and Luxembourg & Belgium – should be acknowledged as profoundly inter-connected, in that national court application of European obligations should be understood as a substitute for the enforcement of European obligations through inter-state countermeasures.

RIO Country Report Luxembourg 2014

ALEXANDER Susan
Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
ENG
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
The report offers an analysis of the R&I system in Luxembourg for 2014, including relevant policies and funding, with particular focus on topics critical for two EU policies: the European Research Area and the Innovation Union. The report was prepared according to a set of guidelines for collecting and analysing a range of materials, including policy documents, statistics, evaluation reports, websites etc. The report identifies the structural challenges of the Luxembourg research and innovation system and assesses the match between the national priorities and those challenges, highlighting the latest policy developments, their dynamics and impact in the overall national context.; JRC.J.6-Innovation Systems Analysis

The power politics of international tax cooperation : why Luxembourg and Austria accepted automatic exchange of information on foreign account holders' interest income

HAKELBERG, Lukas
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
EN
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
Theories of tax competition predict that small countries competing with large countries benefit, as they find it relatively easy to substitute revenue lost in a tax cut with revenue gained from incoming foreign tax base. If small countries can only lose from tax co-operation, why are Luxembourg and Austria bound to agree to a revised EU Savings Tax Directive that will oblige them to automatically provide information on foreign account holders’ interest income to residence countries? Putting emphasis on the neglected issue of power, I show that Luxembourg and Austria were first coerced into bilateral agreements on automatic exchange of information by the United States, which then activated a most-favored nation clause contained in the EU Directive on Administrative Co-operation in Tax Matters. As a result, the two countries were under a legal obligation to also extend greater co-operation to EU partners.

Doing Business Economy Profile 2015 : Luxembourg

World Bank Group
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
This economy profile for Doing Business 2015 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Luxembourg. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2015 is the 12th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business; for 2015 Luxembourg ranks 59. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 189 economies from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe and over time. Doing Business measures regulations affecting 11 areas of the life of a business known as indicators. Ten of these areas are included in this year's ranking on the ease of doing business: starting a business...

Efeitos de país de origem : a imagem do vinho português no Luxemburgo; Country-of-origin effects : the image of portuguese wine in Luxembourg

Moreira, Cátia Sofia Ferreira
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2014 POR
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.47%
Dissertação de mestrado em Negócios Internacionais; Num mundo cada vez mais globalizado onde existe uma grande interdependência da troca de bens, a origem dos produtos pode ser determinante na tomada de decisão do consumidor. Assim, torna-se cada vez mais importante que as empresas conheçam a imagem que o seu país e os seus produtos têm no estrangeiro para poderem atuar de forma a garantir a aceitação dos mesmos. Em Portugal, uma economia marcadamente dependente da exportação e numa altura em que a economia parece estar a querer restabelecer-se, existe necessidade de realizar estudos sobre esta matéria, pois poderá ajudar muitas empresas portuguesas a exportarem o que é nosso para todo o mundo. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo apurar os fatores que influenciam a imagem dos produtos de um país de origem, estudando o caso da imagem do vinho português no Luxemburgo. Com base na revisão da literatura, desenvolvemos um modelo que identifica os seguintes antecedentes da imagem dos produtos do país de origem: imagem do país, imagem dos nacionais, animosidade, etnocentrismo do consumidor e afinidade. Para o estudo empírico realizamos um questionário online com consumidores residentes no Luxemburgo que obteve um total de 213 respostas. Os resultados indicam que existe efeito de COO no vinho português no Luxemburgo e permite suportar o modelo proposto e a influência de todos os fatores na imagem dos produtos do COO...

Doing Business Economy Profile 2016; Luxembourg

World Bank Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
ENGLISH; EN_US
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
This economy profile for Doing Business 2016 presents the 11 Doing Business indicators for Luxembourg. To allow for useful comparison, the profile also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. Doing Business 2016 is the 13th edition in a series of annual reports measuring the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Economies are ranked on their ease of doing business; for 2015 Luxembourg ranks 61. A high ease of doing business ranking means the regulatory environment is more conducive to the starting and operation of a local firm. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 189 economies from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe and over time. Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business...

El papel ambivalente de las fronteras en la construcción de las metrópolis transfronterizas en Europa. Los casos de Basilea, Ginebra y Luxemburgo

Sohn, Christophe
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 SPA
Relevância na Pesquisa
27.29%
Este artículo trata de analizar el papel de las fronteras en la construcción política de las metrópolis transfronterizas en Europa. En primer lugar, se lleva a cabo una reflexión sobre el proceso de emergencia de las metrópolis transfronterizas, con el fin de subrayar sus especificidades. Sobre la base de una reflexión teórica, se desarrolla un marco de análisis de las funciones atribuidas a las fronteras. A continuación, los casos de Basilea, Ginebra y Luxemburgo permiten examinar la forma como los actores metropolitanos movilizan ciertas funciones atribuidas a las fronteras para elaborar y llevar a buen puerto sus estrategias de desarrollo y de integración transfronteriza. Lejos de constituir únicamente un obstáculo a la cooperación, la frontera ofrece, a estas metrópolis de segundo rango, oportunidades para reforzar sus ventajas comparativas. La activación de estas oportunidades se basa en estrategias que articulan ciertas funciones de las fronteras según lógicas diferentes: la frontera puede ser movilizada como un recurso económico o, en un plano simbólico, como un objeto de reconocimiento y de afirmación del carácter internacional de la metrópoli. Se constata que, en el juego provocado por las mutaciones fronterizas...

A Republic of the Arts: Constructing Nineteenth-Century Art History at the Musée national du Luxembourg, 1871-1914

Clark, Alexis
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2014
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.59%

Before the rise of the ubiquitous MOCA (museum of contemporary) there was the Musée national du Luxembourg that since its foundation in 1818, served as the first museum anywhere dedicated to contemporary art. Yet the Luxembourg has been left to lurk in the shadows of art history. Best remembered for its mismanagement of the Caillebotte Bequest (1894-1897) that left the French state as the beneficiary of several dozen Impressionist canvases, the Luxembourg has been dismissed as epitomizing official support for an exhausted academicism.

This dissertation has sought to correct these misconceptions of the museum and the Third Republic Fine Arts administration. It provides an institutional history of the museum under the early Third Republic (1871-1914) that reconsiders how different interpretations of republicanism informed its curators' policies and practices. Information culled from archives, official publications, art criticism, and even tourist brochures, has revealed that in the 1890s and especially the 1900s, the museum's curators embraced the politics of solidarism. Applying solidarist principles such as eclecticism, tolerance, and commitment to public education, its curators defended their acquisition of both avant-garde and academic works of art. These principles further spurred curators to trace the spectrum of contemporary painterly styles to French artist tradition. In so doing...